Presentation on theme: "The Roaring Twenties 1920s US Population: 105,273,049 (at beginning of decade) By the end of the decade: 122,288,177 The U.S. Census Bureau projected."— Presentation transcript:
The Roaring Twenties
1920s US Population: 105,273,049 (at beginning of decade) By the end of the decade: 122,288,177 The U.S. Census Bureau projected that on Jan. 1, 2014, the United States population will be 317,297,938.
Unemployment 1920s: 2,132, % Unemployment 2003: 6% Unemployment as of March 2014: 6.6% Unemployment 1990s: 5.7%
1920s life expectancy: Males: 53.6 years Females: 54.6 years For those born in 2010 in U.S.A (of all races): Males: 76 yearsFemales: 81 years
1920s number of people in the military: 343,000 (down from 1,172,601 in 1919) Currently: 1.42 million in active Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, Coast Guard 851,000 in Reserves, Army and Air Force National Guard
Average Annual Salary: $1236 Equivalent today to: $12,741.38
Prior to 1920s: World War I US Economy goes Global Technology takes off Immigration Act of 1917 Red Scare
United States emerges from WWI as the dominant figure in World Trade Much money to be made in investments: rich get richer.
19 th Amendment-Ratified in August of 1920 Ensures no US citizen will be denied the right to vote based on gender.
Technology brings electricity, gas, and running water to the cities.
Number of American farms with electricity by the end of the decade was: 10% Number of farms with running water by the end of the decade was: 33%
Roads that had been paved for motor cars between cities left small towns isolated from the rest of the country.
Rural people were also cut off from colleges, which were becoming more and more necessary as new skills were required for industry.
Rural America is left behind. For the first time in American History, more people lived in urban areas than in rural. Four million farmers quit in the 1920s to move to urban areas
What else took off in the twenties ? Department stores Band-Aids Advertising billboards and commercials Kleenex Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade La-Z-Boy Loungers Fast Food Wonder bread Velveeta Wheaties Gerber Baby Food
18 th Amendment-Ratified on January 16, 1919 This made illegal: the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes. The Volstead Act of 1919 defined alcohol as any drink having an alcoholic content above 0.5 percent.
This led to the era known as Prohibition. Its goal, in theory, was to reduce crime, poverty, the prison systems, death and disease rate, corruption, and other social problems. Many historians believe it was a WASP backlash to exert superiority over minorities, a reaction to the overwhelming immigration of the first part of the century.
Problems: Very hard to enforce Led to development of organized crime
By 1925, there were an estimated 100,000 Speakeasies in New York City. Underpaid police officers were easily bribed into warning these Speakeasies about raids and feigning oblivion about the mob.
Speakeasies united citizens of various ethnic backgrounds when nothing else could.
The most famous of the Speakeasy of the 1920s was Al Capone.
THE FLAPPER During the 1920s, a new ideal emerged for some women: the Flapper A Flapper was an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes
New found freedom led to the rise of the so-called “flapper”:
Hair gradually became shorter over the course of the decade.
Picture from a fashion magazine circa 1923.
The current generation did not invent baggy pants.
This is the cover of a 1925 clothing company featuring the latest in men’s suits.
SECTION 3: EDUCATION AND POPULAR CULTURE During the 1920s, developments in education had a powerful impact on the nation Enrollment in high schools quadrupled between 1914 and 1926 Public schools met the challenge of educating millions of immigrants
EXPANDING NEWS COVERAGE As literacy increased, newspaper circulation rose and mass- circulation magazines flourished By the end of the 1920s, ten American magazines -- including Reader’s Digest and Time – boasted circulations of over 2 million
This issue of Life has a flapper on the cover. By 1925, when this magazine was originally published, organized sports were very popular. College football was really a big deal, as was golf and baseball, but professional football was taking off as well.
RADIO COMES OF AGE Although print media was popular, radio was the most powerful communications medium to emerge in the 1920s News was delivered faster and to a larger audience Americans could hear the voice of the president or listen to the World Series live
While people listened to the premiere jazz musicians of the day, they danced all kinds of new dances, including the Charleston.
LINDBERGH’S FLIGHT America’s most beloved hero of the time wasn’t an athlete but a small-town pilot named Charles Lindbergh Lindbergh made the first nonstop solo trans- atlantic flight He took off from NYC in the Spirit of St. Louis and arrived in Paris 33 hours later to a hero’s welcome
Aviation is huge, due to the war and later, Charles Lindbergh.
