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Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Chapter 9: Cognition.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Chapter 9: Cognition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Chapter 9: Cognition

2 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Cognition: Definition of Terms Cognition: Mentally processing information (images, concepts, etc.); thinking Internal Representation: Mental expression of a problem or situation Concept: Generalized idea representing a class of related objects or events Language: Words or symbols, and rules for combining them, that are used for thinking and communication

3 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.1

4 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.2

5 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Types of Mental Images Stored Image: Mental image kept in long-term memory (LTM) and retrieved when appropriate Created Image: Image that has been assembled or invented rather than remembered Kinesthetic Image: Created from produced, remembered, or imagined muscular sensations

6 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Concepts Concept: Idea that represents a category of objects or events Concept Formation: Process of classifying information into meaningful categories Positive Instance: Object or event that belongs to the concept class Negative Instance: Object or event that does not belong to the concept class

7 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Concept Formation Conceptual Rule: Guideline for deciding whether objects or events belong to a concept class Conjunctive Concept: Class of objects that have two or more features (e.g., object is pink and soft)

8 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Concept Formation (cont.) Relational Concept: Based on how an object relates to something else or how its features relate to one another Disjunctive Concept: Objects that have at least one of several possible features; either- or concept (strike in baseball)

9 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 More Concept Issues and Terms Prototype: Ideal model used as an example of a good concept Denotative Meaning: Exact definition of a word or concept Connotative Meaning: Emotional or personal meaning of a concept Semantic Differential: Measure of connotative meaning

10 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Faulty Concepts Social Stereotype: Inaccurate and oversimplified concepts of groups of people All-or-Nothing Thinking: One-dimensional thought

11 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.3

12 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.4

13 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.5

14 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.6

15 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Language Structure Encoding: Translating information into symbols that are easy to manipulate Semantics: Study of meaning in language Phonemes: Basic speech sounds Morphemes: Speech sounds collected into meaningful units, like syllables or words

16 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.8

17 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Language Structure (cont.) Grammar: Set of rules for making sounds into words or words into sentences Syntax: Rules for word order in sentences Transformation Rules: Rules that allow us to change a declarative sentence into other voices (passive, active) or forms

18 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Language Structure (cont.) Productivity: Ability of language to generate new thoughts or ideas American Sign Language (ASL): Language used by deaf and hearing-impaired people

19 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.9

20 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.10

21 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.11

22 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Problem Solving Mechanical Solution: Achieved by trial and error or by rote Algorithm: Learned set of rules that always leads to a correct solution General Solution: States the requirements for success but not in enough detail to guide further action

23 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 More on Problem Solving Random Search Strategy: All possibilities are tried, more or less randomly Heuristic: Strategy for identifying and evaluating problem solutions

24 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.14

25 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Insight When an answer appears suddenly in problem solving (“a-ha” learning)

26 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Insight Involves: Selective Encoding: Selecting information that is relevant to a problem while ignoring distractions Selective Combination: Connecting seemingly unrelated bits of useful information Selective Comparison: Comparing new problems with old information or with problems already solved

27 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Fixations Tendency to repeat wrong solutions and to “fixate” on them, or to become blind to alternatives Functional Fixedness: Inability to see new uses (functions) for familiar objects or for things that were used in a particular way

28 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Barriers to Problem Solving Emotional Barriers: Inhibition and fear of making a fool of oneself or of making a mistake Cultural Barriers: Belief that fantasy is a waste and feelings and humor have no place in problem solving Learned Barriers: Taboos; staying with conventional uses Perceptual Barriers: Habits leading to a failure to identify important elements of a problem

29 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.17

30 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.18

31 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computer programs that perform human-like problem solving or intelligent responding (Deep Blue, the chess-playing supercomputer) Computer Simulations: Programs that attempt to duplicate human behavior, especially thinking, problem solving, or decision making

32 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Artificial Intelligence (cont.) Expert Systems: Computer programs that respond as a human expert would –Responding like a chess Grand Master Organized Knowledge: Systematic information Acquired Strategies: Learned tactics

33 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Defining Intelligence Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment Operational Definition: Procedures used to measure a concept

34 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.19

35 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Testing Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5): Widely used individual intelligence test, derived directly from Alfred Binet’s first intelligence test; items are age- ranked

36 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Intelligence Quotients Chronological Age: Person’s age in years Mental Age: Average intellectual performance

37 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 SB5: Cognitive Factors Measured Fluid reasoning Knowledge Quantitative reasoning Visual-spatial processing Working memory

38 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.22

39 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 More Terms Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Intelligence index; original definition; mental age divided by chronological age, then multiplied by 100 Deviation IQ: Scores based on a person’s relative standing in his or her age group; how far above or below average a person’s score is, relative to other scores Average IQ in the U.S.: 100

