Presentation on theme: "Unit 13. A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as part of a sentence. A main, or independent, clause has a subject."— Presentation transcript:
A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as part of a sentence. A main, or independent, clause has a subject and a predicate and can stand alone as a sentence.
Every sentence must have at least one main clause, but a sentence may have more than one. In each of the following examples, both clauses can stand alone, so both are main, or independent, clauses. main clause The cast bowed, and the audience applauded. S V SV
Main ClauseMain clause The curtains closed firmly, but the enthusiastic applause S V S continued. V In some cases, both the subject and verb of a main clause may be compound. The actors and actresses smiled and bowed, and the audience cheered S S V V S V and clapped. V
A subordinate, or dependent, clause has a subject and a predicate but it can not stand alone as a sentence. A subordinate clause must be attached to a main clause in order for it to make sense. Subordinate clauses frequently begin with subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns. When the subordinate clause comes first, a comma separates it from the main clause.
Subordinating conjunctions: Relative Conjunctions: After how till ( or 'til) although if unless as In even if as much even though until as if in order that when As long as lest Whenever as much as than that though now that where before as soon as provided (that) wherever as though since while because so that Who Whom Whose Whoever Whomever Whosoever Which Whichever Whatever That What
Here are a few examples of sub.clauses and main clauses working together: When the audience applauded, the cast bowed. The student who directed the play also took a bow. In the first example, the sub.conjunction when placed before the audience applauded creates word group with a subject and predicate that can not stand alone as a sentence. In the second example, the relative pronoun who begins a sub.clause that comes between the subject and verb of the main clause.
A simple sentence has only one main clause an no sub.clauses. A simple sentence may or may not have compound subjects or predicates or both. Exps: Bobcats stalk. (simple sentence) Bobcats and lynxes stalk. (simple with compound subject) Bobcats and lynxes stalk and pounce. (simple with compound subject and predicate) Bobcats silently stalk their prey during the night. (simple with modifiers)
A compound sentence has two or more main clauses and no sub.clauses. Bobcats stalk, and lynxes pursue. Bobcats stalk, and lynxes pursue, but house cats slink. They frightened rabbit ran swiftly; the lynx followed at a close pace. Notice that the main clauses of a compound sentence are usually joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction such as and, but, or, nor, yet, so, or for. Two main clauses may also be joined by a semicolon to form a compound sentence.
A complex sentence has one main clause and one or more sub.clauses. Some areas become deforested because people need wood for fuel. Because people need fuel, they cut down trees that have grown for many years. A compound-complex sentence has more than one main clause and at least one subordinate clause. Campers need fuel for cooking, but they should use stoves that require no wood.
An adjective clause is a sub.clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. The adj. clause normally follows the word it modifies. The hikers who reached the peak were overjoyed. The trail, which was rarely used, had been a difficult one. I forgot about the blisters that covered my feet. The hiker whom we appreciated most carried the food.
Both relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, that, and which) and the words where and when may begin adj. clauses. I will always remember the time when I hiked to Pike’s Peak. That is the spot where we set up camp. Sometimes the relative pronoun is dropped at the beginning of an adj. clause. Our camp was the place every hiker loved the most. [the pronoun “that” has been omitted.]
An adj. clause is sometimes essential to a sentence; that is, it is needed to make the meaning of the sentence clear. This type of adj, clause is called an essential clause. One characteristic that many Native American had in common was a love of dancing. (must have clause to complete the meaning)
An adj. clause that is not needed to make the meaning of a sentence clear is called a nonessential clause. Without it, the sentence would be perfectly logical. The Iroquois people of the East, who were farmers, thanked the spirits for the gift of food. In the Southwest, where water is scarce, the Pueblo people performed rain dances. Both clauses are nonessential. When choosing between that and which, use that to introduce an essential clause and which to begin a nonessential clause. The Cheyenne hunted buffalo, which supplied them with meat and skins for clothing and shelter. (non) The animal that was most important to the Cheyenne was the buffalo. (essential)
An adverb clause is a sub. Clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. It tells when, where, how, why, to what extent or under what conditions. Whenever it rains, the river rises. (when) The canoe will be safe as long as everyone remains seated.(under what condition) You are paddling harder than I am paddling. (to what extent)