The Jazz Age The Meaning Of Jazz Total improvisational style, meant liberation for both the artist and the audience.Total improvisational style, meant liberation for both the artist and the audience. Expressed the desire to break with tradition.Expressed the desire to break with tradition. –Jazz becomes the symbol of the new “American rebel.” 1920s Jazz Band
The Jazz Age Background Music form developed in New Orleans by black musicians near the turn of the century.Music form developed in New Orleans by black musicians near the turn of the century. A purely American creation, relied on traditional black themes and improvisation.A purely American creation, relied on traditional black themes and improvisation. Would spread throughout America and be adopted by white musicians and audiences.Would spread throughout America and be adopted by white musicians and audiences. Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong Louis_Armstrong_restored.jpg
LOUIS ARMSTRONG Jazz was born in the early 20 th century In 1922, a young trumpet player named Louis Armstrong joined the Creole Jazz Band Later he joined Fletcher Henderson’s band in NYC Armstrong is considered the most important and influential musician in the history of jazz
AFRICAN- AMERICAN PERFORMERS During the 1920s, black performers won large followings Paul Robeson, son of a slave, became a major dramatic actor His performance in Othello was widely praised
EDWARD KENNEDY “DUKE” ELLINGTON In the late 1920s, Duke Ellington, a jazz pianist and composer, led his ten-piece orchestra at the famous Cotton Club Ellington won renown as one of America’s greatest composers
BESSIE SMITH Bessie Smith, blues singer, was perhaps the most outstanding vocalist of the decade She achieved enormous popularity and by 1927 she became the highest- paid black artist in the world
Radio Background Developed in the late 1800s, would be used for the military during World War I.Developed in the late 1800s, would be used for the military during World War I. First commercial radio station is created in 1920 with KDKA in Pittsburgh.First commercial radio station is created in 1920 with KDKA in Pittsburgh. KDKA In The Roaring Twenties
Movies Early Films First major film: The Great Train Robbery, 1903.First major film: The Great Train Robbery, First major epic: Birth Of A Nation, 1915.First major epic: Birth Of A Nation, –Directed by D.W. Griffiths, was about the Reconstruction South. The Great Train Robbery
Movies Early Films First talking movie: The Jazz Singer, 1927.First talking movie: The Jazz Singer, –Stars Al Jolson, sees Jolson in black face in parts. Scene From The Jazz Singer The Jazz Singer Movie Poster
ENTERTAINMENT AND ARTS Even before sound, movies offered a means of escape through romance and comedy First sound movies: Jazz Singer (1927) First animated with sound: Steamboat Willie (1928) By 1930 millions of Americans went to the movies each week Walt Disney's animated Steamboat Willie marked the debut of Mickey Mouse. It was a seven minute long black and white cartoon.
Movies Early Films Other key films.Other key films. The Four Horsemen Of The Apocalypse (1920), The Sheik (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief Of Baghdad (1924), The Torrent (1926), The Hunchback Of Notre Dame (1923), The Phantom Of The Opera (1925), Ben-Hur (1925), Wings (1927), Steamboat Willie (1928).The Four Horsemen Of The Apocalypse (1920), The Sheik (1921), Robin Hood (1922), The Thief Of Baghdad (1924), The Torrent (1926), The Hunchback Of Notre Dame (1923), The Phantom Of The Opera (1925), Ben-Hur (1925), Wings (1927), Steamboat Willie (1928). Phantom Of The Opera %20THE%20PHANTOM%20OF%20THE%20OPERA%20(1925)%20(2).jpg Steamboat Willie The Sheik
Movies Success As An Art Form Originally only accepted by immigrants and low-income families.Originally only accepted by immigrants and low-income families. –Most people who could afford it went to plays, instead going to “nickelodeons” = s –Most people who could afford it went to plays, instead going to “nickelodeons” = small, simple theaters charged five cents for admission and flourished from about 1905 to Old 1920s Nickelodeon Aj4/XLKABRUau4o/s1600/the-spoilers-sm.jpg
Movies Success As An Art Form Developed into an art form.Developed into an art form. –Actors, actresses, writers, and producers from Broadway begin to make the crossover. Bring their professionalism and training techniques to the big screen.Bring their professionalism and training techniques to the big screen. –New techniques are introduced, including close-ups, panoramic shots, lighting effects, and fade-out, capturing the realism of human emotion. 1920s Broadway Show
Movies Success As An Art Form Targeted themes popular with the general public.Targeted themes popular with the general public. –Most of the more successful movies incorporated one or more of the following themes into the story: crime, war, romance, comedy, and luxury.
