# CH.1: THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY

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CH.1: THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY
THE BASICS PEOPLE!!!

What do human geographers do?
…..they ask two main questions: Where are things/people? Why are they there?

We will define geography as…
-The study of where people/things are found on Earth’s surface and the reasons for their location GEOGRAPHY human physical

How do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?
ISSUE #1 How do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

Storing Reference Material Communicating geographic information
MAPS Storing Reference Material Communicating geographic information

SCALE…. Represented in different ways Ratio (1: 24,000)
Fraction (1/24,000) Written statement (1” equals 24,000 miles) Bar scale (p.10 in text)

SCALE cont… SMALL SCALE LARGE SCALE
Represents smaller detail of a large area (p. 10 in text) Ex. 1:10,000,000 is a smaller scale map (it represents a huge area but the ratio is a smaller number, not much detail) Represents larger detail of a smaller area (p. 10 in text) Ex. 1:10,000 is a larger scale map (it represents a smaller area but the ratio is a larger number, there is more detail)

Small Scale Objects appear smaller Large Scale Objects appear larger

PROJECTION… …. Scientific method of transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map

PROJECTION PROBLEMS Maps show: Shape Distance Size Direction But………………
.....no map can accurately depict all 4 at once on the same map - For ex. A map might show true directions and shapes but distorts size (Mercator, compare maps on pp.6 & 19) West Wing Video

Types of Map Projection

Mercator Projection

Mercator Projection Mercator Distorts: Shape Distance Relative Size
Was designed for navigation purposes (for which it is VERY effective) Has been criticized for cultural bias because the less-developed world is portrayed much smaller than it truly is

Gall-Peters Projection

Gall-Peters Projection
Gall-Peters Distorts: Shape Distance Projection is “Equal Area” -countries are in correct proportion with each other Claimed to eliminate the “cultural bias” of the Mercator Projection

Robinson Projection

Robinson Projection Robinson Distorts: Shape Distance Relative Size
Direction (at edges) Distortion is minimal at the center of the map but increases at poles and edges Seen as a compromise to create an appealing view of the entire Earth

Goode’s Projection

Goode’s Projection Goode’s Distorts: Distance
Often called the “Orange-Peel Map” Shows the surface of the Earth in relative size, but distance and direction are greatly distorted

The only way to avoid distortion…

Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?
ISSUE #2 Why is Each Point on Earth Unique?

4 Ways Geographers Identify Location
TOPONYM MATHEMATICAL LOCATION (lat/long) SITUATION

TOPONYM The name given to a place on Earth Ex. Philadelphia
Sometimes it can tell you about the place ex. San Francisco….?

SITE The physical characteristics of a place
Site characteristics include climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation…

SITUATION Location of a place relative to other places
Ex. John’s Pizza is located across the street from the movie theater Situation helps us: Find a location Understand the importance of a location

MATHEMATICAL LOCATION
Latitude and Longitude, no explanation needed

REGION Areas, not specific points, that can be categorized according to various characteristics, a concept known as… Cultural landscape (know definition)

TYPES OF REGIONS Formal Functional Vernacular
*** make sure you know the definition and examples of each!!!

Formal Region Everybody shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics Exs. Pennsylvania (political), Middle East (religious), North American wheat belt (economic/agricultural), voting areas within the U.S.

Functional Region area organized around a node or focal point
Diminishes as you move away from the node Exs. Television station, newspaper circulation, shopping mall How is technology affecting functional regions????

Formal and Functional Regions
Fig. 1-11: The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region; the areas of influence of various television stations are examples of functional regions.

Vernacular Region a place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity (more informal) Exs. High school campus, home state, your house, the “South” (a combination of features)

Vernacular Regions Fig. 1-12: A number of features are often used to define the South as a vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different boundaries.

SPATIAL ASSOCIATION Geographers try to identify certain factors (cultural, economic, environmental...) Factors that have similar distribution have spatial association Ex. On a national level, regions in the east may have higher cancer rates due to the spatial association between cancer rates and the distribution/location of factories

Spatial Association at Various Scales
Fig. 1-13: Death rates from cancer in the US, Maryland, and Baltimore show different patterns that can identify associations with different factors.

Cancer Death Rates in the U.S.

Cancer Death Rates in Maryland

Cancer Death Rates in Baltimore

(what makes up American culture?)
CULTURE (body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people) Major tool used by geographers to explain uniqueness of a region Culture Intellectual Popular (what makes up American culture?)

TYPES OF REGIONS/COUNTRIES
MORE DEVELOPED LESS DEVELOPED Know the characteristics and examples (p. 25) Know the characteristics and examples (p.25)

MORE DEVELOPED vs. LESS DEVELOPED REVIEW
2 Regions that are MD 2. Regions that are LD 3. Possession of wealth and material goods (is this MD or LD?) shared characteristics of a MD region 5. Most people are engaged in agriculture (is this MD or LD?)

