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Integration of Renewable Energy P.R.Raghuram GM, SRLDC

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Presentation on theme: "Integration of Renewable Energy P.R.Raghuram GM, SRLDC"— Presentation transcript:

1 Integration of Renewable Energy P.R.Raghuram GM, SRLDC

2 Outline of this presentation Introduction Basics of Renewable Technologies Scenario of Renewable Energy generation in India Issues involved in Grid Integration of RE: International Experience The Road ahead

3 Outline of this presentation Introduction Basics of Renewable Technologies Scenario of Renewable Energy generation in India Issues involved in Grid Integration of RE: International Experience The Road ahead

4 The future depends on what we do in the Present….Mahathma Gandhi

5 Drivers for Alternate energy sources Oil crisis in 1970s Dwindling/ limited natural Resources (Oil, Coal) Energy Security International mandate for development of CDM technologies and to reduce Carbon/ Sulpher/ Green House Gas emissions, phase out fossil fuel generation and develop alternate Energy sources IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) under UNEP(1998) UNFCCC Rio De Janeiro 1992 Kyoto protocol 1997 Copenhagen Summit 2009 Indian initiatives NAPCC (National Action Plan for Climate Change) JNNSM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission)

6 Outline of this presentation Introduction Basics of Renewable Technologies Scenario of Renewable Energy generation in India Issues involved in Grid Integration of RE: International Experience The Road ahead

7 Various types of Renewable Energy Wind On shore Off shore Solar Solar PV (Photo Voltaic, Concentrated PhotoVoltaic) Solar Thermal (Solar Concentrated, Parabolic trough/dish, Fresnel collector, Heliostat & Solar Tower receiver, Solar updraft receiver) Micro Hydel (upto 25 MW) Biomass/ Bagasse (the dry fibrous waste that is left after sugarcane has been processed) rice husk, cotton stalk, mustard stalk, groundnut shell, coconut fronds, waste cotton stalks, bark, roots of trees, cane trash, arecanut shells, Prosopis juliflora, poultry litter) Co-generation Municipal Solid waste Geo-Thermal Hydro kinetics Tidal power Wave technology

8 Power vs Wind speed for a typical Induction type WTG where ρ= wind density, C p is Power Co- efficient of Wind Turbine, λ is tip speed ratio, θ is the blade pitch angle, A r = area of wind incidence on blades, v= wind speed Source:

9 Fixed Speed/ Induction type Wind Turbine Generator

10 Variable Speed type Wind Turbine Generator

11 Types of Wind Generators [1, 2, 3, 4] Squirrel CageDoubly FedDirect Drive Induction Synchronous Simple and RobustLess mechanical stress Less expensiveLess noisy Electrically efficientAerodynamically efficient Standard generator No gearbox Small converter Aerodynamically lessElectrically less efficient efficient Gearbox included Large converter Mechanical stressExpensive NoisyComplex, heavy and large generator Oct. 2006CREDP - Wind Farm Operation and Grid Integration10

12 Electrical Characteristics of WTG Reactive requirement: Fault Ride Through (FRT) /Low Voltage ride- through (LVRT) Governor operation available in WTG? Inertia contribution to Grid? Short circuit contribution Can WTG be Black Started?

13 appr.20,00,000 kWh 160 m Increase in capacity In a mere 20 years, the yield Of wind turbines has increased 100-fold.With the new 6 MW Turbines, It will multiply another fivefold kW 170 m Increase in capacity and efficiency: Development of turbine technology

14 Criteria for Site Selection 2.5 D SITE SELECTION – PLAIN TERRAINS SITE SELECTION – HILLY TERRAINS  High annual average Wind Speed ( > 7 m/sec.)  Wind Structure at The Proposed Site  Altitude of the proposed site.  Nature of Ground (soil for proper foundation / civil work ).  Favorable environmental condition to prevent corrosion & not prone to cyclone.  Availability of electrical infrastructure for evacuation of electricity generated.

