5Growth Patterns The Middle Childhood years: age 7-12 Both boys and girls average about 2 inches in height per year until the adolescent growth spurt.Both boys and girls average about 5-7 lbs of weight gain in middle childhood years.In middle childhood, the average child’s body weight doubles.Overall children become less stocky and grow more slender.
6Figure 11.1 – Growth Curves for Height and Weight
7Growth Patterns Nutrition and Growth Children in these middle years spend a great deal of energy in physical activity and play.School children burn more calories than preschoolers.4-6 year olds: 1, ,800 calories per day7-10 year olds: 2,000 calories per dayNutrition is more than calories.Healthy: fruit, veggies, fish, poultry (no skin), whole grainsNot healthy: fats, sugars, starchesMost school cafeterias: fast food restaurants have food high in sugar, animal fats, and saltPortion sizes have also become much larger over the past few decades.
8Growth Patterns Similarities and Difference in Physical Growth Both boys and girls at this age experience steady gains in height and weight and see an increase in muscle strength.Boys:Are slightly heavier and taller than girls from 9-10 yrsAround age 11 yrs, boys will develop more muscle.Girls:At 9-10 will begin their rapid adolescent growth and surpass boys in height and weight until about yrs.Around age 11, girls will develop more fat.
10Overweight in Children Between 16-25% of children and teens in U.S. are overweight.Parents often assume heavy children will outgrown the “baby fat” but most overweight children become overweight adults.Overweight children are often ridiculed and rejected by peers.They are less athletic and considered less attractive in adolescent years.They also are at greater risk for health problems throughout life.Answer to T-F? # 1 - Children outgrow “baby fat.” - FALSE - Actually, most heavy children become overweight as adults.
13Overweight in Children Childhood is the optimal time to prevent or reverse obesity and promote a lifetime pattern of healthy habits.Cognitive methods help by:Improving nutritional knowledge; reducing calories; introducing exercise; modifying behaviorBehavioral methods involve:Tracking calories and weight; keeping child from temptations; setting good examples; using reinforcersThe most successful weight loss programs for children combine:Exercise; decreased caloric intake; behavior modifications; emotional support from parentsBoxed Feature: Helping Overweight Children Manage Their Weight
14Figure 11.3 – The Traffic Light Diet This is Figure 11.3 on p. 377 of Childhood & Adolescence: Voyages, 3rd ed.
16Motor Development Gross Motor Skills Throughout middle childhood, muscles grow stronger and neural pathways connecting the cerebellum to the cortex become more myelinated.Experience refines sensorimotor abilities but there are also individual inborn differences.
20Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Definition-StatisticsADHD is characterized by excessive inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity.Not to be confused with normal active behaviorsTypically occurs around age 7 yrs1-5% of school age children are diagnosed; more commonly in boys, sometimes “over-diagnosed” to encourage more acceptable behaviorCausesGenetic component: brain chemical dopamineLack of executive control of the brain over motor and more primitive functionsNot caused by artificial food additivesTreatment & OutcomesStimulants such as Ritalin are most used treatmentThey promote activity of dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain that stimulate the “executive center.”Some children “outgrow” ADHD; others persist with problems into adolescence or adult years.Answer to T-F? # 4 - Hyperactivity is caused by chemical food additives. FALSE - Over the years, studies in the use of the Feingold diet yielded conflicting results, and researchers now generally agree that food coloring and preservatives do NOT cause ADHDAnswer to T-F? # 5 - Stimulants are often used to treat children who are already hyperactive. TRUE - Although it may seem “counterintuitive,” stimulants increase children’s attention span, improve their academic performance, and reduce tier disruptive behavior.
23Learning Disabilities Learning Disabilities: disorders characterized by inadequate development of specific academic, language, and speech skillsLearning disabled children may show problems in some of the following areas:Math, writing, or readingSpeaking or understanding spoken languageMotor coordinationAnswer to T-F? # 6 - Some children who are intelligent and provided with enriched home environments cannot lean how to read or do simple math problems. TRUE - they are said to have learning disabilities
24Learning Disabilities Performing below the expected level for their age and level of intelligence with no evidence of other handicaps (vision-hearing-retardation-etc) usually leads to a diagnosis of Learning Disability.Disability may persist through entire life but early remediation can help many to compensate.
25Table 11.2 – Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Table 11.2 shows types of learning disabilitiesSource: Adapted from American Psychiatric Association (2000).
26Learning Disabilities, cont. Origins of DyslexiaGenetic Factors25-65% of dyslexic children have one dyslexic parent.40% of siblings of children with dyslexia are dyslexic.Left brain hemisphere circulation problems causing oxygen deficiency.Problems in the angular gyrus of the brain may cause difficulty for readers to associate letters with sounds.Some research points to similarities in brain abnormalities between schizophrenia and dyslexia.Phonological ProcessingDyslexic children may not discriminate sounds as accurately as others, creating confusion and impairing reading ability.
28Learning Disabilities, cont. Educating Children with DisabilitiesSpecial Education:Programs created to meet the needs of schoolchildren with mild to moderate disabilities including:Emotional disturbance, mild mental retardation, physical disabilities (i.e., blindness, deafness, paralysis)Evidence is mixed on whether placing disabled children in separate classes can stigmatize and further segregate them from other childrenMainstreaming:Placement of disabled children in regular classrooms adapted to meet their needs
29Learning Disabilities, cont. DyslexiaA reading disorder characterized by letter reversals, mirror reading, slow reading, and reduced comprehension.