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Baseball. Origins of Baseball Baseball is defined as a competitive game of athletic skill played with a hard ball and a bat by two opposing nine-player.

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Presentation on theme: "Baseball. Origins of Baseball Baseball is defined as a competitive game of athletic skill played with a hard ball and a bat by two opposing nine-player."— Presentation transcript:

1 Baseball

2 Origins of Baseball Baseball is defined as a competitive game of athletic skill played with a hard ball and a bat by two opposing nine-player teams. It is widely regarded as the American national sport and is among the earliest professional games in the U.S. Baseball is extremely popular in America and around the world.

3 Origins of Baseball The game attracts millions of fans to parks and stadiums to watch games daily. Millions more follow the games on television, radio or read about them in newspapers. It is also played by millions – amateurs of all ages – high school, college, little league.

4 Origins of Baseball The actual origins of the game are obscure – although the modern game developed in the U.S. Most historians agree that baseball originated out of cricket – a game played in Great Britain. Similarities exist – both have bat and ball and use bases.

5 Origins of Baseball By the end of the 18 th century, several versions of baseball were being played in the U.S. The games were called “One Old Cat”, “Town Ball”, “New York Ball”. At first, stakes were used for bases, but injuries led to the use of sand filled sacks.

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8 Origins of Baseball The sacks were nicknamed “bases” and thus the game earned a common name – “baseball”. In 1839, Abner Doubleday then a cadet in the U.S. Military Academy established ground rules. Set the field up in the shape of a diamond and placed the bases 60-feet apart.

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11 Origins of Baseball This first field was created in Cooperstown, New York – and is the current home of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. In 1845 – Alexander Joy Cartwright contributed to the rules of the game and developed it to how it is played today.

12 Origins of Baseball Cartwright was a member of the New York Knickerbockers baseball team and played their first game on June 19, Game was played in Hoboken, NJ – Knickerbockers lost 23-1 to the New York Nine. Two years later, “plugging” was removed as a rule – or hitting a runner with the ball.

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14 Origins of Baseball In 1849, the Knickerbockers became the first team to introduce baseball uniforms. Baseball became increasingly popular in the U.S. between 1850 and In 1859 the first collegiate game was played between Amherst College and Williams College – Amherst won.

15 YOUR TURN TO WRITE How is baseball defined? Why was the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum established in Cooperstown, NY? Who played in the first baseball game, who won? Who played the first collegiate baseball game, who won?

16 Professional Baseball Grows Professional baseball was introduced in 1869 by the Cincinnati Red Stockings. Other professional clubs were organized in various parts of the country and in 1871 the National Association of Professional Baseball Players was organized.

17 Professional Baseball Grows Teams were represented from Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Brooklyn, New York, and Cleveland among others. Early in 1876, a new league, called the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs was established, causing the original Association to collapse.

18 Professional Baseball Grows The National League (NL) still exists today and originally consisted of teams from Boston, Philadelphia, New York, St. Louis, Chicago and Cincinnati. Other leagues formed, but represented smaller cities and towns and were referred to as “minor leagues”.

19 Professional Baseball Grows In 1882 the American Association was created as a major league, and in 1884 the National League champion played the American Association champion in the first series of postseason games. However, the American Association folded in In 1900, the American League (AL) was founded consisting of teams in Chicago, Milwaukee, Cleveland, Detroit, Washington, Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore.

20 Professional Baseball Grows The AL demanded the NL recognize it as an equal. The NL refused, causing the AL to raid their players. The AL signed 111 NL players forcing the NL to recognize them as an equal.

21 Professional Baseball Grows In 1903, the first playoff series between the champion of the NL and the champion of the AL in the first World Series. The Boston Americans won that series 5 games to 3 over the Pittsburgh Pirates. Boston was led by star pitcher Cy Young who won 511 career games – a MLB record.

22 Professional Baseball Grows Young is also recognized today through the Cy Young Award which is given to the best pitchers in the AL and NL each year.

