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© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Basic Concepts of Sport Chapter 4 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Daryl.

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1 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Basic Concepts of Sport Chapter 4 Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Daryl Siedentop

2 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 2 Introductory points  Sport has been part of most civilized societies  Sport has been part of most civilized societies  It has been the focus of (intense) study since the mid 20 th Century, especially with the emergence of a national and world sport culture  It has been the focus of (intense) study since the mid 20 th Century, especially with the emergence of a national and world sport culture  Sport is a form of play impulse in all humans

3 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 3 Introductory points (cont’d.)  Your sport experiences likely contributed to you choosing a career in fitness, sport and/or Physical Education  Your sport experiences likely contributed to you choosing a career in fitness, sport and/or Physical Education  “Sport is important...” What numbers/data would support this claim?

4 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4 Sport: The Natural Religion  Novak (1976): “Sport is a natural religion” What makes it that way?

5 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5 Sport: The Natural Religion (cont’d.)  Sport has  Rituals  Costumes  Powers beyond one’s control  Figures who enforce rules  Opportunity to teach sacrifice, courage and perseverance  Heroes and heroines that we can strive to emulate  Rituals  Costumes  Powers beyond one’s control  Figures who enforce rules  Opportunity to teach sacrifice, courage and perseverance  Heroes and heroines that we can strive to emulate Can you point to examples of these in sport?

6 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 6 Sport: The Natural Religion (cont’d.)  Thus, sport has a religious nature. ... it can have deep personal meaning for people ... it can have deep personal meaning for people ... it can afford us the chance to find out who we are, and what we are capable of (Metheny, 1970) ... it can afford us the chance to find out who we are, and what we are capable of (Metheny, 1970) ... It is a force that can teach us about ourselves and our society (Sheed, 1995) ... It is a force that can teach us about ourselves and our society (Sheed, 1995)

7 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 7 Leisure, Play, Games, and Sport  Sport... What are its underlying motivations...? What shapes does it take...? How has it developed over time...? How is it related to concepts like leisure, play, games, and competition...? What are its underlying motivations...? What shapes does it take...? How has it developed over time...? How is it related to concepts like leisure, play, games, and competition...?

8 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 8 Leisure...  It is often viewed opposite of work  Work vs. Leisure:  Our attitude toward both  The type of activities we engage in  The time for both  Our attitude toward both  The type of activities we engage in  The time for both

9 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 9 Leisure... (cont’d.)  An attitude of freedom or release from demands of daily life  An attitude of freedom or release from demands of daily life  Compared to work, it is freely chosen, not obligatory  Compared to work, it is freely chosen, not obligatory  For some, an activity is viewed as leisure, for others, the same activity is pure work  For some, an activity is viewed as leisure, for others, the same activity is pure work Leisure is thought to be related to Play...

10 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10 Play...  Sport as a form of play  Child’s play and adult play

11 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 11 Play... (cont’d.)  Sport as a form of play  It is an institutionalized form of play  Play is a basic motivation in human activity ( Huizinga, 1962).  Play is a basic motivation in human activity ( Huizinga, 1962).  While play is different from work, it can absorb us as much as work

12 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 12 Play... (cont’d.)  Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga) :  It is free... voluntary  Separate... Occurs in specific places and times  Uncertain... If competition is even, the result is not known a priori, it increases playfulness  Uncertain... If competition is even, the result is not known a priori, it increases playfulness

13 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13 Play... (cont’d.)  Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga) :  Economically unproductive... The more wealth it produces, the less playful  Economically unproductive... The more wealth it produces, the less playful  Governed by rules or make believe... Though quite arbitrary, rules define the activity, help maintain fairness, and determine the outcome  Governed by rules or make believe... Though quite arbitrary, rules define the activity, help maintain fairness, and determine the outcome  Or governed by make believe... If there are no rules. Often, children will pretend to be Dwayne Wade or Venus Williams  Or governed by make believe... If there are no rules. Often, children will pretend to be Dwayne Wade or Venus Williams

14 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 14 Play... (cont’d.)  Thus, sport can be a form of play  While sport need not be playful, it must maintain elements of play it is to thrive  While sport need not be playful, it must maintain elements of play it is to thrive  Remember to think of play as a verb... ( e.g., I play golf)  Remember to think of play as a verb... ( e.g., I play golf) Play is a fundamental feature of human  Play is a fundamental feature of human behavior & can afford highly meaningful behavior & can afford highly meaningful experiences experiences Play is a fundamental feature of human  Play is a fundamental feature of human behavior & can afford highly meaningful behavior & can afford highly meaningful experiences experiences

15 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 15 Child’s Play & Adult Play...  How do adults play differently from children?  How do adults play differently from children? Children’s Play Adult Play Turbulence Gaiety Spontaneity Diversion Turbulence Gaiety Spontaneity Diversion Calculation Subordination Contrivance Ritual Practice & Training Skill & Strategy Calculation Subordination Contrivance Ritual Practice & Training Skill & Strategy

