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Chapter 1 The History of Sport Management. Introduction Roots of Sport Management Structures Management structures include clubs, leagues, professional.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 The History of Sport Management. Introduction Roots of Sport Management Structures Management structures include clubs, leagues, professional."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 The History of Sport Management

2 Introduction Roots of Sport Management Structures Management structures include clubs, leagues, professional tournaments Primary theme of chapter –Evolution resulting from broad social changes and/or to address specific issues Secondary themes: –Honest play and inclusion

3 The Club System England –Birthplace of modern sport and sport management 18th century –Development of sport clubs with limited membership 19th century –Continued club evolution with standardizing of rules, settling disputes, and organizing schedules

4 Thoroughbred Racing Races drew broad and diverse audience – No admission charged Local club system initially –Racing existed for entertainment only, not financial gain 1830s –Rail system allowed horses to compete nationally Desire of owners to breed and train fast horses and the increasing complexity of gambling lead to more complex club system

5 The Jockey Club Settled disputes, established rules, determined eligibility, designated officials, regulated breeding, and punished unscrupulous participants Organized, sponsored, and promoted local events Met need for a strong national governing body to establish rules, standards, and a mechanism for resolving disputes Served as model for wider sport management practices in England

6 The Modern Olympic Games International club event, with little resemblance to ancient Olympic Games First Modern Olympics in 1896, but the revival can be traced back to at least 1850 with club-based Olympic festivals in England Founder Pierre de Coubertin, inspired by English revivals and Victorian notions of character building and peace movements through sport, introduced concept of amateur Olympic Games every 4 years

7 Present-Day Club Structure Commitment to serve broad membership and manage elite sport enterprise Clubs organize youth teams and academies, adult recreational leagues, and social events for members Large built-in memberships and loyal fan bases Characterized by nonprofit status and exclusive membership –Augusta and male-only membership Change from European club system to U.S. league system

8 American Structures European club system did not suit the United States –Lack of aristocratic tradition and prohibition against gambling Evolution of harness racing, sport of the common person Better spectator sport –Sprint vs. 4-mile race; horses could compete daily, large field of competitors Managed by track owners and race promoters –Willing to create spectator interest for sport Issues of race fixing, management lacking credibility

9 Leagues Baseball was first to adopt league system Cincinnati Red Stockings: First pro team Some teams in the league paid and some did not— created controversy 1871: Creation of National Association of Professional Baseball Players Importance of “breakeven” financial interests of individual clubs © Jones and Bartlett Publishers

10 William Hulbert Czar of baseball 1876: Took over management of National League of Professional Baseball Players Believed stability achieved only if teams were run like businesses Teams should compete against each other and not collude –Understood that without strict rules forcing honest competition, collusion would occur

11 William Hulbert (cont.) Also believed: Owners must take some financial risk: –Abandoning seasons early to prevent losses in short term eroded long-term faith of public Owners must field competitive teams to be profitable. Integrity of baseball was suspect as long as the players’ honesty was questionable: –Gambling prohibited and ticket prices raised

12 Success of League Excitement of pennant race Favorable media attention Appealed to fans’ loyalty and pride in their cities Early form of revenue sharing Rules that distributed talent

13 Leagues Today Successful contemporary commercial sport leagues depend on consolidated league play with strong centralized control and regulation Audience has changed –Public’s perception of locus of honest effort resides more with the players than with ownership structure Single-entity structures: MLS, MLL, AFL

14 Professional Sport Tournaments Professional Golf Early golf professionals were instructors and caddies. Professional leagues failed to capture public interest or attract golf professionals. Attempts to generate gate revenues at tournaments failed. Stability of tournaments was achieved when prize money was put up by companies and corporate sponsors. © LiquidLibrary

15 Corcoran’s Tournaments Fred Corcoran: Architect of golf tournament Golf tournament was medium through which celebrity, politician, manufacturer, charity, town, or product gained exposure Used athletes and golf tournaments to sell advertising space to the public Bing Crosby and Bob Hope created charity golf tournaments in pro-am format for WWII fund-raising

16 Corcoran’s Tournaments Continue After War Ends Good business = Tax deductions Charities encourage volunteers and good publicity for tournaments Golf equipment manufacturers paid Corcoran to create golfer association and arrange tournaments using prize money as player payments to reduce cost of hiring player representatives 1950s press changes policy and begins naming tournament sponsor not location = free publicity

17 Tournaments Today Golf tournaments have evolved into corporate celebrations of golf and products PGA Tour viewed as private group –Set rules of eligibility Associations not as exclusive as private clubs (Casey Martin) Trend moving away from nonprofit private associations and toward marketing agencies and/or broadcast media

18 Importance of Women Heraea Games: –The Sixteen Women Intercollegiate Sport: –Christine Grant and Judy Sweet National Intramural-Recreation Sports Association (NIRSA): –Anette Akins, Mary Daniels, Juliette Moore

19 Importance of Women in Sport Management Sport management industry: –Effa Manley of Newark Eagles (Negro League) –Billie Jean King (WTT, WSF) –Lesa France Kennedy (NASCAR) –Stephanie Tolleson (IMG) –Dawn Hudson (PepsiCo)

20 Academic Field Continuing growth of sport industry and its importance to numerous sponsors and institutions created demand for the systematic study of sport management practices. –1957: Walter O’Malley –1966: James Mason; first master’s program at Ohio –1971: University of Massachusetts

21 Academic Field (cont.) Current status –More than 210 programs nationwide –North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) –Program evaluation –Globalization Sport management degree programs throughout Europe SMAANZ EASM

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