15 CSP - TROUGH TECHNOLOGY CSP - TOWER TECHNOLOGY CSP - DISH TECHNOLOGY

16 Typical arrangement of an Small Hydro Power station SHP station on a canal SHP station on a river

17 Outline of this presentation Introduction Basics of Renewable Technologies Scenario of Renewable Energy generation in India Issues involved in Grid Integration of RE: International Experience The Road ahead

18 WIND ENERGY HARNESSED SR Maximum Wind AT 18:59 HRS a)% of Wind in SR I/C – 17% % of Wind Gen in SR Demand Met – 14.9 % b)% of Wind in TN I/C – 39.4 % % of Wind Gen in TN Demand % Capacities in MW as on Inst. Cap.Potential Wind Power Small Hydro Power Biomass Power Bagasse Cogeneration Waste to Power (Urban & Industrial ) Solar Power (SPV) Total Source : MNRE

19 Wind Power Potential

20 Map showing Solar radiation across India

21 Potential Capacity of RE Sources Statewise StateWindSHPBiomass Andhra Pradesh Arunchal Pradesh 1333 Chattisgarh 830 Gujarat Haryana 110 Himachal Pradesh 2268 Jammu & Kashmir 1411 Karnataka Kerala1171 Maharashtra Madhra Pradesh Nagaland Punjab 390 Rajasthan Tamilnadu Uttaranchal 1609 West Bengal450 Total

22 Wind Map Solar Map Both Solar and wind concentration are geographically same

23 S-W monsoon N-E monsoon Diurnal patterns Seasonal patterns

24 Integration issues of Wind

25 Planning criterion for RE Variability and Intermittancy Forecasting and Scheduling SCADA / telemetry Network related Problems and Congestion Protection Commercial mechanism implementation

26 Planning Transmission system for RE  Initially wind as an energy rather than capacity addition  As the penetration of the wind increases, Wind treated interms of MW capacity  Network development and O&M  upto the pooling station by the wind developer  beyond the pooling station by the Distribution licensee N-1 criterion to be maintained

27 Criteria used for Tr. Planning of Conventional power to be upgraded for RE Studies for power flow, time-domain and small-signal stability along with short-circuit duty analyses tools Trade off between network optimal utilization and redundancy Dynamic Line Rating : During high wind periods the network can be loaded to a higher levels of thermal ratings of the network because of higher heat dissipation due to wind. This concept is called dynamic Line rating. Diversity Factor : Wind farms are usually located across large geographical spreads, hence wind pattern for all the wind mills and wind farms is not the same, thus the wind production at a given point of time is not same for all the wind generators and farms. This is called Diversity factor and is to be duly factored while designing evacuation systems. Planning Transmission system for RE

28 Planning criterion for RE Outage of wind generator should be planned during lean wind season, outage of solar, if required during the rainy season and outage of run-of-the-via hydro power plant in the lean water season. Time framePlanning criterion yearstransmission and resource adequacy assessments. 1 year- 1 monthNew capacity addition, Tr. Adequacy assessment 1 day- 1 weekWind forecast, Demand forecast, Congestion monitoring, Market operations, Minutes - hourWind forecast, Demand forecast, Unit Commitment and L-G balance Seconds-to-minutesProtection, AGC, Governor, Excitations systems, PSS, AVRs, SPS, FRT capability 50Hz Load Generation

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30 Integration issues of Wind Planning criterion for RE Variability and Intermittancy Forecasting and Scheduling SCADA / telemetry Network related Problems and Congestion Protection Commercial mechanism implementation

31 TN WIND GENERATION Data taken from SCADA TIME → (28% of Energy) SR Maximum Wind AT 18:59 HRS % of Wind in SR I/C – 17% % of Wind Gen in SR Demand Met – 14.9 % % of Wind in TN I/C – 39.4 % % of Wind Gen in TN Demand % Intermittancy: not continuously available Variability : variable in magnitude Uncertainity : Variations may not be as Expected

32 KARNATAKA WIND GENERATION TIME → Data taken from SCADA

33 TN WIND GENERATION MUs Data are as received from TN

34 Impact of Variability on Home state Wind generation typically varies from 800 to 2000 MWs. Increased requirement of spinning reserve Dip the system frequency due to absence of spinning reserve Increasing the spot market cost of power Host state having to resort to massive load shedding Additional costs of dispatch of Liquid generation to offset the drop in RE generation Any committed export through bilateral open access contracts can not be revised adding to the voes of the host state. Burden of Frequency Support Ancillary services Sudden Increase in RE generation- Thermal Gen backing down has limitations