Movies Key Figures Of The Silent & Early Golden Age Animator.Animator. –Walt Disney. Walt Disney & Mickey Mouse
Movies Key Figures Of The Silent & Early Golden Age Directors, producers, companies.Directors, producers, companies. –Columbia Pictures, RKO, Republic, Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer, Universal Pictures, United Artists, Warner Brothers, Paramount, 20th Century Fox. –D.W. Griffith, Cecil B. DeMille, Erich von Stroheim. D.W. Griffith Cecil B. DeMille Erich von Stroheim
Movies Key Figures Of The Silent & Early Golden Age Charlie Chaplin.Charlie Chaplin. –Created the character known as “The Tramp,” combined comedy with satire and realism. –Key movies included The Tramp, The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, and The Great Dictator. Charlie Chaplin As The Tramp
MUSIC AND ART Famed composer George Gershwin merged traditional elements with American Jazz Painters like Edward Hopper depicted the loneliness of American life Georgia O’ Keeffe captured the grandeur of New York using intensely colored canvases Gershwin Hopper’s famous “Nighthawks” Radiator Building, Night, New York, 1927 Georgia O'Keeffe
Golden Age Of Sports Emergence Of The Superstar Defined.Defined. –Key sports figures who dominated their sports and captured the public attention. 1920s Wheaties Ad Featuring Babe Ruth
Golden Age Of Sports Boxing: Jack Dempsey The “Manassas Mauler,” dominated the Twenties with knockouts.The “Manassas Mauler,” dominated the Twenties with knockouts. Greatest fight: Dempsey vs. Tunney.Greatest fight: Dempsey vs. Tunney. –Lasted fifteen rounds, with Tunney dominating the bloody bout. Jack Dempsey atures/profiles/d/jack-dempsey/features/0/image.jpg
Golden Age Of Sports Tennis & Golf Tennis: “Big Bill” Tilden.Tennis: “Big Bill” Tilden. Golf: Bobby Jones.Golf: Bobby Jones. –The Tiger Woods of the era, would win both the American and British titles in Big Bill Tilden Bobby Jones
Golden Age Of Sports Swimming: Gertrude Ederle & Johnny Weissmuller Ederle was the first woman to swim the English Channel.Ederle was the first woman to swim the English Channel. Weissmuller won 5 Olympic Gold Medals and 1 Bronze, would go on to play the title role of Tarzan in 12 movies.Weissmuller won 5 Olympic Gold Medals and 1 Bronze, would go on to play the title role of Tarzan in 12 movies. Johnny Weissmuller content/uploads/weismuller-tarzan.jpg Gertrude Ederle ww2.com/gertrude_ederle_92w.jpg
Golden Age Of Sports Football: Knute Rockne & Red Grange College football was king, not the newly formed National Football League.College football was king, not the newly formed National Football League. People associated with their alma mater or their hometown college.People associated with their alma mater or their hometown college. Fight songs, mascots, and histories begin to develop.Fight songs, mascots, and histories begin to develop. Beginning of the Bowl games between champions of opposing leagues.Beginning of the Bowl games between champions of opposing leagues. Red Grange nge_1925.jpg Knute Rockne
Golden Age Of Sports Football: Knute Rockne & Red Grange Rockne was the legendary coach of Notre Dame, leading the college to six national championships and a record before his untimely death in a plane crash in 1931.Rockne was the legendary coach of Notre Dame, leading the college to six national championships and a record before his untimely death in a plane crash in Four Horsemen Of Notre Dame
Golden Age Of Sports Football: Knute Rockne & Red Grange Grange was the most dominant running back, perhaps ever.Grange was the most dominant running back, perhaps ever. –Averaged over 10 yards per carry in college, setting the then-single- game record of 268 yards. –The only player ever to score four touchdowns on four consecutive carries. –Played for the Bears in 1925, earning $42,000 for his first two games. Red Grange
Golden Age Of Sports Baseball: George Herman “Babe” Ruth Baseball’s Golden Age.Baseball’s Golden Age. –Hall of Fame names included Lou Gehrig, Walter Johnson, Tris Speaker, Grover Alexander, Eddie Collins, George Sisler, Mickey Cochrane, Frankie Frisch, Lefty Grove, Carl Hubbell, Pie Traynor, Jimmie Foxx, Mel Ott, Paul “Big Poison” Waner, Lloyd “Little Poison” Waner, Dizzy Dean, Rabbit Maranville, Bill Terry, Ted Lyons, Max Carey, Edd Roush, and others. The Waner Brothers
Golden Age Of Sports Baseball: George Herman “Babe” Ruth Although this was baseball’s Golden Age and the largest number of Hall of Famers came from this era, none were bigger than Ruth.Although this was baseball’s Golden Age and the largest number of Hall of Famers came from this era, none were bigger than Ruth. Known as the “Sultan of Swat,” is perhaps the most well-known sports figure in any sport ever.Known as the “Sultan of Swat,” is perhaps the most well-known sports figure in any sport ever. The Babe