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26 YOUR TURN TO WRITE Review the notes – why is the National League sometimes called “The Senior Circuit”? How did the American League force the National League to recognize it as an equal? Who was Cy Young and what is his legacy?

27 Baseball Politics Scandal hit Major League Baseball in 1919 World Series between Chicago White Sox and Cincinnati Reds. Eight Chicago players conspired with gamblers to bring about the defeat of their own team. The subsequent so-called Black Sox scandal resulted in public demands for stricter control.

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29 Baseball Politics An Advisory Council was established headed by a commissioner. The first commissioner was Kenesaw Mountain Landis – who held the position until his death in Today, the MLB commissioner is Bud Selig who has served since 1992.

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32 Baseball Politics The baseball commissioner is elected by the club owners for a 5-year term. The commissioner has the authority to investigate any action regarded as harmful to the sport of baseball. Commissioner may also penalize with fines or suspensions the personnel involved.

33 Baseball Politics Many players have been banned for life – among the more famous is Pete Rose who was banned for gambling. There have been numerous attempts to unionize baseball. One of the earliest successes was in 1946 when the American Baseball Guild was established.

34 Baseball Politics The ABG negotiated with a team of owners for a number of reforms. Including the establishment of a players’ pension fund that came from revenues from All-Star games and World Series. Since 1966 players’ rights and benefits have been protected by the Major League Baseball Players Association.

35 Baseball Politics Brief work stoppages occurred in 1985 and 1990 with few or no games being canceled. However, on August 12, 1994 the players began what became the longest strike in the history of professional sports. The main issue was the owners’ plan to impose a salary cap – which limits team’s salaries.

36 Baseball Politics No settlement was agreed on and the remainder of the season was canceled. For the first time since 1904 no World Series was played. Owners fielded teams of replacement players who played exhibition games in spring of 1995.

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38 Baseball Politics Days before the start of the 1995 season a judge ordered an injunction that blocked the owners salary cap. On April 2, the owners accepted an offer by the players to return ending the 234-day strike. The 1995 season was shortened to 144- games.

39 Baseball Politics To this day Major League Baseball has no salary cap leading to lopsided team payrolls around the league. In 2008 the New York Yankees had a team payroll of $209 million – the Florida Marlins had $21 million. The NFL, NBA and NHL all have salary caps.

40 YOUR TURN TO WRITE What powers does the commissioner of baseball have? What was significant about the players strike in 1994? What scandal in 1919 changed the way baseball is governed?

41 Dead Ball Era What was the dead ball era? – It was a time in baseball before the home run was king. The dead ball era refers to a period in baseball characterized by extremely low-scoring games. In fact, it was the lowest-scoring period in major league baseball history.

42 Dead Ball Era Although baseball historians disagree of the exact dates the general consensus is that it began in about 1903 and continued until about For example Chicago White Sox won 93 games, took home the American League pennant, and eventually prevailed in the World Series.

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44 Dead Ball Era They did all this while batting just.230, and hitting a mere 7 home runs. The Cubs won back to back World Series titles in 1907 and 1908 despite hitting just.248 and managing just 32 homers. The two Chicago teams were more the rule than the exception.

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49 Dead Ball Era In St. Louis, the Cardinals had one of the worst three year offensive runs in baseball history from 1906 until During that three year span, the team hit.235,.232 and.223. They averaged just 15 dingers a year and scored a lowly 2.6 runs per game – no steroids here…

50 Dead Ball Era There were three main factors contributing to the dead ball era. The first factor is the ball - The baseball used by both leagues had a rubber ball at its center and was wrapped quite loosely compared to modern baseballs. Most games were played with one ball – it became worn out.

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52 Dead Ball Era The second factor was the spitball - lubed up the baseball with saliva, vaseline, tobacco juice or any other substance that would make the ball wetter and heavier. The spit ball could be thrown with the speed of a fastball, but dance and move like a knuckleball.