16 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16 Child’s Play & Adult Play... (cont’d.)  As players and their form of play mature, new challenges must be added  As players and their form of play mature, new challenges must be added Examples: 1. Course difficulty in golf 2. The shot-clock in basketball 3. Field size in baseball (e.g., little league vs. HS) 1. Course difficulty in golf 2. The shot-clock in basketball 3. Field size in baseball (e.g., little league vs. HS)  When sport loses its playfulness, the meaning is lessened for it participants  When sport loses its playfulness, the meaning is lessened for it participants

17 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 Games...  “Game” and “sport” are similar and related, but not the same...  “Game” and “sport” are similar and related, but not the same...  Not all games are sport,... but sport is always a game  Not all games are sport,... but sport is always a game  Games: derive from play, involve competition, have outcomes determined by skill, strategy, and/or chance  “Cooperative” (or non-competitive) game, is a contradiction in terms  “Cooperative” (or non-competitive) game, is a contradiction in terms

18 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 18 Games... Skill, Strategy, and Chance  Game outcomes determined mostly by chance are not really sport... (Examples?)  Game outcomes determined mostly by chance are not really sport... (Examples?)  Sport outcomes at times may be influenced by chance... (Examples?)  Games with strong strategic roles, but no physical skills are also not sport, but games... (Examples?).  Games with strong strategic roles, but no physical skills are also not sport, but games... (Examples?).

19 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 19 Games... And their Rules  Primary Rules: Those rules that define the game... Changes would alter the fundamental nature of the game  Primary Rules: Those rules that define the game... Changes would alter the fundamental nature of the game  Secondary rules: Define the institutionalized forms of the game, but preserve the fundamental nature of the game  Secondary rules: Define the institutionalized forms of the game, but preserve the fundamental nature of the game Can you think of examples for both type of rules? What makes baseball baseball, and not hockey?

20 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 20 Categorizing Sport Games  Using similarities in “primary rules” as a criterion, one can classify games as:  Using similarities in “primary rules” as a criterion, one can classify games as:  Territory (or Invasion) games  Target games  Court/Net games  Sector (or Striking & fielding) games  Territory (or Invasion) games  Target games  Court/Net games  Sector (or Striking & fielding) games  Some sports do not fit in this classification... What would be some examples?

21 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 21 Categorizing Sport Games (cont’d.)  Extreme Sports... reflect a desire to resist the values typically espoused in “traditional” sport  Extreme Sports... reflect a desire to resist the values typically espoused in “traditional” sport  New games evolve... (e.g., frisbee is gradually becoming a sport- Ultimate)  New games evolve... (e.g., frisbee is gradually becoming a sport- Ultimate) ... Yet Extreme Sports are also gradually becoming more institutionalized ... Yet Extreme Sports are also gradually becoming more institutionalized

22 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 22 Competition in Sport and Games  Zero-sum Competition  Two views of Competition:  A positive view to Competition:  To come together – a festivity  To seek competence (a strong motivation to continue participation).  To seek competence (a strong motivation to continue participation).  To be in a state of rivalry  Sport virtually has no zero-sum competition

23 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 23 The Institutionalization of Sport  See box 4.1 for how Extreme Sport gradually is being institutionalized  See box 4.1 for how Extreme Sport gradually is being institutionalized  New games start locally, and with growth in interest, it will gradually become more institutionalized  New games start locally, and with growth in interest, it will gradually become more institutionalized  Institutionalized sport spawns numerous supporting professionals (i.e., “without them there is no game at that level”)  Institutionalized sport spawns numerous supporting professionals (i.e., “without them there is no game at that level”) What are some examples of such support roles?

24 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 24 Codification of Rules & Referees  How a game is played is governed mostly by the established rules as well as its traditions that develop over time  How a game is played is governed mostly by the established rules as well as its traditions that develop over time  A sport with codified rules requires referees... to ensure fairness during competition  A sport with codified rules requires referees... to ensure fairness during competition  The more institutionalized the sport, the greater the need for training of officials and performance oversight *NFL example  The more institutionalized the sport, the greater the need for training of officials and performance oversight *NFL example

25 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 25 The Genesis of Sport Organizations  Sport organizations and conferences develop to aid the process of determining season champions.  Sport organizations and conferences develop to aid the process of determining season champions.  Organizations design & oversee competition schedule, arrange facilities, recruit officials, etc.  Organizations design & oversee competition schedule, arrange facilities, recruit officials, etc.  The more institutionalized the sport, the greater the need for full-time personnel in such organizations... Hence the emergence of which professions?  The more institutionalized the sport, the greater the need for full-time personnel in such organizations... Hence the emergence of which professions? Sport Management, Promotion, & Admin.

26 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 26 The Importance of Records  Records: define performance, excellence, become the standard show what humans are capable of define its heroes and heroines  Records: define performance, excellence, become the standard show what humans are capable of define its heroes and heroines What record-setting performances have you witnessed? Which stand out most for you? What record-setting performances have you witnessed? Which stand out most for you?

