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FIELD BOTANY – Lecture 05 Dr. Donald P. Althoff LEC 05 Families – Part I.

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Presentation on theme: "FIELD BOTANY – Lecture 05 Dr. Donald P. Althoff LEC 05 Families – Part I."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIELD BOTANY – Lecture 05 Dr. Donald P. Althoff LEC 05 Families – Part I

2 Botany in a Day Approach Looking for ___________ Wildflowers of North America by Venning is organized by family Recommends Plant Identification Terminology by Harris and Harris (you have it) weeds.com/Plant_Families/Plant_Families_Index.html has ID images by family…but mostly from Rocky Mtn. regionhttp://www.wildflowers-and- weeds.com/Plant_Families/Plant_Families_Index.html

3 Set I (________) Mustard family Mint family Parsley family Pea family (Bean) garlic mustard early winter cress wild mint Virginia mountain mint wild parsnip partridge pea

4 Mustard Family TAXONICALLY: _______________ (previously Cruciferae) annuals/biennal herbs and forbs well know species: broccoli = cabbage = cauliflower turnip = Chinese cabbage rapeseed common radish horseradish

5 Mustard Family flowering parts patterns Start from the outside and work in…. “outside” of flower: _______, usually green there are ________typically arranged in “__” or “__” pattern

6 garlic mustard hairy rock cress X – pattern H – pattern previously __________ family…translates to “cross”

7 Mustard Family “inside” flowering parts patterns _______—__ tall and __ short ( surround pistil that is usually taller than the stamen ) perennial pepperweed

8 Mustard Family “key” _______________________—4 tall and 2 short garlic mustard (A) black mustard (A) white mustard (A) Indian mustard (A) field mustard (rape) (A) watercress Dame’s rocket (A) cuckcoo-flower shepard’s purse (A) pepperweeds (A)

9 Dame’s rocket (A)cut-leaved toothwort field mustard (rape) (A) cuckcoo flower

10 Mustard Family All species of this family are _______…some eat “fruit”, many eat the leaves. Most species are considered ‘______’ (hence the many “alien” species noted already) Alien species do well at “_________” sites _____ fast, _____________ in the growing season…therefore ____ plants

11 Mustard Family – seed/seedpod mustard seed Shepard’s purse Many shapes and sizes. Seed pods “spilt” open from both sides to expose a clear membrane in the middle.

12 Mustard Family – seedpod shepard’s purse peppergrass All seedpods come from _______ on the flower stalk. garlic mustard

13 Mustard Family – use your senses Each has unique ______ and ______ General “mustardness” Can ID as a family member by _________ leaves and smelling them

14 Mint Family TAXONICALLY: ___________ (previously Labiatae) perennial herbs and forbs well know species: wild mint catnip purple dead-nettle henbit peppermint lavender

15 Mint Family stalk and leaf patterns Distinctive ________ stems Simple, ________ leaves

16 Mint Family stalk and leaf patterns CROSS-SECTION: distinctive __________ stem, with small pith/hollowness _________, simple leaves

17 Mint Family seed capsule Flower matures to a seed capsule containing 4 _______ Each nutlet contains __________ seeds

18 Mint Family –senses & seasons Each has unique _______ and ________ General “___________” quality to most (exceptions include water-horehounds and bugleweeds) Some are C 3 plants, some are C 4 plants ex. Heal-all Henbit ex. wild mint bugleweed water-horehound

19 Mint Family “key” Square stalks/stems, opposite leaves, often aromatic Virginia mountain wild mint white dead-nettle (A) purple giant hyssop curled mint (A) peppermint (A) spearmint (A) rough hedge-nettle gill-over-the-ground (A) (= ground ivy)

20 Mint Family flowering parts patterns ___________: __ long, __ short ___________: __ lobes up and __ down ____________

21 Mint Family flowering parts patterns 5 united petals: 2 lobes up and 3 down   4 stamens: 2 long, 2 short Note: ____________

22 common dittany Virginia mountain mint blue giant hyssop catnip

23 Bee-balm = Oswego tea Note: _________

24 Mint Family – use your senses Each has unique taste and smell General “mint-ness” from volatile oils (concentrated hydrophobic liquid) Can ID as a family member by crushing leaves and stalk and dried flowers…and smelling them

25 Parsley (Carrot) Family TAXONICALLY: __________ (previously Umbelliferae) annual, biennial, perennial herbs and forbs well know species: poison hemlock(A) caraway (A) wild carrot (Queen Anne’s lace)(A) yellow pipernel

26 Distinctive ____________ consisting of umbellets Parsley Family flower head patterns All stems of flower cluster radiate from __________ at end of stalk

27 All stems of flower cluster radiate from single point at end of stalk poison hemlock

28 Parsley Family key ID: “the single point” + umbel All stems of flower cluster radiate from _________ at end of stalk common yarrow > _ pt. Queen Anne’s lace

29 Distinctive _____________ Most species…especially two of the most dangerous: ___________ and _______ __________ Parsley Family stem patterns

30 Many are invasive (Queen Anne’s lace, poison hemlock) Many do well in “moist” waste areas (ex. poison hemlock and water hemlock) Some are C 3 plants, some are C 4 plants Parsley Family Miscellaneous

31 Some edible, some not (i.e. poisonous) _____________ of some can be lethal Some can case __________ by touching Parsley Family cautions! wild parsnip

32 Bean (Pea) Family TAXONICALLY: ____________ (previously Leguminosae) annual, biennial, perennial herbs, forbs, & trees well know species: wild blue indigo beanswild alfalfa locust (black & honey) vetch clover (red, white, etc.)

33 _________ flowers __ petals form distinctive _______, ______, and _____—keel consist of 2 fused petals (for most) Bean Family flower head patterns keel wings banner

34 crimson clover red clover Difficult to see the banner-wing-keel design “details” for some species with a very close look—mainly due to _________ flower size!

35 ________ pods Often with _________ divided leaf with many smaller leaflets Bean Family pods design

36 garden variety peas Kentucky coffee tree alfalfa wild blue indigo As __________ they form a pea-like pod. Seeds found within the seed pod.

37 partridge pea American hog peanut alfalfa Pinnately compound leaves alfalfa

38 __________ _________ panicled tick-trefoil sessile slender bush red

39 Legumes = nitrogen fixers. Most welcome in most instances. Traditional grain crop rotation used to be: corn  corn  beans  …back to corn Some are invasive (see next slide) Some are C 3 plants, some are C 4 plants Bean (pea) Family Miscellaneous ex. alfalfa peas clovers ex. tickseeds soybeans A. hogpeanut

40 ________________= Chinese lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata Highly _______ in prairie / pasture habitat

41 ________ (i.e., quasi-subfamily designation) 8 tribes total Clover-like species in clover tribe (one genus: Trifolium = ________________) Bean-like species in bean tribe Bean Family Taxonomically-speaking

42 Next time… Lily Mallow Aster Poaceae (again) Botany in a Day …con’t


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