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S1 L2 Evaluation of plant drugs 1. Botanical A. Macroscopy Anna Drew.

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Presentation on theme: "S1 L2 Evaluation of plant drugs 1. Botanical A. Macroscopy Anna Drew."— Presentation transcript:

1 S1 L2 Evaluation of plant drugs 1. Botanical A. Macroscopy Anna Drew

2 Evaluation of plant materials Eg for pharmacopoeial purposes 1. Botanically 2. Chemically 3. Biologically Often need the combination of all 3

3 1. Botanically Authentication of material Genus – species – botanist – family Eg Cinnamomum verum J.S.Presl. (Vernacular name: ‘kurundu’ etc) (Common name: Cinnamon) (Latin name: Cortex Cinnamomi Ceylanici) Part of the plant - Dried inner bark of the shoots grown on cut stock or trunk bark

4 Description Sensory characters Colour, odour, taste Macroscopical Fibrous etc Rarely get whole plant to identify Organ may be fragmented Only part of plant may be sent Microscopical Sections (transverse, longitudinal etc) Soften – maceration – 5%KOH first Depigmentation to see – chloral hydrate etc

5 2. Chemically Quantitative Need to develop assay »Titration »Coloured derivative spectroscopy »Chromatography – more specific Ash value H2O content Qualitative Extractive value – certain weight plant material Volatile oil – steam distillation Tannins – complex with skin – heat with hide powder Saponins – froth with beer – haemolyses red blood cells

6 3. Biological Assay to measure active ingredient Ethical? 1. BOTANICAL aspects Identification of plant material »Essential to recognise diagnostic structures Quality assurance A. Macroscopy Naked eye Hand lens

7 Diagnostic structures Living plant may include one or more: Leaf Flower Fruit Seed Stem Bark Root Rhizome (underground stem)


9 The "Typical" Plant Body The Root System Underground (usually) Anchor the plant in the soil Absorb water and nutrients Conduct water and nutrients Food Storage The Shoot System Above ground (usually) Elevates the plant above the soil Many functions including: –photosynthesis –reproduction & dispersal –food and water conduction Note: the shoot system includes the leaves & reproductive organs

10 Leaves Appendages to stem blade / lamina petiole (stalk) Wide variety of external features leaf or leaflet simple or compound shape apex margin base petiole venation vein angle texture size

11 [i] Composition

12 [ii] Size Measure length and breadth of several leaves, leaflets and record a range of sizes

13 [iv] Apex


15 [vi] Base: sessile (no stalk) or petiolate (stalk) lamina equal or unequal at base

16 [vii] Surface Adaxial (upper) and abaxial (lower) leaf surfaces may vary and differ from each other Pubescent – leaf hairs and trichomes Glaborous – smooth Other specialised features - oil ducts Venation parallel, pinnate, reticulate Midrib / veins prominent, depressed Number and angle of lateral veins If lateral veins run straight to margin, divide or anastomose


18 Flowers Indeterminate or racemose Central axis from which pedicels arise »Raceme »Corymb »Spike »Umbel »Head »Panicle Determinate or cymose Central bud becomes flower, no further growth possible »Diachasium »Sympodial cyme


20 Barks Shape in commerce Flats, curved, channel, quill, double quill, compound quill Epiphyte tissue on outer surface Lichen, moss, liverwort Outer surface Colour, texture, lenticels, cracks Inner surface Colour markings Fracture Fibrous, starchy

21 Roots & Rhizomes Shape, size, colour Surface markings Transverse surface markings Roots have rootlet scars Solid xylem core Rhizomes have central pith, scale leaves, buds

22 Seeds Shape Size Colour Surface markings Micropyle (hole in seed coat) Hilum (funicular scar on seed coat) Raphe (ridge formed from fused funiculas) Aril (outgrowth from hilum) Caruncle (outgrowth from micropyle) Strophiole (outgrowth from raphe) Wings Plumes

23 Fruits Wide variety Dry fruits »Eg cremocarps (Umbelliferae) »Eg legumes (Senna) »Eg capsules (Poppy) Succulent fruits »Eg drupes (Olive) »Eg berries (orange, Solanaceae fruits) »Etc 2 mericarps each with seed = 1 cremocarp »Eg coriander


25 Pericarp- development of ovary wall 3 layers- epicarp (outer epidermis) - endocarp (inner with modified layers) - mesocarp, succulent, pithy, spongy parenchyma


27 Separate mericarps or entire cremocarps Shape from lateral and dorsal views Stylopod Number of primary ridges Any secondary ridges Colour Size

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