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Chapter 9: Cognition.

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1 Chapter 9: Cognition

2 Cognition: Definition of Terms
Cognition: Mentally processing information (images, concepts, etc.); thinking Internal Representation: Mental expression of a problem or situation Concept: Generalized idea representing a class of related objects or events Language: Words or symbols, and rules for combining them, that are used for thinking and communication

3 Figure 9. 1 Imagery in thinking
Figure 9.1 Imagery in thinking. (Top) Subjects were shown a drawing similar to (a) and drawings of how (a) would look in other positions, such as (b) and (c). Subjects could recognize (a) after it had been “rotated” from its original position. However, the more (a) was rotated in space, the longer it took to recognize it. This result suggests that people actually formed a three-dimensional image of (a) and rotated the image to see if it matched. (Shepard, 1975.) (Bottom) Try your ability to manipulate mental images: Picture each of these shapes as a piece of paper that can be folded to make a cube. After they have been folded, on which cubes do the arrow tips meet? (After Kosslyn, 1985.) Figure 9.1

4 Figure 9.2 When you see a flower, its image is represented by activity in the primary visual area of the cortex, at the back of the brain. Information about the flower is also relayed to other brain areas. If you form a mental image of a flower, information follows a reverse path. The result, once again, is activation of the primary visual area. Figure 9.2

5 Types of Mental Images Stored Image: Mental image kept in long-term memory (LTM) and retrieved when appropriate Created Image: Image that has been assembled or invented rather than remembered Kinesthetic Image: Created from produced, remembered, or imagined muscular sensations

6 Concepts Concept: Idea that represents a category of objects or events Concept Formation: Process of classifying information into meaningful categories Positive Instance: Object or event that belongs to the concept class Negative Instance: Object or event that does not belong to the concept class

7 Concept Formation Conceptual Rule: Guideline for deciding whether objects or events belong to a concept class Conjunctive Concept: Class of objects that have two or more features (e.g., object is pink and soft)

8 Concept Formation (cont.)
Relational Concept: Based on how an object relates to something else or how its features relate to one another Disjunctive Concept: Objects that have at least one of several possible features; either-or concept (strike in baseball)

9 More Concept Issues and Terms
Prototype: Ideal model used as an example of a good concept Denotative Meaning: Exact definition of a word or concept Connotative Meaning: Emotional or personal meaning of a concept Semantic Differential: Measure of connotative meaning

10 Faulty Concepts Social Stereotype: Inaccurate and oversimplified concepts of groups of people All-or-Nothing Thinking: One-dimensional thought

11 Figure 9. 3 When does a cup become a bowl or a vase
Figure 9.3 When does a cup become a bowl or a vase? Deciding if an object belongs to a conceptual class is aided by relating it to a prototype, or ideal example. Subjects in one experiment chose number 5 as the “best” cup. (After Labov, 1973.) Figure 9.3

12 Figure 9. 4Use of prototypes in concept identification
Figure 9.4Use of prototypes in concept identification. Even though its shape is unusual, item (a) can be related to a model (an ordinary set of pliers) and thus recognized. But what are items (b) and (c)? If you don’t recognize them, look ahead to ✦Figure 9.6. (After Bransford & McCarrell, 1977.) Figure 9.4

13 Figure 9. 5 This is an example of Osgood’s semantic differential
Figure 9.5 This is an example of Osgood’s semantic differential. The connotative meaning of the word jazz can be established by rating it on the scales. Mark your own rating by placing dots or X’s in the spaces. Connect the marks with a line; then have a friend rate the word and compare your responses. It might be interesting to do the same for rock and roll, classical, and rap. You also might want to try the word psychology. (From Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 49, No. 3, May 1952.) Figure 9.5

14 Figure 9.6 Context can substitute for a lack of appropriate prototypes in concept identification.

15 Language Structure Encoding: Translating information into symbols that are easy to manipulate Semantics: Study of meaning in language Phonemes: Basic speech sounds Morphemes: Speech sounds collected into meaningful units, like syllables or words

16 Figure 9.8 The Stroop interference task.

17 Language Structure (cont.)
Grammar: Set of rules for making sounds into words or words into sentences Syntax: Rules for word order in sentences Transformation Rules: Rules that allow us to change a declarative sentence into other voices (passive, active) or forms

18 Language Structure (cont.)
Productivity: Ability of language to generate new thoughts or ideas American Sign Language (ASL): Language used by deaf and hearing-impaired people

19 Figure 9. 9 Animals around the world make pretty much the same sounds
Figure 9.9 Animals around the world make pretty much the same sounds. Notice, however, how various languages use slightly different phonemes to express the sound a duck makes. Figure 9.9

20 Figure 9.10 ASL has only 3,000 root signs, compared with roughly 600,000 words in English. However, variations in signs make ASL a highly expressive language. For example, the sign LOOK-AT can be varied in ways to make it mean look at me, look at her, look at each, stare at, gaze, watch, look for a long time, look at again and again, reminisce, sightsee, look forward to, predict, anticipate, browse, and many more variations. Figure 9.10

