Presentation on theme: "The Black Sox Scandal The 1919 World Series. The History of Baseball Adopted the “reserve clause” in 1879. Guaranteed a club a player’s services for as."— Presentation transcript:
The History of Baseball Adopted the “reserve clause” in 1879. Guaranteed a club a player’s services for as long as it wished. It kept players from earning their market value. Without a union, the players had to accept the wages they were give.
The American League Created in 1899 by Charles Comiskey and Ban Johnson (right). Created a governing body called The National Commission. Created The World Series in 1903.
The National Commission Was a weak governing body Often times was questioned for its decisions regarding gambling and disputes between teams claiming players.
Gambling and Baseball Gambling had existed in baseball since the founding of the game in the early 1860s. Gambling and the throwing of games was generally ignored by the National Commission. A policy of “looking the other way” and “sweeping things under the carpet.”
Chick Gandil The “ringleader” of the Black Sox Contacted the gamblers and organized the fix. Gathered the 7 other players Made $35,000 for his role. Made only $4,000 for the season.
Swede Risberg Starting shortstop A tough, hard-nosed person. Known as an intimidating man. Only got 2 hits in 25 at- bats in the series. Also made for 4 errors. Got paid $15,000 for his role in the fix. Made $3,250 in salary in 1919.
Happy Felsch A good, young hitter and outfielder had his best season in 1919. Didn’t want to participate in the fix, but knew he couldn’t stop it, so figured he’d get in on the action. Made $5,000 in the fix. Made $4,000 in salary in 1919.
Eddie Cicotte The “Ace” of the Sox Led the A.L. in Wins, Innings Pitched, and Winning Percentage in 1919. Paid $10,000 before game 1 of the series. Made $6,000 in salary in 1919. Didn’t get his bonus. Lost 2 of 3 games in World Series.
Lefty Williams Also one of the best pitchers in the A.L. in 1919, best season of career. Also didn’t want in on the fix, but Gandil told him they’d go on without him, so he agreed. Made $5,000 for his role in the fix Made only $2,500 in salary in 1919 making him one of the lowest paid players on the Sox. Set a World Series record with 3 losses.
“Shoeless” Joe Jackson The best and most recognizable player on the Sox. A bona-fide legend and superstar. His participation in the fix is disputed. He was paid $5,000 for his role in the fix. Was allegedly promised $20,000 by Gandil. Hit a series-best.375 with 12 hits and made no errors. Made $6,000 in salary in 1919. Considered one of the best hitters, ever.
Buck Weaver One of baseball’s best third basemen in 1919. Made $6,000 in salary in 1919. Was invited to join in fixing the series, but declined. He was present at 2 of the “meetings” and never told anyone about it. Hit.324 and committed no errors in the series. Was not paid for fixing the series and denied his involvement.
Fred McMullin Utility-man for the Sox Only made 2 at-bats in the series and got 1 hit. Was paid $5,000 for his role in the fix. Made $2,750 during the 1919 season.
Joseph “Sport” Sullivan A Boston-based gambler who conspired with Gandil to fix the series. Reached out to New York crime boss, Arnold Rothstein, to finance the fix.
“Sleepy” Bill Burns Former Major League pitcher who worked for Sullivan. Was in charge of getting the money to the players.
Arnold Rothstein New York-based gambler and Jewish mafia boss. Reportedly bankrolled the fix. Also made a great deal of money betting on the series.
Abe Attell Former featherweight boxing world champion who was an enforcer for Rothstein. Allegedly was responsible for getting the money for the players from Rothstein to Sullivan and Burns. Double-crossed the players.