35 DEALING WITH WIND VARIABILITY SPINNING RESERVE/ON CALL HYDRO ESTABLISHED METHOD IN MOST COUNTRIES ADDITIONAL SPINNING RESERVE MANDATED WITH INCREASED PENETRATION WHO BEARS THE COST? HYDRO AS HEDGE PUMPED STORAGE DINORWIG IN UK KADAMPARAI,SRISAILAM INDIA OPEN CYCLE GAS PLANTS GRID INTERCONNECTS TO HARVEST DIVERSITY FUTURE -STORAGE

36 Integration issues of Wind Planning criterion for RE Variability and Intermittancy Forecasting and Scheduling SCADA / telemetry Network related Problems and Congestion Protection Commercial mechanism implementation

37 Need for Accurate Forecasting Maintain Load Generation balance Increasing penetration of RE Absence of spinning reserve Perennial deficits in Generation Effect of Higher Intermittency of RE Thrust on Market participation of RE Ensure level playing field to Buyers of RE Favorable policy to RE vis-à-vis Accountability of RE gen Forecasting with minimum accuracy of 30% for wind and 20% for Solar – IEGC mandate Day ahead forecast for 15 min time blocks

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39 Inputs : Meteorological data of Weather from satellites, Site topography, SCADA/ current data of weather, power, and historical data of weather and power Earth surface divided into a grid of 35x70km and Earth’s atmosphere into 64 layers The meso scale models further divide the data into 2.5 sq km or 0.5 sq.km grid A digital model of Flow modelling, wake effect, and turbine output Forecast methods are based on statistical techniques involving Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), Adaptive techniques, Time Series Anlaysis, Climatology. Inputs are fed to different Suite of models which are distinctly based on An intelligent model will combine the results of these individual models and gives a best fit of results. The results are continuously fine tuned by taking real time data inputs from wind farms on live updates of wind speed, live SCADA and site geography. Output :The wind forecast is based on Forecast process is done upto 16 days ahead, In the first 7 days it is run for 3 hour intervals while for the remaining period it run for 8 hour intervals. On day ahead basis, it is run for 4 times for a window of 6 hours with a granularity of 10 minutes, which has to be ultimately aligned with 15 min average values. The errors will be lesser and uncertainty band will be tighter for shorter forecast horizons. How the Forecast is done?

40 Flow Diagram of a Forecast model NWP Forecast Suite of Models Power model Power forecast Model adaptation Model adaptation Wind speed forecast Historic SCADA Live SCADA NWP Forecast NWP Forecast Adaptive statistics Climatology Time Series Intelligent Model Combination Live SCADA Optimised combination of NWP suppliers Incorporation of mesoscale models Regular live feedback from the wind farm “Learning” Algorithms for: Meteorology Power models Site geography

41 Comparison of Actual power with predicted Values

42 Aggregating of Forecast Geographic area-wise Control Area-wise Developer-wise Windfarm wise Seller-wise Bilateral vis-à-vis Collective 4.i) of Complementary Commercial Mechanisms of IEGC Day ahead forecast: Wind/ power forecast with an interval of 15 minutes for the next 24 hours for the aggregate Generation capacity of 10 MW and above.

43 Single Turbine A Windfarm A Control Area Variability over a large Area is lesser

44 Forecast to be furnished to Host Control Area For Operational planning and Real time Monitoring RLDC For Operational planning and Real time Monitoring For Checking the Schedule Vs Actual Forecast model to be adopted for Indian weather conditions Special Emphasis on Ramp Events Advance info on Forecast of Ramp Events to be given to System Operation at regular intervals and time horizons

45 Forecasting/ Scheduling Telemetry Real Time Monitoring Reserve Balancing Trading Forecast Data Flow to various functionalities

46 Need for Scheduling leads to…… Forecasting Revising to minimise UI Real Time monitoring (SCADA requirements) Need to measure Actuals (Metering) UI accounting (pool participation) RRF

47 Scheduling applicability Wind farms with collective capacity >= 10MW Solar generating plants with capacity >= 5MW connected at >=33 KV level who have not signed any PPA with states/UTs/DVC or others Nodal developer to be identified for co-ordination for SCDA, Metering, Scheduling, UI Charges, RRF etc. Scheduling of RE w.e.f

48 How to accommodate Forecasted changes in Bilateral and Collective Schedules? No Revision allowed in Collective schedules Revisions upto a max 8 times in day ( 1 for each 3 hr time slot) allowed in bilateral Revisions after a 6 time block notice Treat Collective as Fixed and revise the Bilateral as per forecast changes +ve changes : Easier to Manage -Ve Changes : L-G balance and Frequency will be effected. How to manage Ramp Events?