21 Figure 9.11 Here is a sample of some of the word-symbols that Sarah the chimpanzee used to communicate with humans. (After Premack & Premack, 1972.) Figure 9.11

22 Problem Solving Mechanical Solution: Achieved by trial and error or by rote Algorithm: Learned set of rules that always leads to a correct solution General Solution: States the requirements for success but not in enough detail to guide further action

23 More on Problem Solving
Random Search Strategy: All possibilities are tried, more or less randomly Heuristic: Strategy for identifying and evaluating problem solutions

24 Figure 9. 14 A schematic representation of Duncker’s tumor problem
Figure 9.14 A schematic representation of Duncker’s tumor problem. The dark spot represents a tumor surrounded by healthy tissue. How can the tumor be destroyed without injuring surrounding tissue? (After Duncker, 1945.) Figure 9.14

25 Insight When an answer appears suddenly in problem solving (“a-ha” learning)

26 Insight Involves: Selective Encoding: Selecting information that is relevant to a problem while ignoring distractions Selective Combination: Connecting seemingly unrelated bits of useful information Selective Comparison: Comparing new problems with old information or with problems already solved

27 Fixations Tendency to repeat wrong solutions and to “fixate” on them, or to become blind to alternatives Functional Fixedness: Inability to see new uses (functions) for familiar objects or for things that were used in a particular way

28 Barriers to Problem Solving
Emotional Barriers: Inhibition and fear of making a fool of oneself or of making a mistake Cultural Barriers: Belief that fantasy is a waste and feelings and humor have no place in problem solving Learned Barriers: Taboos; staying with conventional uses Perceptual Barriers: Habits leading to a failure to identify important elements of a problem

29 Figure 9.17 Four trees can be placed equidistant from one another by piling dirt into a mound. Three of the trees are planted equal distances apart around the base of the mound. The fourth tree is planted on the top of the mound. If you were fixated on arrangements that involve level ground, you may have been blind to this three-dimensional solution. Figure 9.17

30 Figure 9.18 Materials for solving the candle problem were given to subjects in boxes (a) or separately (b). Functional fixedness caused by condition (a) interfered with solving the problem. The solution to the problem is shown in (c). Figure 9.18

31 Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Computer programs that perform human-like problem solving or intelligent responding (Deep Blue, the chess-playing supercomputer) Computer Simulations: Programs that attempt to duplicate human behavior, especially thinking, problem solving, or decision making

32 Artificial Intelligence (cont.)
Expert Systems: Computer programs that respond as a human expert would Responding like a chess Grand Master Organized Knowledge: Systematic information Acquired Strategies: Learned tactics

33 Defining Intelligence
Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment Operational Definition: Procedures used to measure a concept

34 Figure 9. 19 The left chessboard shows a realistic game
Figure 9.19 The left chessboard shows a realistic game. The right chessboard is a random arrangement of pieces. Expert chess players can memorize the left board at a glance, yet they are no better than beginners at memorizing the random board (Saariluoma, 1994). Expert performance at most thinking tasks is based on acquired strategies and knowledge. If you would like to excel at a profession or a mental skill, plan on adding to your knowledge every day (Holyoak, 1990). Figure 9.19

35 Testing Intelligence Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fifth Edition (SB5): Widely used individual intelligence test, derived directly from Alfred Binet’s first intelligence test; items are age-ranked

36 Intelligence Quotients
Chronological Age: Person’s age in years Mental Age: Average intellectual performance

37 SB5: Cognitive Factors Measured
Fluid reasoning Knowledge Quantitative reasoning Visual-spatial processing Working memory

38 Figure 9.22 Distribution of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test scores for 3,184 children. (After Terman & Merrill, 1960.) Figure 9.22

39 More Terms Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Intelligence index; original definition; mental age divided by chronological age, then multiplied by 100 Deviation IQ: Scores based on a person’s relative standing in his or her age group; how far above or below average a person’s score is, relative to other scores Average IQ in the U.S.: 100

40 Wechsler Tests Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test, 3rd Edition (WAIS-III): Adult intelligence test that rates verbal and performance intelligence and abilities Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition (WISC-IV): Downscaled version of the WAIS-III; for children from 6 years to 16 years, 11 months, 30 days

41 Types of Intelligence Performance Intelligence: Nonverbal intelligence Verbal Intelligence: Language or symbol-oriented intelligence

42 Figure 9.23 Approximate correlations between IQ scores for persons with varying degrees of genetic and environmental similarity. Notice that the correlations grow smaller as the degree of genetic similarity declines. Also note that a shared environment increases the correlation in all cases. (Estimates from Bouchard, 1983; Henderson, 1982.) Figure 9.23

43 Group Tests These tests can be given to a large group of people with little supervision; usually contain multiple-choice items Normal (Bell-Shaped) Curve: Most scores fall close to the average, and very few are found at the extremes

44 IQ Research Results A strong correlation (about .50) exists between IQ and school grades IQ is NOT a good predictor of success in art, music, writing, dramatics, science and leadership Men and women do NOT appear to differ in overall intelligence, Larry Summers’ assertions notwithstanding

45 Giftedness Having a high IQ (usually above 130) or special talents or abilities (playing Mozart at age 5)

46 Figure 9.24 Comparison of an adopted child and a biological child reared in the same family. (After Kamin, 1981.) Figure 9.24

47 Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences
Language: Lawyers, writers, comedians Logic and Math: Scientists, accountants, programmers Visual and Spatial Thinking: Engineers, inventors, artists Music: Composers, musicians, music critics Where does Simon Cowell fit?

