Presentation on theme: "Basic Concepts of Sport"— Presentation transcript:
1Basic Concepts of Sport Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and SportDaryl SiedentopChapter 4Basic Concepts of Sport
2Introductory pointsSport has been part of most civilizedsocietiesIt has been the focus of (intense) studysince the mid 20th Century, especiallywith the emergence of a national andworld sport cultureSport is a form of play impulse in all humans
3What numbers/data would support this claim? Introductory points (cont’d.)Your sport experiences likely contributedto you choosing a career in fitness, sportand/or Physical Education“Sport is important . . .”What numbers/data would support this claim?
4Sport: The Natural Religion Novak (1976): “Sport is a natural religion”What makes it that way?
5Sport: The Natural Religion (cont’d.) Sport hasRitualsCostumesPowers beyond one’s controlFigures who enforce rulesOpportunity to teach sacrifice, courage and perseveranceHeroes and heroines that we can strive to emulateCan you point to examples of these in sport?
6Sport: The Natural Religion (cont’d.) Thus, sport has a religious nature.. . . it can have deep personal meaningfor people. . . it can afford us the chance to find outwho we are, and what we are capable of(Metheny, 1970). . . It is a force that can teach us aboutourselves and our society (Sheed, 1995)
7Leisure, Play, Games, and Sport What are its underlying motivations . . .?What shapes does it take . . .?How has it developed over time . . .?How is it related to concepts like leisure, play,games, and competition . . .?
8Leisure . . .It is often viewed opposite of workWork vs. Leisure:Our attitude toward bothThe type of activities we engage inThe time for both
9Leisure (cont’d.)An attitude of freedom or release fromdemands of daily lifeCompared to work, it is freely chosen, notobligatoryFor some, an activity is viewed as leisure,for others, the same activity is pure workLeisure is thought to be related to Play. . .
10Play . . .Sport as a form of playChild’s play and adult play
11Play (cont’d.)Sport as a form of playIt is an institutionalized form of playPlay is a basic motivation in human activity( Huizinga, 1962).While play is different from work, it can absorb us as much as work
12Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga): Play (cont’d.)Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga):It is free . . .voluntarySeparate Occurs in specific places and timesUncertain If competition is even, the resultis not known a priori, it increases playfulness
13Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga): Play (cont’d.)Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga):Economically unproductive . . .The more wealth it produces, the less playfulGoverned by rules or make believe . . .Though quite arbitrary, rules define the activity, helpmaintain fairness, and determine the outcomeOr governed by make believe . . .If there are no rules. Often, children will pretendto be Dwayne Wade or Venus Williams
14Thus, sport can be a form of play Play (cont’d.)Thus, sport can be a form of playWhile sport need not be playful, it mustmaintain elements of play it is to thriveRemember to think of play as a verb . . .(e.g., I play golf)Play is a fundamental feature of humanbehavior & can afford highly meaningfulexperiences
15Child’s Play & Adult Play . . . How do adults play differently fromchildren?Children’s Play Adult PlayTurbulenceGaietySpontaneityDiversionCalculationSubordinationContrivanceRitualPractice & TrainingSkill & Strategy
16Child’s Play & Adult Play . . . (cont’d.) As players and their form of playmature, new challenges must be addedExamples:Course difficulty in golfThe shot-clock in basketballField size in baseball (e.g., little league vs. HS)When sport loses its playfulness, themeaning is lessened for it participants
17“Game” and “sport” are similar and related, but not the same . . . Games . . .“Game” and “sport” are similar andrelated, but not the same . . .“Cooperative” (or non-competitive) game,is a contradiction in termsNot all games are sport, . . .but sport is always a gameGames: derive from play, involve competition, have outcomes determined by skill, strategy, and/or chance
18Games . . . Skill, Strategy, and Chance Game outcomes determined mostly bychance are not really sport (Examples?)Sport outcomes at times may be influenced by chance (Examples?)Games with strong strategic roles, but nophysical skills are also not sport, but games. . . (Examples?).
19Primary Rules: Those rules that define Games And their RulesPrimary Rules: Those rules that definethe game Changes would alter thefundamental nature of the gameSecondary rules: Define theinstitutionalized forms of the game, butpreserve the fundamental nature of thegameCan you think of examples for both type of rules?What makes baseball baseball, and not hockey?
20Categorizing Sport Games Using similarities in “primary rules” as acriterion, one can classify games as:Territory (or Invasion) gamesTarget gamesCourt/Net gamesSector (or Striking & fielding) gamesSome sports do not fit in this classification. . . What would be some examples?
