Presentation on theme: "CH.1: THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY"— Presentation transcript:
1CH.1: THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY THE BASICS PEOPLE!!!
2What do human geographers do? …..they ask two main questions:Where are things/people?Why are they there?
3We will define geography as… -The study of where people/things are found on Earth’s surface and the reasons for their locationGEOGRAPHY human physical
4How do Geographers Describe Where Things Are? ISSUE #1How do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?
5Storing Reference Material Communicating geographic information MAPSStoring Reference MaterialCommunicating geographic information
6SCALE…. Represented in different ways Ratio (1: 24,000) Fraction (1/24,000)Written statement (1” equals 24,000 miles)Bar scale (p.10 in text)
7SCALE cont… SMALL SCALE LARGE SCALE Represents smaller detail of a large area (p. 10 in text)Ex. 1:10,000,000 is a smaller scale map (it represents a huge area but the ratio is a smaller number, not much detail)Represents larger detail of a smaller area (p. 10 in text)Ex. 1:10,000 is a larger scale map (it represents a smaller area but the ratio is a larger number, there is more detail)
8Small Scale Objects appear smaller Large Scale Objects appear larger
9PROJECTION……. Scientific method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map
10PROJECTION PROBLEMS Maps show: Shape Distance Size Direction But……………… .....no map can accurately depict all 4 at once on the same map - For ex. A map might show true directions and shapes but distorts size (Mercator, compare maps on pp.6 & 19)West Wing Video
13Mercator Projection Mercator Distorts: Shape Distance Relative Size Was designed for navigation purposes(for which it is VERY effective)Has been criticized for cultural bias because the less-developed world is portrayed much smaller than it truly is
15Gall-Peters Projection Gall-Peters Distorts:ShapeDistanceProjection is “Equal Area”-countries are in correct proportion with each otherClaimed to eliminate the “cultural bias” of the Mercator Projection
17Robinson Projection Robinson Distorts: Shape Distance Relative Size Direction (at edges)Distortion is minimal at the center of the map but increases at poles and edgesSeen as a compromise to create an appealing view of the entire Earth
23TOPONYM The name given to a place on Earth Ex. Philadelphia Sometimes it can tell youabout the placeex. San Francisco….?
24SITE The physical characteristics of a place Site characteristics include climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation…
25SITUATION Location of a place relative to other places Ex. John’s Pizza is located across the street from the movie theaterSituation helps us:Find a locationUnderstand the importance of a location
26MATHEMATICAL LOCATION Latitude and Longitude, no explanation needed
27REGIONAreas, not specific points, that can be categorized according to various characteristics, a concept known as…Cultural landscape (know definition)
28TYPES OF REGIONS Formal Functional Vernacular *** make sure you know the definition and examples of each!!!
29Formal RegionEverybody shares in common one or more distinctive characteristicsExs. Pennsylvania (political), Middle East (religious), North American wheat belt (economic/agricultural), voting areas within the U.S.
30Functional Region area organized around a node or focal point Diminishes as you move away from the nodeExs. Television station, newspaper circulation, shopping mallHow is technology affecting functional regions????
31Formal and Functional Regions Fig. 1-11: The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of influence of various television stations are examples of functional regions.
32Vernacular Regiona place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity (more informal)Exs. High school campus, home state, your house, the “South” (a combination of features)
33Vernacular RegionsFig. 1-12: A number of features are often used to define the South as a vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different boundaries.
34SPATIAL ASSOCIATIONGeographers try to identify certain factors (cultural, economic, environmental...)Factors that have similar distribution have spatial associationEx. On a national level, regions in the east may have higher cancer rates due to the spatial association between cancer rates and the distribution/location of factories
35Spatial Association at Various Scales Fig. 1-13: Death rates from cancer in the US, Maryland, and Baltimore show different patterns that can identify associations with different factors.
39(what makes up American culture?) CULTURE (body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people)Major tool used by geographers to explain uniqueness of a regionCultureIntellectual Popular(what makes up American culture?)
