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2012 Corn Hybrid Performance & Technology Update Agronomy In-service January 4, 2013 Peter Thomison, Allen Geyer and Rich Minyo Horticulture and Crop Science.

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Presentation on theme: "2012 Corn Hybrid Performance & Technology Update Agronomy In-service January 4, 2013 Peter Thomison, Allen Geyer and Rich Minyo Horticulture and Crop Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 2012 Corn Hybrid Performance & Technology Update Agronomy In-service January 4, 2013 Peter Thomison, Allen Geyer and Rich Minyo Horticulture and Crop Science Ohio State University

2 Ohio Corn Production Historical Yield Data, Yield increase about 1.5 bu/A/yr

3 Iowa Corn Production Historical Yield Data, Yield increase about 1.7 bu/A/yr

4 Factors Contributing to Higher Corn Yields Improved hybrid genetics –Better adapted/stress resistant –Improved pest resistance –Improved stalk quality Improved cultural practices – Earlier planting dates – Higher plant density – More effective fertility practices – Improved machinery – Better pest management

5 Selecting Hybrids for Performance & Profits Key factors to consider: Maturity Yield potential & stability Stalk quality & standability Drydown Pest and herbicide resistance

6 Ohio Corn Performance Test Sites for 2012

7 Difference Between Highest and Lowest Yielding Hybrids in Bu/A OSU Early Maturity Corn Trials SC/WC/C NW NC/NE

8 Difference Between Highest and Lowest Yielding Hybrids in $/A 2012 OSU Early Maturity Corn Trials * Calculated using corn price of $7.00/bu & drying charge of $0.03 for each percentage point above 15.5 SC/WC/C NW NC/NE

9 Difference Between Highest and Lowest Yielding Hybrids in Bu/A OSU Full Season Corn Trials SC/WC/C NW NC/NE

10 Difference Between Highest and Lowest Yielding Hybrids in $/A 2012 OSU Full Season Corn Trials * Calculated using corn price of $7.00/bu & drying charge of $0.03 for each percentage point above 15.5 SC/WC/C NW NC/NE

11 Major Changes During the Past 15 Years Have Affected Hybrid Selection Fewer companies and higher seed costs Explosion of new seed technologies especially transgenic traits (GMO corn) Seed has become a major part of pest management systems - replacing pesticide inputs and simplifying herbicide management

12 Historical Ohio Corn Production State vs. OCPT Average Yield,

13 Average U.S. corn yields and kinds of corn, Civil War to "b" values (regressions - bu/ac) indicate production gain per unit area per year (USDA-NASS, 2005) Source: Troyer, Crop Sci. 46:

14 Historical Ohio Corn Production State vs. OCPT Average Yield, OCPT State

15 Percent of Hybrids in OCPT for Multiple Years, % for 2 years 10% for 3 years

16 Adoption of Transgenic Corn, U.S. vs. Ohio,

17 Biotech Share of Ohio Corn Acres Planted Based on 2012 crop year 3,620,000 Total Corn Acres

18 Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Entries in OCPT

19 Hybrid Traits Tested in 2012 OCPT

20 Technology Products Evaluated in 2012 OCPT Product Insect Targets 1 Herbicide Tolerance 2 # of Hybrids Non-GMO (non-transgenic, Clearfield)26 Roundup ReadyRR3 Agrisure GTGT1 Genuity VT Double PRO (GENVT2P)ECBRR12 YieldGard VT Triple (VT3)ECB, RWRR8 Genuity VT Triple Pro (GENVT3P)ECB, RWRR60 Herculex 1 Roundup ReadyECBRR, LL23 Herculex Xtra Roundup ReadyECB, RWRR, LL15 Agrisure 3000GTECB, RWGT, LL27 Agrisure VIP3111ECB, RWGT, LL9 Agrisure 3122ECB, RWGT, LL1 Agrisure 4011ECB, RWGT, LL1 Optimum AcreMax1ECB, RW LL, RR3 Optimum AcreMaxECBLL, RR4 Optimun AcreMax-RECBRR1 Optimum AcreMax-XECB, RWRR8 Optimum AcreMax – XRECB, RWRR2 Genuity SmartStaxECB, RWGT, LL28 1 ECB – European con borer; RW – rootworm 2 RR – Roundup Ready; GT – glyphosate tolerant; LL – glufosinate tolerant

21 How much does it cost for corn seed technologies? Where is the breakeven point? Yield Increase (bu/A) $20 Bag difference$40 Bag difference$60 Bag difference Corn Price $5.00$6.00$7.00$5.00$6.00$7.00$5.00$6.00$7.00 0$-8 $-17 $-25 2$2$4$6$-7$5$-3$-17$-13$-11 4$12$16$20$3$17$11$-9$-1$3 6$22$28$34$13$29$25$-1$11$17 8$32$40$48$23$41$39$7$23$31 10$42$52$62$33$53 $15$35$45 12$52$64$76$43$65$67$23$47$59 Assume: 80,000 seeds/bag planted at 33,000 seeds/A for final population of 30,000 plants/A Source: J. Lauer, Univ. of Wisconsin (Update by P. Thomison, 2012) Cost ($/A) matrix of corn seed sold at a premium (i.e. technology fee)

