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251PHG Cell Content Cont. Lab(2) Cell Content Cell Content: I-Stomata II-Ca-Oxalate Crystals III-Trichomas (hair) IV-Pollen Grain Cont.

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Presentation on theme: "251PHG Cell Content Cont. Lab(2) Cell Content Cell Content: I-Stomata II-Ca-Oxalate Crystals III-Trichomas (hair) IV-Pollen Grain Cont."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 251PHG

3 Cell Content Cont. Lab(2)

4 Cell Content Cell Content: I-Stomata II-Ca-Oxalate Crystals III-Trichomas (hair) IV-Pollen Grain Cont.

5 What is Calcium Oxalate Crystals? It is formed in plant to get rid of excess calcium salts,where it reacts with oxalic acid formed by metabolism of carbohydrates. Calcium oxalate precipitates in different shapes & sizes. Calcium oxalate is of great importance in identification & differentiation of different plants. II-Ca-Oxalate Crystals

6 Mount : Powder + Chloral hydrate

7 II-Ca-Oxalate Crystals Calcium oxalate precipitates in different shapes & sizes. 1.Prisms: ex: Quillaia 2. Clusters: ex : Rhubarb 3. Raphides: ex : Squill

8 II-Ca-Oxalate Crystals Calcium oxalate precipitates in different shapes & sizes. 4. Crystal sheath: ex:Senna 5. Rosettes: ex:Datura stramonium 6. Microsphenoidal ( Sandy crystals ): ex:Atropa belladonna 7. Twins: ex:Hyoscymous Cont.

9 III-Trichomes(Hair) Types of Hair a)Non glandular hair 1)Simple hair 2)Multicellular hair b)Glandular hair 1)Unicellular stalk,unicellular head 2)Unicellular stalk,multicellular head 3)Multicellular head multicellular stalk 4)Branched hair

10 III-Trichomes(Hair) Types of Hair: A) Non glanduler hair: 1) Simple hair: a- Warty Cuticle hair (senna) b-Cystolyth hair (Cannabis)

11 III-Trichomes(Hair) Types of Hair: A) Non glanduler hair: 2) Multicellular: Uniseriate: (formed one row of cells) * Conical shaped hair (Datura Strammonium) * T-shape hair (Pyrethrium) * Collapsed hair (Digitalis) Cont.

12 III-Trichomes(Hair) Types of Hair: B) Glanduler hair: 1)Unicellular stalk,Unicellular head (Digitalis) 2) Unicellular stalk,Multicellular head a) Digitalis b) Mentha”Labiaceous hair” Cont.

13 III-Trichomes(Hair) Types of Hair: B) Glanduler hair: 4) Multicellular stalk,Multicellular head”Shagy hair” (Cannabis) 3) Branched hair (Hyocymus) Cont.

14 IV-Pollen Grains Types of Pollen grain: 1)Spiny pollen grain: (Pyrethrium) 2)Triangular pollen grain: (Clove)

15 IV-Pollen Grains Stomata: Each stomata consists of two guard cells which guards the osteole.

16 IV-Pollen Grains Types of Stomata: 1. Anisocytic stomata: Stomata is surrounded by three or four epidermal cells one of which is smaller than the others ex : solanaceae 2.Anomocytic stomata : Stomata is surrounded by the same epidermal cells ex : digitalis leaf

17 IV-Pollen Grains Types of Stomata: 3. Paracytic stomata : Stomata is surrounded by two epidermal cells with their long axis parallel to that of the osteole ex : Senna 4. Diacytic stomata : Stomata is surrounded by two epidermal cells with their long axis at right angle to that of the osteole ex : peppermint

18 I)Types of Stomata: 1-Paracytic Stomata:2- Diacytic Stomata: 3-Aisocytic Stomata: 4-Anomocytic Stomata:

19 III-Trichomes(Hair) 1)Senna (Paracytic stomata,warty cuticle hair and Crystal sheath of Ca oxalate) 2)Mentha (Labiaceous hair and Diacytic stomata) 3)Datura Strammonium (cluster layer of Ca oxalate, non glandular hair and Anisocytic stomata) 4)Digitalis (glandular & non glandular hair,Anomocytic stomata) 5)Pyrethrium (pollen grain and T-shaped hair) 6)Quillaia (prism)

