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Basic Concepts of Sport

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1 Basic Concepts of Sport
Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport Daryl Siedentop Chapter 4 Basic Concepts of Sport

2 Introductory points Sport has been part of most civilized societies It has been the focus of (intense) study since the mid 20th Century, especially with the emergence of a national and world sport culture Sport is a form of play impulse in all humans

3 What numbers/data would support this claim?
Introductory points (cont’d.) Your sport experiences likely contributed to you choosing a career in fitness, sport and/or Physical Education “Sport is important . . .” What numbers/data would support this claim?

4 Sport: The Natural Religion
Novak (1976): “Sport is a natural religion” What makes it that way?

5 Sport: The Natural Religion (cont’d.)
Sport has Rituals Costumes Powers beyond one’s control Figures who enforce rules Opportunity to teach sacrifice, courage and perseverance Heroes and heroines that we can strive to emulate Can you point to examples of these in sport?

6 Sport: The Natural Religion (cont’d.)
Thus, sport has a religious nature. . . . it can have deep personal meaning for people . . . it can afford us the chance to find out who we are, and what we are capable of (Metheny, 1970) . . . It is a force that can teach us about ourselves and our society (Sheed, 1995)

7 Leisure, Play, Games, and Sport
What are its underlying motivations . . .? What shapes does it take . . .? How has it developed over time . . .? How is it related to concepts like leisure, play, games, and competition . . .?

8 Leisure . . . It is often viewed opposite of work Work vs. Leisure: Our attitude toward both The type of activities we engage in The time for both

9 Leisure (cont’d.) An attitude of freedom or release from demands of daily life Compared to work, it is freely chosen, not obligatory For some, an activity is viewed as leisure, for others, the same activity is pure work Leisure is thought to be related to Play. . .

10 Play . . . Sport as a form of play Child’s play and adult play

11 Play (cont’d.) Sport as a form of play It is an institutionalized form of play Play is a basic motivation in human activity ( Huizinga, 1962). While play is different from work, it can absorb us as much as work

12 Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga):
Play (cont’d.) Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga): It is free . . .voluntary Separate Occurs in specific places and times Uncertain If competition is even, the result is not known a priori, it increases playfulness

13 Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga):
Play (cont’d.) Callois’ definition of Play (based on Huizinga): Economically unproductive . . . The more wealth it produces, the less playful Governed by rules or make believe . . . Though quite arbitrary, rules define the activity, help maintain fairness, and determine the outcome Or governed by make believe . . . If there are no rules. Often, children will pretend to be Dwayne Wade or Venus Williams

14 Thus, sport can be a form of play
Play (cont’d.) Thus, sport can be a form of play While sport need not be playful, it must maintain elements of play it is to thrive Remember to think of play as a verb . . . (e.g., I play golf) Play is a fundamental feature of human behavior & can afford highly meaningful experiences

15 Child’s Play & Adult Play . . .
How do adults play differently from children? Children’s Play Adult Play Turbulence Gaiety Spontaneity Diversion Calculation Subordination Contrivance Ritual Practice & Training Skill & Strategy

16 Child’s Play & Adult Play . . . (cont’d.)
As players and their form of play mature, new challenges must be added Examples: Course difficulty in golf The shot-clock in basketball Field size in baseball (e.g., little league vs. HS) When sport loses its playfulness, the meaning is lessened for it participants

17 “Game” and “sport” are similar and related, but not the same . . .
Games . . . “Game” and “sport” are similar and related, but not the same . . . “Cooperative” (or non-competitive) game, is a contradiction in terms Not all games are sport, . . . but sport is always a game Games: derive from play, involve competition, have outcomes determined by skill, strategy, and/or chance

18 Games . . . Skill, Strategy, and Chance
Game outcomes determined mostly by chance are not really sport (Examples?) Sport outcomes at times may be influenced by chance (Examples?) Games with strong strategic roles, but no physical skills are also not sport, but games . . . (Examples?).

19 Primary Rules: Those rules that define
Games And their Rules Primary Rules: Those rules that define the game Changes would alter the fundamental nature of the game Secondary rules: Define the institutionalized forms of the game, but preserve the fundamental nature of the game Can you think of examples for both type of rules? What makes baseball baseball, and not hockey?

20 Categorizing Sport Games
Using similarities in “primary rules” as a criterion, one can classify games as: Territory (or Invasion) games Target games Court/Net games Sector (or Striking & fielding) games Some sports do not fit in this classification . . . What would be some examples?