49 Intervals for Revisions of Intra-day Bilateral Trade Schedules 3 hours 6 blocks notice 3 hours

50 Collective schedules can not be revised. Real time Deviations due to fixed collective schedules to be factored for operational planning Procedures for RRF mechanism :3.6. The concerned SLDC/RLDC will be responsible for checking that there is no gaming (gaming is an intentional mis-declaration of a parameter related to commercial mechanism in vogue, in order to make an undue commercial gain). Why limit Sale under Collective transactions (Px) ?

51 Px schedules can not be revised

52 Integration issues of Wind Planning criterion for RE Variability and Intermittancy Forecasting and Scheduling SCADA / telemetry Network related Problems and Congestion Protection Commercial mechanism implementation

53 IEGC mandates… Wind farms shall have communication channel which is continuously available to system operator. - Data Acquisition System facility shall be provided for transfer of information to concerned SLDC and RLDC

54 Due to dispersed and distributed nature of the wind generation across a large geo-graphical area, telemetering the data is a challenge Real time data from wind turbines is metered and shall be transmitted to the local control centre of each wind farm. The net injection of the wind farm is also measured at the pooling station and transmitted to the Area control centre (SubLDC), which in turn is re-transmitted to SLDC As of now Only partial data is transmistted to SRLDC. Sometimes manually replaced data is sent SCADA and telemetry :

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56 Typical Windfarm Layout VCB 33KV - Internal Lines 33KV - External Lines Cluster-1 Cluster-2 Cluster-3 L1 L2 L3 Billing Meters Transmission Grid Grid Substation WINDFARM WINDFARM SS G1G2 UTILITY SS 220 KV 132 KV 110 KV 66 KV Local Loads

57 Integration issues of Wind Planning criterion for RE Variability and Intermittancy Forecasting and Scheduling SCADA / telemetry Network related Problems and Congestion Protection Commercial mechanism implementation

58 Congestion anticipated after Kudankulam (2x1000MW) new IPPs in coastal TN and AP come up Each Region has to conduct Studies to know How much wind can be accomodated

59 Integration issues of Wind Planning criterion for RE Variability and Intermittancy Forecasting and Scheduling SCADA / telemetry Network related Problems and Congestion Protection Commercial mechanism implementation

60 Protection requirements for RE : Under-Voltage/ Over Voltage protection Under frequency / Over frequency protection Over current and earth fault protection Load unbalance (negative sequence ) protection Differential protection for WTG and grid connecting Transformer. Capacitor bank protection

61 Reactive Compensation (0.95 pf lag or lead) Fault Ride Through (FRT) Lightning protection of WTG system shall be according to IEC TR Preferred configuration of the grid connecting transformer is delta connection on the wind farm side and grounded wye connection on the transmission system (grid) side to block the harmonics current and to detect the earth faults on the grid side. Protection requirements for RE :

62 Fault Ride Through / Low Voltage Ride Through (FRT/ LVRT) WTG to stay connected to the grid during voltage dips caused by short- circuit one or all phase of its terminal current upto a specified voltage level. It is achieved through modifications of the turbine generator controls. This capability is essential as large scale trippings of Wind Turbines in large Wind farms result in disturbance in load flows. This should be achieved without damaging the WTG due to unbalance torque, Electronic and mechanical components.