40 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Wechsler Tests Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test, 3 rd Edition (WAIS-III): Adult intelligence test that rates verbal and performance intelligence and abilities Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV): Downscaled version of the WAIS-III; for children from 6 years to 16 years, 11 months, 30 days

41 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Types of Intelligence Performance Intelligence: Nonverbal intelligence Verbal Intelligence: Language or symbol- oriented intelligence

42 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.23

43 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Group Tests These tests can be given to a large group of people with little supervision; usually contain multiple-choice items Normal (Bell-Shaped) Curve: Most scores fall close to the average, and very few are found at the extremes

44 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 IQ Research Results A strong correlation (about.50) exists between IQ and school grades IQ is NOT a good predictor of success in art, music, writing, dramatics, science and leadership Men and women do NOT appear to differ in overall intelligence, Larry Summers’ assertions notwithstanding

45 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Giftedness Having a high IQ (usually above 130) or special talents or abilities (playing Mozart at age 5)

46 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.24

47 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences Language: Lawyers, writers, comedians Logic and Math: Scientists, accountants, programmers Visual and Spatial Thinking: Engineers, inventors, artists Music: Composers, musicians, music critics –Where does Simon Cowell fit?

48 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences (cont.) Bodily-Kinesthetic Skills: Dancers, athletes, surgeons Intrapersonal Skills (Self-Knowledge): Poets, actors, ministers Interpersonal Skills (Social Abilities): Psychologists, teachers, politicians Naturalistic Skills (Ability to Understand Natural Environment): Biologists, organic farmers

49 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Mental Retardation (or Developmentally Disabled): Some Definitions Presence of a developmental disability and an IQ score below 70; a significant impairment of adaptive behavior also figures into the definition –Adaptive Behavior: Basic skills such as dressing, eating, working, hygiene; necessary for self-care

50 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Familial Retardation Mild retardation that occurs in homes that have inadequate nutrition, intellectual stimulation, medical care, and emotional support

51 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Organic Causes of Mental Retardation Related to physical disorders Birth Injuries: Lack of oxygen to the brain, for example Fetal Damage: Prenatal damage from disease, infection, or drug use by the mother Metabolic Disorders: Rate of energy use and production in the body are affected Genetic Abnormalities: Abnormality in the genes, such as missing genes, extra genes, or defective genes

52 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Creative Thinking Inductive Thought: Going from specific facts or observations to general principles Deductive Thought: Going from general principles to specific situations Logical Thought: Going from given information to new conclusions based on explicit rules Illogical Thought: Thought that is intuitive, associative, or personal

53 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.25

54 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 How to “Rate” Creative Thoughts Fluency: Total number of suggestions you can make Flexibility: Number of times you shift from one class of possible uses to another Originality: How novel or unusual your ideas are Convergent Thinking: Many thoughts or variations converging on a single answer; conventional thinking Divergent Thinking: Many possibilities developed from one starting point

55 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Tests of Creativity (This is the “Twilight Zone” Unusual Uses Test: Find as many uses for an object as possible (“Tell me all the things you can do with this pencil.”) Consequences Test: List all the consequences that would follow if a basic change were made in the world (“What would happen if we were able to read everyone’s thoughts?”) Anagrams Test: Make as many new words as possible from the letters in a given word

56 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Stages of Creative Thought Orientation: Defining the problem Preparation: Gaining as much information as possible Incubation: The problem, while not appearing to be actively worked on, is still “cooking” in the background Illumination: The “a-ha” experience; rapid insight into the solution Verification: Testing and critically evaluating the solution

57 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Creative Personality Smarter people have a slight tendency to be more creative Creative people usually have a greater than average range of knowledge and interests Creative people have openness to a wide variety of experiences Creative people value independence and have a preference for complex things

58 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Logic and Intuition Intuition: Quick, impulsive thought that does not make use of clear reasoning Representativeness Heuristic: Giving a choice greater weight if it seems to be representative of what is already known Base Rate: Underlying probability of an event Framing: The way a problem is stated or the way it is structured

59 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 How to Enhance Creativity Break mental sets and challenge assumptions –Mental Set: Tendency to perceive a problem in a way that blinds us to possible solutions Define problems broadly Restate the problem in different ways Allow time for incubation

60 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 How to Enhance Creativity (cont.) Seek varied input Look for analogies Take sensible risks Delay evaluation

61 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Brainstorming Keeping the production of ideas separate from the evaluation of them; producing ideas with no criticism Cross-Stimulation Effect: When one participant’s ideas in a brainstorming session trigger ideas from others

62 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Some Rules for Brainstorming Criticism of ideas is barred Modification or combination with other ideas is encouraged Quantity of ideas is sought Unusual, remote, or wild ideas are sought Record ideas as they occur Elaborate or improve on the most promising ideas

63 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 The Match Problem and Its Solution

64 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.26

65 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 9 Figure 9.27


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