MORE DEVELOPED vs. LESS DEVELOPED
2Regions that are MD North America, Europe, Japan 2. Regions that are LD sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Latin America 3. Possession of wealth and material goods MD 4. 3 shared characteristics of a that distinguish a region per capita income, literacy rates, televisions per capita, hospital beds per capita… 5. Most people are engaged in agriculture LD

What does this map represent?
Try to list the blue countries in your notes. You may work together.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

The number of planets needed to sustain specific countries at different levels of current consumption.

How to Compare Developed vs. Developing
GDP (Gross Domestic Product) GDP per capita Life Expectancy/Healthcare Education/Literacy Rate Agricultural System (Subsistence or Commercial?) Rural vs. Urban Poverty Communications/Infrastructure And many more!

CULTURAL ECOLOGY The geographic study of human-environment relationships - how people interact with the environment Different cultures modify the environment in different ways, producing different regions

LIST 5 WAYS…. Humans impact/modify the environment
The environment impacts humans

The World - Dubai

ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM
how the physical environment causes social development Positives and negatives about ED????

MODERN GEOGRAPHERS & ED
They prefer Possibilism Environment limits, but people can adjust to it ED Stinks!! ED

POSSIBILISM MEANS THAT HUMANS NOT ONLY ADAPT TO, BUT ALSO CHANGE, THE ENVIRONMENT. THIS CAN BE GOOD OR BAD……………especially with modern technology

PHYSICAL PROCESSES Geographers need to be aware of these in order to understand the distribution of human activities and their impact on the environment Why people live where they do or how they make a living depends on these processes/forces What are these processes? Climate Vegetation Soil Landforms - pp.26-28

World Climate Regions Fig. 1-14: The modified Köppen system divides the world into five main climate regions.

Environmental Modification in the Netherlands
Fig. 1-15: Polders and dikes have been used for extensive environmental modification in the Netherlands.

Environmental Modification in Florida
Fig. 1-16: Straightening the Kissimmee River has had many unintended side effects.

C-38 Canal Florida The canal has carried water with agricultural runoff and pollution into Lake Okeechobee

Why are Different Places Similar?
ISSUE #3 Why are Different Places Similar?

S C A L E SPACE CONNECTIONS

SCALE Local level shows unique features
Stores, housing, hospitals At the global level shows broad patterns Where is rapid population growth? Where followers of different religions live It helps explain globalization (important!!!!!) (the “scale” of the world is shrinking)

Globalization of the Economy
Fig. 1-17: The Denso corporation is headquartered in Japan, but it has regional headquarters and other facilities in North America and Western Europe.

Globalization of Culture
Positives? Negatives?

SPACE: DISTRIBUTION OF FEATURES
an action at one point in space can result from something happening at another point in space, which can affect conditions in other places

DISTRIBUTION (the arrangement of a feature in space)
Students in GVHS are distributed (arranged) in classrooms….look at the following for our room: Density – frequency with which something occurs b. Concentration – extent of a feature’s spread over space (clustered or dispersed) c. Pattern – geometric arrangement of objects in space

Key aspects of Distribution are: Density, Concentration, & Pattern
Fig. 1-18: The density, concentration, and pattern (of houses in this example) may vary in an area or landscape.

Density and Concentration of Baseball Teams, 1952 & 2007
Fig. 1-19: The changing distribution of North American baseball teams illustrates the differences between density and concentration.

U.S. Baseball Teams, 1952 Fig. 1-19: Baseball teams were highly concentrated in the Northeast and Midwest in 1952.

U.S. Baseball Teams, 2007 Fig. 1-19: By 2007, U.S. baseball teams were much more dispersed than in 1952, and their number and density at a national level had increased.

1. What three things do geographers use to explain why different places are similar?
Which scale is more helpful in identifying global patterns, small or large? Why?

1. What three things do geographers use to explain why different places are similar? (scale, space, connections) 2. Which scale is more helpful in identifying global patterns, small or large? Why? (small, see global patterns)

CONNECTIONS More rapid connections have reduced the distance across space between places Space-Time Compression describes this reduction in time to reach other places SPACE TIME

= Rapid Change SPACE TIME

New technologies like email, phones, planes, television…
New technologies like , phones, planes, television….make people far away connected and aware of same cultural beliefs (geographers call this Spatial Interaction) These technologies affect space time compression

Space-Time Compression, 1492-1962
- Go to p.36 Fig. 1-20: The times required to cross the Atlantic, or orbit the earth, illustrate how transport improvements have shrunk the world.