21 Categorizing Sport Games (cont’d.)
New games evolve (e.g., frisbee is gradually becoming a sport- Ultimate) Extreme Sports reflect a desire to resist the values typically espoused in “traditional” sport . . . Yet Extreme Sports are also gradually becoming more institutionalized

22 Competition in Sport and Games
Two views of Competition: Zero-sum Competition A positive view to Competition: To come together – a festivity To seek competence (a strong motivation to continue participation). To be in a state of rivalry Sport virtually has no zero-sum competition

23 The Institutionalization of Sport
See box 4.1 for how Extreme Sport gradually is being institutionalized New games start locally, and with growth in interest, it will gradually become more institutionalized Institutionalized sport spawns numerous supporting professionals (i.e., “without them there is no game at that level”) What are some examples of such support roles?

24 Codification of Rules & Referees
How a game is played is governed mostly by the established rules as well as its traditions that develop over time A sport with codified rules requires referees . . . to ensure fairness during competition The more institutionalized the sport, the greater the need for training of officials and performance oversight *NFL example

25 The Genesis of Sport Organizations
Sport organizations and conferences develop to aid the process of determining season champions. Organizations design & oversee competition schedule, arrange facilities, recruit officials, etc. The more institutionalized the sport, the greater the need for full-time personnel in such organizations Hence the emergence of which professions? Sport Management, Promotion, & Admin.

26 The Importance of Records
define performance, excellence, become the standard show what humans are capable of define its heroes and heroines What record-setting performances have you witnessed? Which stand out most for you?

27 Institutionalized Sport
The Public Nature of Institutionalized Sport The more popular a sport, the more attention is paid Hence, the emergence & growth of professions such as sport journalism and broadcasting Consider the explosive growth in sport literature and sport-related movies Sport is central to our culture and life

28 Sport Spectating Is watching a lot of sport a bad thing? How can watching sport be an educational experience? (i.e., Helping the spectator become more informed) A spectator is also (oftentimes!) a fan who is deeply rooted to a particular team(s) A sense of belonging . . .

29 “Sport is people’s Art”
Sport Aesthetics “Sport is people’s Art” Is turning a double play in baseball any less artful than a Pas de Deux in Ballet? (Frank Deford, 2008) Sport has a long historic link with art Is sport as a “performance art” any different from drama, dance and music?

30 Sport Aesthetics (cont’d.)
Aesthetics in Form Sports What would be examples of “form sports?” Performances are judged What to judge in the performance? . . . Form, grace, flow, rhythm, poise, harmony, level of difficulty, etc.

31 Sport Aesthetics (cont’d.)
Aesthetics in other sports So can there be artistry in the other sports? Wherein lies the artistic beauty in soccer or golf? a well-developed body in motion a well executed play of maneuver a dramatic competition the unity of the entire performance (from Carlisle, 1974)

32 Sport Ethics Ethics How people ought to behave In Sport we refer to sporting behavior or fair play Many assume that sport inherently results in ethical behavior of players, coaches and others Fair play stands squarely opposite to the “win at all cost” behavior

33 Rules and the Nature of Games (cont’d.)
Sport Ethics: Rules and the Nature of Games (cont’d.) Referees/officials oversee that intentional rule violations are minimized to ensure fair and balance competition Cheating in sport is on the rise . . . Examples? Within a game or contest? Outside the game itself?

34 The Developmental Potential of Sport
Potential developmental benefits leads parents to guide children to sport Clubs and out-of-school community organizations are venues for this . . . Generally, inclusive Well run programs have positive impacts (Policy Studies Associates, 2006) The people in such programs are key . . .

35 Discussion Questions How do important local sport events,
such as a high school football game, show the characteristics of sport as a natural religion?

36 Discussion Questions Can scholarship and professional athletes still be engaged in play when they are playing in sport? Explain your answer.

37 Discussion Questions To what extent does the game-
classification system depend on similarities and differences in primary rules?

38 Discussion Questions How do views of competition among the general public differ from views among athletes themselves?

39 Discussion Questions What kind of rules and practices should be adopted in school sports to ensure that competition is as good as it can be?

40 Discussion Questions What kind of sport events pr performances have you found to be aesthetically pleasing? What about them has caused you to react this way?

41 Discussion Questions What personal experiences have you had that highlight controversial issues in sport ethics? How did you and other people involved react?

42 Discussion Questions Are extreme sports a passing fancy or are they here to stay? Explain your reason for your position.

43 Discussion Questions 9. How would you define cheating in the sports that you play?

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