48 Gardner’s Theory of Eight Multiple Intelligences (cont.)
Bodily-Kinesthetic Skills: Dancers, athletes, surgeons Intrapersonal Skills (Self-Knowledge): Poets, actors, ministers Interpersonal Skills (Social Abilities): Psychologists, teachers, politicians Naturalistic Skills (Ability to Understand Natural Environment): Biologists, organic farmers

49 Mental Retardation (or Developmentally Disabled): Some Definitions
Presence of a developmental disability and an IQ score below 70; a significant impairment of adaptive behavior also figures into the definition Adaptive Behavior: Basic skills such as dressing, eating, working, hygiene; necessary for self-care

50 Familial Retardation Mild retardation that occurs in homes that have inadequate nutrition, intellectual stimulation, medical care, and emotional support

51 Organic Causes of Mental Retardation
Related to physical disorders Birth Injuries: Lack of oxygen to the brain, for example Fetal Damage: Prenatal damage from disease, infection, or drug use by the mother Metabolic Disorders: Rate of energy use and production in the body are affected Genetic Abnormalities: Abnormality in the genes, such as missing genes, extra genes, or defective genes

52 Creative Thinking Inductive Thought: Going from specific facts or observations to general principles Deductive Thought: Going from general principles to specific situations Logical Thought: Going from given information to new conclusions based on explicit rules Illogical Thought: Thought that is intuitive, associative, or personal

53 Figure 9. 25 Some tests of divergent thinking
Figure 9.25 Some tests of divergent thinking. Creative responses are more original and more complex. [(a) adapted from Wallach & Kogan, 1965; (b) adapted from Barron, 1958.] Figure 9.25

54 How to “Rate” Creative Thoughts
Fluency: Total number of suggestions you can make Flexibility: Number of times you shift from one class of possible uses to another Originality: How novel or unusual your ideas are Convergent Thinking: Many thoughts or variations converging on a single answer; conventional thinking Divergent Thinking: Many possibilities developed from one starting point

55 Tests of Creativity (This is the “Twilight Zone”
Unusual Uses Test: Find as many uses for an object as possible (“Tell me all the things you can do with this pencil.”) Consequences Test: List all the consequences that would follow if a basic change were made in the world (“What would happen if we were able to read everyone’s thoughts?”) Anagrams Test: Make as many new words as possible from the letters in a given word

56 Stages of Creative Thought
Orientation: Defining the problem Preparation: Gaining as much information as possible Incubation: The problem, while not appearing to be actively worked on, is still “cooking” in the background Illumination: The “a-ha” experience; rapid insight into the solution Verification: Testing and critically evaluating the solution

57 Creative Personality Smarter people have a slight tendency to be more creative Creative people usually have a greater than average range of knowledge and interests Creative people have openness to a wide variety of experiences Creative people value independence and have a preference for complex things

58 Logic and Intuition Intuition: Quick, impulsive thought that does not make use of clear reasoning Representativeness Heuristic: Giving a choice greater weight if it seems to be representative of what is already known Base Rate: Underlying probability of an event Framing: The way a problem is stated or the way it is structured

59 How to Enhance Creativity
Break mental sets and challenge assumptions Mental Set: Tendency to perceive a problem in a way that blinds us to possible solutions Define problems broadly Restate the problem in different ways Allow time for incubation

60 How to Enhance Creativity (cont.)
Seek varied input Look for analogies Take sensible risks Delay evaluation

61 Brainstorming Keeping the production of ideas separate from the evaluation of them; producing ideas with no criticism Cross-Stimulation Effect: When one participant’s ideas in a brainstorming session trigger ideas from others

62 Some Rules for Brainstorming
Criticism of ideas is barred Modification or combination with other ideas is encouraged Quantity of ideas is sought Unusual, remote, or wild ideas are sought Record ideas as they occur Elaborate or improve on the most promising ideas

63 The Match Problem and Its Solution

64 Figure 9. 26 (a) Nine dots are arranged in a square
Figure 9.26 (a) Nine dots are arranged in a square. Can you connect them by drawing four continuous straight lines without lifting your pencil from the paper? (b) Six matches must be arranged to make four triangles. The triangles must be the same size, with each side equal to the length of one match. (The solutions to these problems appear in Fig. 9.27, on page 368.) Figure 9.26

65 Figure 9. 27 Problem solutions
Figure 9.27 Problem solutions. (a) The dot problem can be solved by extending the lines beyond the square formed by the dots. Most people assume incorrectly that they may not do this. (b) The match problem can be solved by building a three-dimensional pyramid. Most people assume that the matches must be arranged on a flat surface. If you remembered the four-tree problem from earlier in the chapter, the match problem may have been easy to solve. Figure 9.27

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