Airline Route Networks
Fig. 1-21: Continental Airlines, like many others, has configured its route network in a “hub and spoke” system.

DIFFUSION This has all led to an increase in diffusion
The process by which a characteristic spreads from one place to another Hearth?

(know all 3 types – Hierarchical, Contagious, Stimulus)
TYPES OF DIFFUSION RELOCATION EXPANSION (know all 3 types – Hierarchical, Contagious, Stimulus) Spread by people moving Spread by snowballing process

WHICH TYPE OF DIFFUSION IS IT?
A rumor is started on the “web” that Michael Jackson is still alive and within 1 week most people believe it and spread the idea. The president begins to use a term that quickly becomes part of the every day language of the American people The invention of velcro by a shoe company that goes out of business but the idea of velcro continues to spread.

WHICH TYPE OF DIFFUSION IS IT?
A rumor is started on the “web” that Michael Jackson is still alive and within 1 week most people believe it and spread the idea. - Contagious The president begins to use a term that quickly becomes part of the every day language of the American people - Hierarchical The invention of velcro by a shoe company that goes out of business but the idea of velcro continues to spread. - Stimulus

AIDS Diffusion in the US, 1981-2002
Fig. 1-22: New AIDS cases were concentrated in three nodes in They spread through the country in the 1980s, but declined in the original nodes in the late 1990s.

New AIDS Cases, 1981 (per 100,000 population)

New AIDS Cases, 1993 (per 100,000 population)

New AIDS Cases, 2002 (per 100,000 population)

Cumulative AIDS Cases, 1981-2002

The AIDS Memorial Quilt

Chapter 01: Review

01.01 Which map would have the largest scale?
1. country 2. continent 3. state 4. city 5. world

01.01 Which map would have the largest scale?
1. country 2. continent 3. state 4. city 5. world

01.02 A place’s location relative to other objects or places is called its
1. Absolute location 2. Situation 3. Site 4. Dimension

01.02 A place’s location relative to other objects or places is called its
1. Absolute location 2. Situation 3. Site 4. Dimension

01.03 An object at 90 degrees north latitude is
1. At the North Pole 2. On the equator 3. At the Tropic of Cancer 4. At the Tropic of Capricorn 5. Closer to Australia than to Europe

01.03 An object at 90 degrees north latitude is
1. At the North Pole 2. On the equator 3. At the Tropic of Cancer 4. At the Tropic of Capricorn 5. Closer to Australia than to Europe

1. Humid subtropical 2. Humid continental 3. Humid tropical 4. Mediterranean 5. Marine west coast

1. Humid subtropical 2. Humid continental 3. Humid tropical 4. Mediterranean 5. Marine west coast

01.05 The International Date Line is approximately ___ degrees from the Prime Meridian.
1. 0 2. 45 3. 90 4. 180 5. 360

01.05 The International Date Line is approximately ___ degrees from the Prime Meridian.
1. 0 2. 45 3. 90 4. 180 5. 360

01.06 An area (think larger rather than smaller) with one or more unique and distinguishing characteristics is called a: 1. Locality 2. Situation 3. Site 4. Location 5. Region

01.06 An area with one or more unique and distinguishing characteristics is called a:
1. Locality 2. Situation 3. Site 4. Location 5. Region

01.07 The movement of money from one country to another and one currency to another has primarily been facilitated by 1. The leadership of the United States 2. Advances in electronic communications 3. The World Trade Organization 4. Transnational corporations 5. Global agreements brokered by the United Nations

01.07 The movement of money from one country to another and one currency to another has primarily been facilitated by 1. The leadership of the United States 2. Advances in electronic communications 3. The World Trade Organization 4. Transnational corporations 5. Global agreements brokered by the United Nations

01.08 Globalization 1. Decreases consumer preferences
2. Promotes the maintenance of traditional cultures 3. Benefits some countries more than others 4. Decreases communication across borders 5. Is tightly controlled by the United States

01.08 Globalization 1. Decreases consumer preferences
2. Promotes the maintenance of traditional cultures 3. Benefits some countries more than others 4. Decreases communication across borders 5. Is tightly controlled by the United States

01.09 The frequency an object appears in a given area is its
1. Distribution 2. Density 3. Relative location 4. Dispersion 5. Diffusion

01.09 The frequency an object appears in a given area is its
1. Distribution 2. Density 3. Relative location 4. Dispersion 5. Diffusion

01.10 That the physical environment causes social development is the core concept of
1. Cultural relativism 2. Possibilism 3. Cultural ecology 4. Environmental determinism 5. Stimulus diffusion

01.10 That the physical environment causes social development is the core concept of
1. Cultural relativism 2. Possibilism 3. Cultural ecology 4. Environmental determinism 5. Stimulus diffusion