27 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 27 The Public Nature of Institutionalized Sport The Public Nature of Institutionalized Sport  The more popular a sport, the more attention is paid... Hence, the emergence & growth of professions such as sport journalism and broadcasting  The more popular a sport, the more attention is paid... Hence, the emergence & growth of professions such as sport journalism and broadcasting  Consider the explosive growth in sport literature and sport-related movies  Consider the explosive growth in sport literature and sport-related movies  Sport is central to our culture and life

28 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 28 Sport Spectating  Is watching a lot of sport a bad thing?  A spectator is also (oftentimes!) a fan who is deeply rooted to a particular team(s)  A spectator is also (oftentimes!) a fan who is deeply rooted to a particular team(s)  A sense of belonging...  How can watching sport be an educational experience? (i.e., Helping the spectator become more informed)  How can watching sport be an educational experience? (i.e., Helping the spectator become more informed)

29 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 29 Sport Aesthetics  “Sport is people’s Art”  Sport has a long historic link with art  Is sport as a “performance art” any different from drama, dance and music?  Is sport as a “performance art” any different from drama, dance and music?  Is turning a double play in baseball any less artful than a Pas de Deux in Ballet? (Frank Deford, 2008)  Is turning a double play in baseball any less artful than a Pas de Deux in Ballet? (Frank Deford, 2008)

30 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 30 Sport Aesthetics (cont’d.)  Aesthetics in Form Sports  What would be examples of “form sports?”  Performances are judged  What to judge in the performance?... Form, grace, flow, rhythm, poise, harmony, level of difficulty, etc.... Form, grace, flow, rhythm, poise, harmony, level of difficulty, etc.

31 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 31 Sport Aesthetics (cont’d.)  Aesthetics in other sports  So can there be artistry in the other sports?  Wherein lies the artistic beauty in soccer or golf?  Wherein lies the artistic beauty in soccer or golf? a well-developed body in motion a well executed play of maneuver a dramatic competition the unity of the entire performance (from Carlisle, 1974) a well-developed body in motion a well executed play of maneuver a dramatic competition the unity of the entire performance (from Carlisle, 1974)

32 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 32 Sport Ethics  Ethics... How people ought to behave  In Sport we refer to sporting behavior or fair play  In Sport we refer to sporting behavior or fair play  Many assume that sport inherently results in ethical behavior of players, coaches and others  Many assume that sport inherently results in ethical behavior of players, coaches and others  Fair play stands squarely opposite to the “win at all cost” behavior  Fair play stands squarely opposite to the “win at all cost” behavior

33 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 33 Sport Ethics: Rules and the Nature of Games (cont’d.) Sport Ethics: Rules and the Nature of Games (cont’d.)  Referees/officials oversee that intentional rule violations are minimized to ensure fair and balance competition  Referees/officials oversee that intentional rule violations are minimized to ensure fair and balance competition  Cheating in sport is on the rise... Examples?  Cheating in sport is on the rise... Examples? Within a game or contest? Outside the game itself?

34 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 34 The Developmental Potential of Sport  Potential developmental benefits leads parents to guide children to sport  Potential developmental benefits leads parents to guide children to sport  Clubs and out-of-school community organizations are venues for this... Generally, inclusive  Clubs and out-of-school community organizations are venues for this... Generally, inclusive  Well run programs have positive impacts (Policy Studies Associates, 2006)  Well run programs have positive impacts (Policy Studies Associates, 2006)  The people in such programs are key...

35 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 35 Discussion Questions 1. How do important local sport events, such as a high school football game, show the characteristics of sport as a natural religion? 1. How do important local sport events, such as a high school football game, show the characteristics of sport as a natural religion?

36 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 36 Discussion Questions 2. Can scholarship and professional athletes still be engaged in play when they are playing in sport? Explain your answer. 2. Can scholarship and professional athletes still be engaged in play when they are playing in sport? Explain your answer.

37 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 37 Discussion Questions 3. To what extent does the game- classification system depend on similarities and differences in primary rules? 3. To what extent does the game- classification system depend on similarities and differences in primary rules?

38 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 38 Discussion Questions 4. How do views of competition among the general public differ from views among athletes themselves?

39 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 39 Discussion Questions 5. What kind of rules and practices should be adopted in school sports to ensure that competition is as good as it can be?

40 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 40 Discussion Questions 6. What kind of sport events pr performances have you found to be aesthetically pleasing? What about them has caused you to react this way? 6. What kind of sport events pr performances have you found to be aesthetically pleasing? What about them has caused you to react this way?

41 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 41 Discussion Questions 7. What personal experiences have you had that highlight controversial issues in sport ethics? How did you and other people involved react? 7. What personal experiences have you had that highlight controversial issues in sport ethics? How did you and other people involved react?

42 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 42 Discussion Questions 8. Are extreme sports a passing fancy or are they here to stay? Explain your reason for your position. 8. Are extreme sports a passing fancy or are they here to stay? Explain your reason for your position.

43 © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 43 Discussion Questions 9. How would you define cheating in the sports that you play?


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