In 1929, Americans spent $4.5 billion on entertainment (includes sports) People crowded into baseball games to see their heroes Babe Ruth was a larger than life American hero who played for Yankees He hit 60 homers in 1927
Golden Age Of Sports Baseball: George Herman “Babe” Ruth Started his career in Boston as a pitcher, but had a talent for hitting home runs.Started his career in Boston as a pitcher, but had a talent for hitting home runs. –Soon moved to the outfield so that he could play everyday. –Would be traded to the Yankees in 1920 by Red Sox owner Harry Frizzee in order to fund a Broadway play (which failed in a week). –Ruth would go on to lead the Yankees to seven American League pennants and 4 World Series championships. –The “Curse of the Bambino” would plague the Red Sox from 1919 until their first World Series win in Classic Babe Home Run Pose /images/babe-ruth.jpg
WRITERS OF THE 1920S The 1920s was one of the greatest literary eras in American history Sinclair Lewis, the first American to win the Nobel Prize in literature, wrote the novel, Babbitt In Babbitt the main character ridicules American conformity and materialism
WRITERS OF THE 1920s Writer F. Scott Fitzgerald coined the phrase “Jazz Age” to describe the 1920s Fitzgerald wrote Paradise Lost and The Great Gatsby The Great Gatsby reflected the emptiness of New York elite society
WRITERS OF THE 1920S Edith Warton’s Age of Innocence dramatized the clash between traditional and modern values Willa Cather celebrated the simple, dignified lives of immigrant farmers in Nebraska in My Antonia
THE LOST GENERATION Some writers such as Hemingway and John Dos Passos were so soured by American culture that they chose to settle in Europe In Paris they formed a group that one writer called, “The Lost Generation” John Dos Passos self – portrait. He was a good amateur painter.
WRITERS OF THE 1920 Ernest Hemingway, wounded in World War I, became one of the best-known authors of the era In his novels, The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms, he criticized the glorification of war His simple, straightforward style of writing set the literary standard Hemingway
THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE Between 1910 and 1920, the Great Migration saw hundreds of thousands of African Americans move north to big cities By 1920 over 5 million of the nation’s 12 million blacks (over 40%) lived in cities Migration of the Negro by Jacob Lawrence
Harlem Renaissance Impact Of Ghetto Life: World War I –Wanted more equality, freedom, political participation, and opportunity. –Now settled into large, concentrated communities that would be referred to as ghettoes. Harlem Hellfighters Returning From WWI
Harlem Renaissance Impact Of Ghetto Life Even though life was hard in the ghetto, it did produce some advantages.Even though life was hard in the ghetto, it did produce some advantages. –Enabled African-Americans to elect representatives of their own by having one solid voting block. –Stimulated self-confidence, offering economic opportunity, political rights, and freedom. –A “black world” where African-Americans could act like themselves and develop their own culture. Harlem Ghetto In The 1920s
Harlem Renaissance Why Harlem? Largest Black city in the world, would become the cultural capital of Blacks, as well as a place for Whites to flock to experience jazz and other forms of African-American culture.Largest Black city in the world, would become the cultural capital of Blacks, as well as a place for Whites to flock to experience jazz and other forms of African-American culture. The Famous Cotton Club I/AAAAAAAACYU/jbiZjTgXYbY/s1600/cottoncb.jpg
HARLEM, NEW YORK Harlem, NY became the largest black urban community Harlem suffered from overcrowding, unemployment and poverty However, in the 1920s it was home to a literary and artistic revival known as the Harlem Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance Writers Expressed a range of emotions from bitterness to joy and hope.Expressed a range of emotions from bitterness to joy and hope. Included Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, and James Weldon Johnston.Included Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, and James Weldon Johnston. Langston Hughes 1OwcuI9Xi7A/TwpH5If4qEI/AAAAAAAAESI/SqyzXsiPKOo/s1600/Langston%2BHughes.jpg
AFRICAN AMERICAN WRITERS The Harlem Renaissance was primarily a literary movement Led by well-educated blacks with a new sense of pride in the African- American experience Claude McKay’s poems expressed the pain of life in the ghetto Mckay
LANGSTON HUGHES Missiouri-born Langston Hughes was the movement’s best known poet Many of his poems described the difficult lives of working-class blacks Some of his poems were put to music, especially jazz and blues
ZOLA NEALE HURSTON Zola Neale Hurston wrote novels, short stories and poems She often wrote about the lives of poor, unschooled Southern blacks She focused on the culture of the people– their folkways and values