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54 Dead Ball Era The third factor was popular baseball strategy – most teams played “small ball.” Batters didn't swing for the fences - they feared striking out above all else. Solid contact, good base running, sacrifices, hitting behind runners and driving singles and doubles were the key points of the game.

55 Dead Ball Era The dead-ball era ended suddenly - by 1921, offenses were scoring 40% more runs and hitting four times as many home runs as they did in Baseball historians have debated as to why the change occurred – there are a few different theories.

56 Dead Ball Era The first theory claims that owners replaced the ball with a newer, livelier ball – to boost offense and ticket sales. The second theory is based on the fact that the spitball was outlawed at this time. More baseballs were being used per game too because of injury concerns – new balls were not worn out.

57 Dead Ball Era A fourth theory is that ball park dimensions changed – stadiums became smaller and homeruns did not have to travel as far. The last theory was based on one man – Babe Ruth. Ruth’s free-swinging mentality changed the record books and how batters approached hitting.

58 YOUR TURN TO WRITE Explain (in detail!) the three main factors that contributed to the dead ball era. Explain (in detail!) at least three main factors that contributed to the end of the dead ball era.

59 Dead Ball Legends Christy Mathewson became the darling of the professional baseball world in the early 1900s. Intelligent, hard-working and clean-living, Mathewson gave baseball a clean image. He had tremendous poise and a killer out- pitch—his famous “fadeaway” (a screwball).

60 Dead Ball Legends Mathewson led the New York Giants to new levels of success between 1900 and His three shutouts against the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1905 World Series is a feat of nearly unimaginable scope. He wrote a book - Pitching in a Pinch (1912) and his frequent newspaper contributions made him very popular.

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63 Dead Ball Legends Ty Cobb was the dominant player during the second half of the dead-ball era and the first southerner to attain superstar status. Described by historians as a “psychopath on spikes,” and nicknamed “The Georgia Peach”. Cobb battled everyone, including his own teammates, both on and off the field of play.

64 Dead Ball Legends Cobb batted over.400 three times during his 24-year career and retired with the highest career batting average of any player (.366) in major-league history. A betting scandal led to his departure from the game in the late 1920s. Died at 74 in 1961, only three representatives from organized baseball attended his funeral.

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66 Dead Ball Legends Tips from Ty Cobb: – Leave an inch or more space between your hands allows you to place your hits. – Don’t pull a curve ball from a right-hander – the ball is revolving away from you. – If high fast balls inside bother you – crouch over from the waist to force the pitcher to throw lower. – Never pull a speedy left-hander, and move up in the box and always pull a slower left-hander.

67 Dead Ball Legends Cobb wasn’t alone during the dead ball era – there were other players who had a dirty image. John McGraw, Baltimore Orioles impeded base runners by blocking them or pulling on their belts, and maddened umpires and the opposition with his short fuse and sharp tongue.

68 Dead Ball Legends Jake “Eagle Eye” Beckley used the hidden ball trick - hiding the baseball under a corner of first base and then tagging base runners out. Ed Walsh used spitball to post a 40-win season and pitched 464 innings. The spitball is thrown by wetting your fingers so there is minimal contact with the baseball – reduces spin and ball drops dramatically.

69 Dead Ball Legends Jack Norworth wrote “Take Me Out to the Ball Game” in Norworth was an actor and wrote the song without ever attending an actual game. Norworth attended his first game in 1940 – but his lyrics captured the essence of what games were all about.

70 Dead Ball Legends Cigarettes were sold with a carboard “stiffener” to keep the pack from being crushed. Most people simply threw these “stiffeners” away when they were out of cigarettes. Executive tobacco owners began printing pictures and messages on the “stiffeners” to persuade people to buy their cigarettes.

71 Dead Ball Legends The pictures and names of baseball players became the most popular of the cards. This eventually led to baseball cards as we know them today – boomed in the 1960s. Baseball cards are collectables and can be very expensive – a 1909 Honus Wagner card sold for over $2 million.