63 Integration issues of Wind Planning criterion for RE Variability and Intermittancy Forecasting and Scheduling SCADA / telemetry Network related Problems and Congestion Protection Commercial mechanism implementation

64 Commercial Options for RE Gen OptionSchedul ing by ? REC eligible ? CostRevision in Scheduling Forecast Reqd? 1PPAs with home state( Preferential Tariff By SLDC NoFIT ( as decided by SERC) As per state policyRequired 2Bilateral with an Intra-state buyer By SLDC YesMutually negotiatedAs per state policyRequired 3Bilateral with an Intra-Regional state buyer By RLDC YesMutually negotiatedMax once in 3 hrs. 1.5hrs notice Required 4Bilateral with an Inter-Regional state buyer By RLDCs YesMutually negotiatedMax once in3 hrs. 1.5hrs notice Required 5Collective transaction through Px By RLDCs NoPrice discovered thro’ Auction Not allowedRequired

65 Options for DISCOMs to fulfill RPO RPO Buy Preferential Tariff Buy REC What is RPO ? Renewable Purchase Obligation specified by SERC. It will :  Incentivise the RE generator  Socialise the cost of variations by RE  Reduce the Geographical imbalances in RE spread

66 Options for RE generators Sale of Electricity at Market Price in open market Sale of electricity to Obligated Entities at State regulated tariff Prefrential Tariff [State Regulated Tariff] REC [Solar & Non-Solar] Sale of RECs at Power Exchange * - Weighted Average Pooled Price at which distribution licensee has purchased electricity (including cost of self generation, long-term and short term purchase) in the previous year, but excluding the cost of RE power purchase Sell to DisComs at Price ≤ Pooled Cost of Power Purchase* REC Option Electricity Green Attributes

67 REC Framework: Eligibility Self Consumption/ Captive use Third party sale/Open Access PPA with Distribution Licensee No Promotional Wheeling No Promotional Banking No Electricity Duty Exempt Sale at Mutually Agreed Price PPA at Preferential Tariff PPA at Average Power Purchase Cost Eligible Not Eligible Eligible if All Three conditions mentioned above are met 5/2/2015 Grid Connected RE technology approved by MNRE

68 Steps involved in REC mechanism SERCs to specify Renewable Purchase Obligationat 5% in year 2010, increasing 1% every year for 10 years. SERC to designate SA CERC to designate CA State Agency (SA) gives Accreditation of RE generator Central Agency (CA) for Registration of RE and operate RE registry Px for Price discovery RE generators to apply for REC ( within 3 months of generation) SLDC to certify the RE generation CA issues REC based on SLDC Certification ( Solar and Non-solar) RE can trade REC in either IEX or PxIL  One REC for 1 MWh of electricity injected (365 days from the date of issuance)  REC would be issued to RE generators only REC mechanism is expected to overcome geographical constraints Facilitate effective implementation of RPO compliance, reduce risks for local Discom, reduce transaction costs create competition among different RE technologies

69 Recognition  SERC to recognize REC as valid instrument for RPO compliance State Agency  SERC to designate State Agency for accreditation for RPO compliance and REC mechanism at State level Central Agency  CERC to designate Central Agency for registration, issuance of REC, repository for implementation of REC framework at national level  Only accredited project can register for REC at Central Agency  Non solar REC  (Rs/ MWh)  Solar REC  (Rs/ MWh) Forbearance Price3,90017,000 Floor Price1,50012,000

70 REC sale as on Non-SolarSolar RECs issued532Nil Buy Bid Sell Bid Nil Cleared Volume Nil Price discovered3900/ No. of participants15

71 Outline of this presentation Introduction Basics of Renewable Technologies Scenario of Renewable Energy generation in India Issues involved in Grid Integration of RE: International Experience The Road ahead

72 World wide Wind Installed capacities As in 2010 Country Inst. capacity (MW) China42,287 United States40,180 Germany27,214 Spain20,676 India13,065 Italy5,660 France5,660 United Kingdom5,204 Canada4,009 Denmark3,752

73 GEMAS – a tool for RE integration computes Max. Admissible Wind Gen. GEMAS carries out every 20 minutes 3-ph dead faults in the bus bars of 70 different substations.

74 Outline of this presentation Introduction Basics of Renewable Technologies Scenario of Renewable Energy generation in India Issues involved in Grid Integration of RE: International Experience The Road ahead

75 Storage Technologies to address variability Pumped hydro storage High Energy Battery storage Storage Capacitors Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Flywheel energy storage Thermal Energy Storage Smart Grid applications Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV)

76 76 KADAMPARAI PUMP MODE ON 18-MAR-03 6MUs pumped

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78 Conclusions With Larger Grid interconnection The variability can be better handled. With Forecasting, Operational planning can be better executed With Scheduling accountability is induced With REC mechanism and trading across seams, RE will be an attractive business Retrofitting of old machines

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