22 Non-GMO Hybrids Entered in State Corn Performance Tests, 2012 State OHINMIPAKYIL Total Number of Hybrids Number of Non- GMO Hybrids Source: 2012 State Performance Trials

23 Yields of Transgenic vs. Non-Transgenic Corns OCPT Early Maturity Test 2012 SC/WC NW NC/NE (57) (8) (57) (8) (57) (8) (57) (8) (67) (10) (10) (67) (57) (9) (57) (9) (67) (10) (57) (9)

24 Yields of Transgenic vs. Non-Transgenic Corns OCPT Full Season Test 2012 SC/WC NW NC/NE (58) (7) (58) (7) (7) (58) (9) (68) (68) (9) (39) (9) (4) (39) (58) (7) (39) (4) (68) (4)

25 Comparison of Average Yields, 2012 OCPT Type (528) Number of comparisons in parentheses (530) (34) (16) (231) (431) (91) (196) (59) (1111) (424) (34) (120) (34) (91) (143) (9) (206)

26 Grain Yield of Hybrids Grouped by Insect Resistance and Herbicide Tolerance Traits, 2012 OCPT Region SW/SC/CNWNE/NC Trait Set † No.YieldNo.YieldNo.Yield None GT CB2+GT CB1+GT1+LL CB1+RW1+GT CB1+RW2+GT1+LL CB1+RW1+GT1+LL LEP1+CB1+RW1+GT1+LL CB3+RW3+GT1+LL CB2+RW1+GT CB2+RW3+GT CB2+GT1+LL CB2+RW2+GT1+LL CB2+RW2+GT † number after trait indicates the number of different events of that type

27 Recent Developments Drought tolerance technology –Pioneer AquaMax –Syngenta Artesian –Monsanto DroughtGard (transgenic) New herbicide tolerance technology –2,4-D resistant transgenic corn More RIB stacked traits

28 Historical Ohio Corn Production State vs. OCPT Average Yield,

29 Final Stands, OCPT vs. State

30 Average Lodging, Ohio Corn Performance Test,

31 2008 Stalk Lodging

32 Corn for Grain: Plant Population per Acre, 2012 StatePlant Population IL29,750 IN29,200 IA30,100 MN30,000 NE26,150 OH29,100 WI28,600 Source: NASS ( 2012)

33 Distribution of Ohio Corn Populations, 2006 Source: NASS ( 2006)

34 Distribution of Ohio Corn Populations 2012 Source: NASS ( 2011)

35 Corn Plant Population Trends Populations have increased 14% in past 10 yrs (54% since the early 1970’s) Newer hybrids are more stable under stress Superiority of modern hybrids is fully expressed only at high plant densities

36 Agronomic Performance of Corn at Varying Seeding Rates Are current seeding rate guidelines for corn appropriate? How much variation in yield response to population exists across environments? How will higher seeding rates impact stalk lodging and harvestability.

37 Grain Yield Response to Plant Population for Corn Hybrids by Location Yield Level >180bu/acre ( n=14,879) bu/acre (n=9,420) bu/acre (n=3,294) <120bu/acre (n=988) Plants/acre (x1000) at Harvest Grain Yield (Bu/acre) Source: Seed Company 2009

38 Population Effects on Yield Multiple Ohio Locations,

39 Population Effects on Lodging Multiple Ohio Locations,

40 Hybrid Response to Populations Favorable vs. Stress Conditions S. Charleston and Hoytville, OH 2010 S. Charleston (Favorable) Hoytville (Stress)

41 Population Effects on Grain Yield at Three Ohio Locations, 2011 Wooster (5/10/11) Hoytville (6/3/11) S. Charleston (5/31/11)

42 Population Effects on Grain Yield at Two Ohio Locations, 2012 Hoytville (5/3/12) S. Charleston (5/14/12)

43 Yields at Different Populations and Yield Levels, OSU Population Studies, <140 Bu/A Bu/A >190 Bu/A (68 comparisons) (47 comparisons) (11 comparisons) ~33000 ~31000 ~24000

44 Seeding Rate Considerations Adjust seeding rates for site yield level and planting dates ,000 seeds/A - adequate for low yield droughty soils 31-33,000 seeds/A - adequate for most environments 36-37,000 seeds/A - necessary for very productive soils with exceptional yield levels

45 Optimizing Corn Plant Populations Current seeding rates too low in many production environments Planting a hybrid at suboptimal seeding rates is usually more likely to cause yield losses than planting above recommended rates High populations generally do not result in major yield losses even under stress

46 THANK YOU Any questions or comments?


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