40TYPES OF REGIONS/COUNTRIES MORE DEVELOPEDLESS DEVELOPEDKnow the characteristics and examples(p. 25)Know the characteristics and examples(p.25)
41MORE DEVELOPED vs. LESS DEVELOPED REVIEW 2 Regions that are MD2. Regions that are LD3. Possession of wealth and material goods (is this MD or LD?)shared characteristics of a MD region5. Most people are engaged in agriculture (is this MD or LD?)
42MORE DEVELOPED vs. LESS DEVELOPED 2Regions that are MD North America, Europe, Japan2. Regions that are LD sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Latin America3. Possession of wealth and material goods MD4. 3 shared characteristics of a that distinguish a region per capita income, literacy rates, televisions per capita, hospital beds per capita…5. Most people are engaged in agriculture LD
43What does this map represent? Try to list the blue countries in your notes.You may work together.
46The number of planets needed to sustain specific countries at different levels of current consumption.
47How to Compare Developed vs. Developing GDP (Gross Domestic Product)GDP per capitaLife Expectancy/HealthcareEducation/Literacy RateAgricultural System (Subsistence or Commercial?)Rural vs. UrbanPovertyCommunications/InfrastructureAnd many more!
48CULTURAL ECOLOGYThe geographic study of human-environment relationships- how people interact with the environmentDifferent cultures modify the environment in different ways, producing different regions
49LIST 5 WAYS…. Humans impact/modify the environment The environment impacts humans
54ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM how the physical environmentcauses social developmentPositives and negativesabout ED????
55MODERN GEOGRAPHERS & ED They prefer PossibilismEnvironment limits, but people can adjust to itEDStinks!!ED
56POSSIBILISM MEANS THAT HUMANS NOT ONLY ADAPT TO, BUT ALSO CHANGE, THE ENVIRONMENT. THIS CAN BE GOOD OR BAD……………especially with modern technology
57PHYSICAL PROCESSESGeographers need to be aware of these in order to understand the distribution of human activities and their impact on the environmentWhy people live where they do or how they make a living depends on these processes/forcesWhat are these processes?ClimateVegetationSoilLandforms- pp.26-28
58World Climate RegionsFig. 1-14: The modified Köppen system divides the world into five main climate regions.
59Environmental Modification in the Netherlands Fig. 1-15: Polders and dikes have been used for extensive environmental modification in the Netherlands.
60Environmental Modification in Florida Fig. 1-16: Straightening the Kissimmee River has had many unintended side effects.
61C-38 Canal FloridaThe canal has carried water with agricultural runoff and pollution into Lake Okeechobee
62Why are Different Places Similar? ISSUE #3Why are Different Places Similar?
64SCALE Local level shows unique features Stores, housing, hospitalsAt the global level shows broad patternsWhere is rapid population growth?Where followers of different religions liveIt helps explain globalization (important!!!!!)(the “scale” of the world is shrinking)
65Globalization of the Economy Fig. 1-17: The Denso corporation is headquartered in Japan, but it has regional headquarters and other facilities in North America and Western Europe.
67SPACE: DISTRIBUTION OF FEATURES an action at one point in space can result from something happening at another point in space, which can affect conditions in other places
68DISTRIBUTION (the arrangement of a feature in space) Students in GVHS are distributed (arranged) in classrooms….look at the following for our room:Density – frequency with which something occursb. Concentration – extent of a feature’s spread over space (clustered or dispersed)c. Pattern – geometric arrangement of objects in space
69Key aspects of Distribution are: Density, Concentration, & Pattern Fig. 1-18: The density, concentration, and pattern (of houses in this example) may vary in an area or landscape.
70Density and Concentration of Baseball Teams, 1952 & 2007 Fig. 1-19: The changing distribution of North American baseball teams illustrates the differences between density and concentration.
71U.S. Baseball Teams, 1952Fig. 1-19: Baseball teams were highly concentrated in the Northeast and Midwest in 1952.
72U.S. Baseball Teams, 2007Fig. 1-19: By 2007, U.S. baseball teams were much more dispersed than in 1952, and their number and density at a national level had increased.