20 III-Trichomes(Hair) 7) Squill (raphides) 8) Hyoscymus (Branched hair,twin prism & anisocytic stomata) 9) Rhubarb (Cluster of Ca oxalate) 10) Atropa Belladona (sandy crystal & anisocytic stomata) 11) Clove (Triangular pollen grain)

21 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids Lab(3)

22 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids Atropa belladonna Datura stramonium Hyoscyamous muticus Cinchona Nuxvomica

23 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids General Chemical Tests For Alkaloids : Wagner,s reagent brown ppt. Mayer,s reagent white ppt. Dragendorff,s reagent orange ppt.

24 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids 1) Atropa belladonna: Name : Atropa belladonna Origin : dried leaf of Atropa belladonna Family : Solanaceae Odour : not characteristic Taste : bitter Color : green Active constituents : Atropine

25 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids Microscopical Examination : ( mount : KOH ) a) Ca oxalate : microsphenoidal ( sandy crystals ) b) Anisocytic stomata : C ) Glandular trichome: (Unicellular head,Multicellular stalk)

26 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids 2)Datura stramonium: Name : Datura stramonium Origin : dried leaf of Datura stramonium Family : Solanaceae Odour : not characteristic Taste : bitter Color : green Active constituents : Atropine

27 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids Microscopical Examination:( mount : KOH ) a)Ca oxalate: Clusters ( Rossettes ) b)Anisocytic stomata : C) Non Glandular trichome : covering hair, conical shape

28 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids Specific test for Atropine: Vital’s Test: pd in porcelain dish + 5 drops fuming nitric acid yellow residue + few drops 3% KOH in methanol violet color.

29 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids 3) Hyoscyamous muticus Name : Hyoscyamous muticus Origin : dried leaf of Hyoscyamous niger Family : Solanaceae Odour : not characteristic Taste : bitter Color : pale yellowish brown Active constituents : Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine

30 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids Microscopical Examination :( mount : KOH ) a) Ca oxalate : Twin prism b) Anisocytic stomata : C) Glandular trichome : branched hair

31 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids 4. Nux vomica Name : Nux vomica Origin : dried seeds of Nux vomica Family : Loganiaceae Odour : not characteristic Taste : bitter Color : grey Active constituents : Strychnine, Brucine

32 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids Microscopical Examination ( mount : conc HCL + phoroglucinol ) a) lignified ribs : b ) epidermal cells with lignified ribs : c ) endosperm:

33 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids Spesific tests for strychnine & brucine : Strychnine + Mandalin’s reagent violet color Brucine + nitric acid reddish orange

34 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids 5) Cinchona: Name : Cinchona Origin : dried bark of Cinchona Family : Rubiaceae Odour : not characteristic Taste : bitter Color : reddish brown Active constituents : Quinine + Quinidine

35 Natural Drugs Containing Alkaloids Microscopical Examination ( mount : conc HCL + phoroglucinol ) a) lignified fiber: highly pitted, funnel shape b ) parenchmatus cork cells c ) oval starch granules Spesific test: dried test red vapors

36 Drugs Containing. Glycosides Lab(4)

37 Drugs Containing. Glycosides Rhubarb Senna Liquorice Digitalis

38 Drugs Containing. Glycosides On hydrolysis Glycosides Glycone + Aglycoene. (Sugar part)+(Non sugar part).

39 Drugs Containing. Glycosides 1) Senna Name: Senna leaf Origin:Dried leaf of Cassia acutifolia Family: Leguminosae Odour: Not characteristic Taste: First sweet, then bitter Color: yellowish green Active constituent: Sennoside A&B I-Anthracene (Anthraquinone)

40 Drugs Containing. Glycosides I-Anthracene (Anthraquinone) 1)Senna: Microscopical examination : Mount: Chloral hydrate why not KOH? a)Paracytic stomata: b) Ca Oxalate: Crystal Sheath c) Simple hair (non glandular)