21Categorizing Sport Games (cont’d.) New games evolve (e.g., frisbee isgradually becoming a sport- Ultimate)Extreme Sports reflect a desire to resistthe values typically espoused in “traditional”sport. . . Yet Extreme Sports are also graduallybecoming more institutionalized
22Competition in Sport and Games Two views of Competition:Zero-sum CompetitionA positive view to Competition:To come together – a festivityTo seek competence(a strong motivation to continue participation).To be in a state of rivalrySport virtually has no zero-sum competition
23The Institutionalization of Sport See box 4.1 for how Extreme Sport gradually isbeing institutionalizedNew games start locally, and with growth ininterest, it will gradually become moreinstitutionalizedInstitutionalized sport spawns numeroussupporting professionals (i.e., “withoutthem there is no game at that level”)What are some examples of such support roles?
24Codification of Rules & Referees How a game is played is governed mostly by theestablished rules as well as its traditions thatdevelop over timeA sport with codified rules requires referees. . . to ensure fairness during competitionThe more institutionalized the sport, thegreater the need for training of officialsand performance oversight *NFL example
25The Genesis of Sport Organizations Sport organizations and conferences developto aid the process of determining season champions.Organizations design & oversee competitionschedule, arrange facilities, recruit officials, etc.The more institutionalized the sport, thegreater the need for full-time personnel in suchorganizations Hence the emergence ofwhich professions?Sport Management, Promotion, & Admin.
26The Importance of Records define performance, excellence,become the standardshow what humans are capable ofdefine its heroes and heroinesWhat record-setting performanceshave you witnessed? Which stand out mostfor you?
27Institutionalized Sport The Public Nature ofInstitutionalized SportThe more popular a sport, the moreattention is paid Hence, the emergence& growth of professions such as sportjournalism and broadcastingConsider the explosive growth in sportliterature and sport-related moviesSport is central to our culture and life
28Sport SpectatingIs watching a lot of sport a bad thing?How can watching sport be an educationalexperience? (i.e., Helping the spectator become more informed)A spectator is also (oftentimes!) a fan whois deeply rooted to a particular team(s)A sense of belonging . . .
29“Sport is people’s Art” Sport Aesthetics“Sport is people’s Art”Is turning a double play in baseball anyless artful than a Pas de Deux in Ballet?(Frank Deford, 2008)Sport has a long historic link with artIs sport as a “performance art” any differentfrom drama, dance and music?
30Sport Aesthetics (cont’d.) Aesthetics in Form SportsWhat would be examples of “form sports?”Performances are judgedWhat to judge in the performance?. . . Form, grace, flow, rhythm, poise,harmony, level of difficulty, etc.
31Sport Aesthetics (cont’d.) Aesthetics in other sportsSo can there be artistry in the other sports?Wherein lies the artistic beauty in socceror golf?a well-developed body in motiona well executed play of maneuvera dramatic competitionthe unity of the entire performance(from Carlisle, 1974)
32Sport EthicsEthics How people ought to behaveIn Sport we refer to sporting behavior orfair playMany assume that sport inherently resultsin ethical behavior of players, coachesand othersFair play stands squarely opposite to the“win at all cost” behavior
33Rules and the Nature of Games (cont’d.) Sport Ethics:Rules and the Nature of Games (cont’d.)Referees/officials oversee that intentionalrule violations are minimized to ensurefair and balance competitionCheating in sport is on the rise . . .Examples?Within a game or contest?Outside the game itself?
34The Developmental Potential of Sport Potential developmental benefits leadsparents to guide children to sportClubs and out-of-school communityorganizations are venues for this . . .Generally, inclusiveWell run programs have positive impacts(Policy Studies Associates, 2006)The people in such programs are key . . .
35Discussion Questions How do important local sport events, such as a high school football game,show the characteristics of sport as anatural religion?
36Discussion QuestionsCan scholarship and professional athletes still be engaged in play when they are playing in sport?Explain your answer.
37Discussion Questions To what extent does the game- classification system depend onsimilarities and differences inprimary rules?
38Discussion QuestionsHow do views of competition among the general public differ from views among athletes themselves?
39Discussion QuestionsWhat kind of rules and practices should be adopted in school sports to ensure that competition is as good as it can be?
40Discussion QuestionsWhat kind of sport events pr performances have you found to be aesthetically pleasing?What about them has caused you to react this way?
41Discussion QuestionsWhat personal experiences have you had that highlight controversial issues in sport ethics?How did youand other peopleinvolved react?
42Discussion QuestionsAre extreme sports a passing fancy or are they here to stay?Explain your reason foryour position.
43Discussion Questions9. How would you define cheating in the sports that you play?