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CHAPTER 11 Middle Childhood: Physical Development.

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1 CHAPTER 11 Middle Childhood: Physical Development

2 Learning Outcomes LO1 Describe growth patterns in middle childhood. LO2 Discuss nutrition and overweight in childhood, focusing on incidence, origins, and treatment of the problem. LO3 Describe motor development in middle childhood, focusing on sex differences, exercise, and fitness. LO4 Discuss the symptoms, possible origins, and treatment of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). LO5 Discuss the various kinds of learning disorders and their possible origins. © Radius Images/Jupiterimages

3 TRUTH OR FICTION? T-FChildren outgrow “baby fat.” T-FThe typical American child is exposed to about 10,000 food commercials each year. T-FMost American children are physically fit. T-FHyperactivity is caused by chemical food additives. T-FStimulants are often used to treat children who are already hyperactive. T-FSome children who are intelligent and provided with enriched home environments cannot learn how to read or do simple math problems. ©

4 LO1 Growth Patterns © Radius Images/Jupiterimages

5 Growth Patterns The Middle Childhood years: age 7-12 Both boys and girls average about 2 inches in height per year until the adolescent growth spurt. Both boys and girls average about 5-7 lbs of weight gain in middle childhood years. In middle childhood, the average child’s body weight doubles. Overall children become less stocky and grow more slender.

6 Figure 11.1 – Growth Curves for Height and Weight

7 Growth Patterns Nutrition and Growth –Children in these middle years spend a great deal of energy in physical activity and play. –School children burn more calories than preschoolers. 4-6 year olds: 1,400 - 1,800 calories per day 7-10 year olds: 2,000 calories per day –Nutrition is more than calories. Healthy: fruit, veggies, fish, poultry (no skin), whole grains Not healthy: fats, sugars, starches –Most school cafeterias: fast food restaurants have food high in sugar, animal fats, and salt –Portion sizes have also become much larger over the past few decades.

8 Growth Patterns Similarities and Difference in Physical Growth –Both boys and girls at this age experience steady gains in height and weight and see an increase in muscle strength. Boys: –Are slightly heavier and taller than girls from 9-10 yrs –Around age 11 yrs, boys will develop more muscle. Girls: –At 9-10 will begin their rapid adolescent growth and surpass boys in height and weight until about 13-14 yrs. –Around age 11, girls will develop more fat.

9 LO2 Overweight in Childhood © Radius Images/Jupiterimages

10 Overweight in Children Between 16-25% of children and teens in U.S. are overweight. Parents often assume heavy children will outgrown the “baby fat” but most overweight children become overweight adults. Overweight children are often ridiculed and rejected by peers. They are less athletic and considered less attractive in adolescent years. They also are at greater risk for health problems throughout life.

11 Figure 11.2 – Overweight Children in America

12 Overweight in Children Causes of Overweight –Heredity factors: Some people inherit a tendency to burn extra calories. Other inherit a tendency to turn extra calories into fat. –Environmental factors: Family: overweight parents serve as role models and may encourage overeating and unhealthy choices Children who watch TV burn fewer calories. American children are exposed to thousands of food commercials per year, most for unhealthy foods. © Rubberball/Jupiterimages

13 Overweight in Children Childhood is the optimal time to prevent or reverse obesity and promote a lifetime pattern of healthy habits. Cognitive methods help by: –Improving nutritional knowledge; reducing calories; introducing exercise; modifying behavior Behavioral methods involve: –Tracking calories and weight; keeping child from temptations; setting good examples; using reinforcers The most successful weight loss programs for children combine: –Exercise; decreased caloric intake; behavior modifications; emotional support from parents

14 Figure 11.3 – The Traffic Light Diet

15 LO3 Motor Development © Radius Images/Jupiterimages

16 Motor Development Gross Motor Skills –Throughout middle childhood, muscles grow stronger and neural pathways connecting the cerebellum to the cortex become more myelinated. –Experience refines sensorimotor abilities but there are also individual inborn differences.

17 Motor Development Gross Motor Skills –By age 6 yrs, children are hopping, jumping, climbing. –By age 7 yrs, they are capable of riding a bike. –By age 8-10 yrs, they can participate in sports. Reaction time: (time it takes to respond to a stimulus) improves © Terry Poche/Shutterstock

18 Motor Development Fine Motor Skills –By age 6-7, children can perform many fine motor skills (tying shoelaces, holding pencils like adults) Sex Differences –Boys show more forearm strength. –Girls show more coordination and flexibility. Exercise & Fitness –Exercise reduces risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and some types of cancer. –Cardiac and muscular fitness is developed by aerobic exercise, however schools and parents tend to focus more on competitive sports such as baseball and football. © Benjamin Goode/

19 LO4 Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHA) © Radius Images/Jupiterimages

20 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Definition-Statistics –ADHD is characterized by excessive inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. –Not to be confused with normal active behaviors –Typically occurs around age 7 yrs –1-5% of school age children are diagnosed; more commonly in boys, sometimes “over-diagnosed” to encourage more acceptable behavior Causes –Genetic component: brain chemical dopamine –Lack of executive control of the brain over motor and more primitive functions –Not caused by artificial food additives Treatment & Outcomes –Stimulants such as Ritalin are most used treatment –They promote activity of dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain that stimulate the “executive center.” –Some children “outgrow” ADHD; others persist with problems into adolescence or adult years.

21 Table 11.1 – Types of Disorders © Image Source

22 LO5 Learning Disorders © Radius Images/Jupiterimages

23 Learning Disabilities Learning Disabilities: disorders characterized by inadequate development of specific academic, language, and speech skills Learning disabled children may show problems in some of the following areas: –Math, writing, or reading –Speaking or understanding spoken language –Motor coordination

24 Learning Disabilities Performing below the expected level for their age and level of intelligence with no evidence of other handicaps (vision-hearing-retardation- etc) usually leads to a diagnosis of Learning Disability. Disability may persist through entire life but early remediation can help many to compensate.

25 Table 11.2 – Symptoms of Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Source: Adapted from American Psychiatric Association (2000).

26 Learning Disabilities, cont. Origins of Dyslexia –Genetic Factors 25-65% of dyslexic children have one dyslexic parent. 40% of siblings of children with dyslexia are dyslexic. Left brain hemisphere circulation problems causing oxygen deficiency. Problems in the angular gyrus of the brain may cause difficulty for readers to associate letters with sounds. Some research points to similarities in brain abnormalities between schizophrenia and dyslexia. –Phonological Processing Dyslexic children may not discriminate sounds as accurately as others, creating confusion and impairing reading ability.

27 Figure 11.4 – Writing Sample of Dyslexic Child © Will and Deni McIntyre/Science Source/Photo Researchers

28 Learning Disabilities, cont. Educating Children with Disabilities –Special Education: Programs created to meet the needs of schoolchildren with mild to moderate disabilities including: –Emotional disturbance, mild mental retardation, physical disabilities (i.e., blindness, deafness, paralysis) Evidence is mixed on whether placing disabled children in separate classes can stigmatize and further segregate them from other children –Mainstreaming: Placement of disabled children in regular classrooms adapted to meet their needs

29 Learning Disabilities, cont. Dyslexia –A reading disorder characterized by letter reversals, mirror reading, slow reading, and reduced comprehension.

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