731. What three things do geographers use to explain why different places are similar? Which scale is more helpful in identifying global patterns, small or large? Why?
741. What three things do geographers use to explain why different places are similar? (scale, space, connections)2. Which scale is more helpful in identifying global patterns, small or large? Why? (small, see global patterns)
75CONNECTIONSMore rapid connections have reduced the distance across space between placesSpace-Time Compression describes this reduction in time to reach other placesSPACETIME
77New technologies like email, phones, planes, television… New technologies like , phones, planes, television….make people far away connected and aware of same cultural beliefs (geographers call this Spatial Interaction)These technologies affect space time compression
78Space-Time Compression, 1492-1962 - Go to p.36Fig. 1-20: The times required to cross the Atlantic, or orbit the earth, illustrate how transport improvements have shrunk the world.
79Airline Route Networks Fig. 1-21: Continental Airlines, like many others, has configured its route network in a “hub and spoke” system.
80DIFFUSION This has all led to an increase in diffusion The process by which a characteristic spreads from one place to anotherHearth?
81(know all 3 types – Hierarchical, Contagious, Stimulus) TYPES OF DIFFUSIONRELOCATIONEXPANSION(know all 3 types – Hierarchical, Contagious, Stimulus)Spread by people movingSpread by snowballing process
82WHICH TYPE OF DIFFUSION IS IT? A rumor is started on the “web” that Michael Jackson is still alive and within 1 week most people believe it and spread the idea.The president begins to use a term that quickly becomes part of the every day language of the American peopleThe invention of velcro by a shoe company that goes out of business but the idea of velcro continues to spread.
83WHICH TYPE OF DIFFUSION IS IT? A rumor is started on the “web” that Michael Jackson is still alive and within 1 week most people believe it and spread the idea.- ContagiousThe president begins to use a term that quickly becomes part of the every day language of the American people- HierarchicalThe invention of velcro by a shoe company that goes out of business but the idea of velcro continues to spread.- Stimulus
84AIDS Diffusion in the US, 1981-2002 Fig. 1-22: New AIDS cases were concentrated in three nodes in They spread through the country in the 1980s, but declined in the original nodes in the late 1990s.
10101.05 The International Date Line is approximately ___ degrees from the Prime Meridian. 1. 02. 453. 904. 1805. 360
10201.05 The International Date Line is approximately ___ degrees from the Prime Meridian. 1. 02. 453. 904. 1805. 360
10301.06 An area (think larger rather than smaller) with one or more unique and distinguishing characteristics is called a:1. Locality2. Situation3. Site4. Location5. Region
10401.06 An area with one or more unique and distinguishing characteristics is called a: 1. Locality2. Situation3. Site4. Location5. Region
10501.07 The movement of money from one country to another and one currency to another has primarily been facilitated by1. The leadership of the United States2. Advances in electronic communications3. The World Trade Organization4. Transnational corporations5. Global agreements brokered by the United Nations
10601.07 The movement of money from one country to another and one currency to another has primarily been facilitated by1. The leadership of the United States2. Advances in electronic communications3. The World Trade Organization4. Transnational corporations5. Global agreements brokered by the United Nations
10701.08 Globalization 1. Decreases consumer preferences 2. Promotes the maintenance of traditional cultures3. Benefits some countries more than others4. Decreases communication across borders5. Is tightly controlled by the United States
10801.08 Globalization 1. Decreases consumer preferences 2. Promotes the maintenance of traditional cultures3. Benefits some countries more than others4. Decreases communication across borders5. Is tightly controlled by the United States
10901.09 The frequency an object appears in a given area is its 1. Distribution2. Density3. Relative location4. Dispersion5. Diffusion
11001.09 The frequency an object appears in a given area is its 1. Distribution2. Density3. Relative location4. Dispersion5. Diffusion
11101.10 That the physical environment causes social development is the core concept of 1. Cultural relativism2. Possibilism3. Cultural ecology4. Environmental determinism5. Stimulus diffusion
11201.10 That the physical environment causes social development is the core concept of 1. Cultural relativism2. Possibilism3. Cultural ecology4. Environmental determinism5. Stimulus diffusion