41 Drugs Containing. Glycosides 2) Rhubarb Name: Rhubarb Rhizomes Origin: Rheum Palmatum Family: Polygonaceae Odour: Characteristic Taste: Aromatic bitter Color: yellowish brown I-Anthracene (Anthraquinone)

42 Drugs Containing. Glycosides I-Anthracene (Anthraquinone) 1)Rhubarb: Microscopical examination : (Mount: H2O) a)Starch granules,rounded simple & compound: b) Mount in Chloralhydrate: Clusters of Ca-Oxalate (Prisms) c) Fragments of Vesseles

43 Drugs Containing. Glycosides I-Anthracene (Anthraquinone) Test for combined Anthracene Modified Borntrager’s test + alc.KOH (WB.10min) Dil. HCl + H 2 O + CH 3 Cl CH 3 Cl layer contains free anthraquine + dil.NH 3 (shake) layers, upper rose pink lower CH 3 Cl colorless

44 Drugs Containing. Glycosides I-Anthracene (Anthraquinone) Specific test for Anthracene: Rhubarb: (Borntrager’s test) + H2O (WB.10min) CH 3 Cl layer contains free anthraquine + dil.NH 3 (shake) layers, upper rose pink lower CH 3 Cl colorless

45 Drugs Containing. Glycosides II- Cardiac Glycoside: 3) Digitalis: Name:Digitalis Origin:Dried leaf of Digitalis purpurea Family:Scrophulariaceae Odour: Weak not characteristic Taste: not characteristic Color: Green Active constituents: Digoxin,Digitoxin

46 Drugs Containing. Glycosides II- Cardiac Glycoside: 3) Digitalis: Microscopical examination: a)Collapsed hair (multicellular,non glandular) b) Digit hair(Unicellular stalk,Unicellular head) (Unicellular stalk,Multicellular head) c) Anomocytic Stomata:

47 Drugs Containing. Glycosides II- Cardiac Glycoside: 3) Digitalis: N.B. No starch, No Ca-Oxalate, No fibers, No stone cells Specific Test: 1)Killer Killani 2)Baljet test 3)Kedde test

48 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils Lab(5)

49 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils What is Volatile Oils? They are odorousprinciples found in plants evaporate when exposed to air at ordinary tempreature.

50 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils How to Prepare Volatile Oil? 1) Cold Exoression (e.g.Citrus Oils) Sponge Method Scarification Method 2) Extraction Method: Solid Extraction (flowers) Liquid Extraction

51 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 3) Steam Distillation: a-Direct (Using Clevenger apparatus) b-In Direct (for sensitive V.O.)

52 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 1) Mentha: Name: Mentha piperita Origin:Dried leaf of Mentha pipaita Family: Lamiacea Odour: charactristic Taste: Charactristic Color: Green menthol

53 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 1) Mentha: Mount KOH Microscopical examination: a) Diacytic Stomata: b) Glandular hair(unicellular stalk, multicellular head)[ Labiaceous Hair]:

54 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 2) Anise: Name: Anise Origin: Dried fruit of Pimpinella anisum Family: Apiaceae Odour: Charactristic Taste: Charactristic Color: Olive green

55 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 2) Anise: Mount KOH Microscopical examination a)Non Glandular warty cuticle: b)Branched Vittae: c)Endocarp cells:

56 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 3) Clove: Name: Clove Origin: dried flower bud of Eugenia caryophyllus Family: Myrtaceae Colour: reddish brown Odour: aromatic Taste: Spice aromatic

57 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 3) Clove: Microscopical examinations: a- Oil gland b-Fiber c-Anthec d- Triangular pollen grain

58 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 4) Cinnamon: Name:Cinnamon Origin: dried bark of Cinnamomum Zeylanicum Family: Lauraceae Colour: reddish brown Odour: Characteristic Cinnamaldehyde Taste: Characteristic

59 Natural Drugs Containing Volatile Oils 4) Cinnamon: Microscopical examinations: ( Mount KOH) a-Oil Cell a-Pericycle fiber C- Stone Cells


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