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73 YOUR TURN TO WRITE Imagine Ty Cobb played baseball today. In your opinion, how would sports media, like ESPN treat him? How would fans around the country treat him? Would kids idolize him? Explain your answer. If you had the money – what would you pay $2 million dollars for?

74 Babe Ruth George Herman Ruth Jr., was born on February 6, 1895 in Baltimore, Md. He was one of eight children – however only two survived past infancy – George and Mamie. He had a hard childhood and eventually ended up in a Catholic orphanage.

75 Babe Ruth A mischievous boy, George latched on to Brother Matthias at the orphanage. Matthias helped George with growing up and with baseball. His talent was clear early on – especially as a pitcher for his school baseball team.

76 Babe Ruth When he was 19-years old, Jack Dunn owner and manager of the Baltimore Orioles signed George to a contract. When he was introduced to his new team, the other Orioles called him “Jack’s newest babe.” Thus the nickname stuck – Babe Ruth.

77 Babe Ruth Ruth played his first full season with the Boston Red Sox in He went 18-8 as a pitcher and hit his first four homeruns – The Red Sox won 101 games and the World Series. He followed up the 1915 season by going with 9 shutouts in 1916.

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79 Babe Ruth In 1918, Ruth still was pitching with success – but led the league in home runs too with 11. In 1919 Ruth pitched less and played outfield more – broke the season record for homers with 29. This was his last season with the Red Sox.

80 Babe Ruth In 1920, the Boston Red Sox sold Ruth to the New York Yankees. The Yankees would go on to win 39 AL Pennants and 26 World Series Titles – the Red Sox did not win a World Series until During most of the 20 th century this was referred to as “The Curse of the Bambino”.

81 Babe Ruth His first year with the Yankees, Ruth hit 54 home runs and batted.376 – only the Philadelphia Phillies team hit more homers. On July 18, 1921 Ruth hit his 139 th homer breaking the career record of homers set by Roger Connor. His homers were majestic blasts – traveling feet.

82 Babe Ruth Recent historians claim that under current rules of baseball – Ruth would have hit 104 homers in After 1921 season, Ruth began having off field problems Yankees moved from the Polo Grounds to Yankee Stadium – “The House that Ruth Built”.

83 Babe Ruth That same year the Yankees won their first World Series over the New York Giants the Yankees and Ruth experienced their greatest year – won World Series and Ruth hit 60 home runs – a new record. In 1932 an older Ruth hit his last World Series homer – a “called shot” 490-feet at Wrigley Field.

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85 Babe Ruth Ruth was traded to Boston Braves in 1935 – and was named team Vice President. On May 25 th, Ruth went 4-4 hit 3 homers in an 11-7 loss to Pittsburgh – his last homers. He finished with 714 – at the time an MLB record.

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87 Babe Ruth In 1936 Ruth was one of the first five players elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame. In 1946 he was diagnosed with a malignant tumor in his neck – Yankees held a ceremony on April 27, 1947 for him. He died on August 16, 1948.

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90 YOUR TURN TO WRITE Write a Babe Ruth tribute. Include the following terms: Brother Matthias, Jack Dunn, “The House that Ruth Built”, 60 home runs, 1927, Boston Red Sox, Boston Braves, New York Yankees.

91 Jackie Robinson Since 1889, Major League Baseball had been segregated – no black players could play. In 1947, Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers broke the color line. From there, Robinson would go on to have an exceptional baseball career.

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93 Jackie Robinson Jack Roosevelt “Jackie” Robinson was born on January 31, 1919 in Cairo, Georgia. He was the youngest of five children, and was raised by his mother – father left. Grew up in poverty, and was a tremendous natural athlete – starring in football, basketball, track, and baseball.

94 Jackie Robinson Jackie attended UCLA in 1939 – and became the school’s first athlete to win varsity letters in four sports. His football teammates at UCLA included Woody Strode and Kenny Washington. Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and Jackie was drafted into the U.S. Army.

95 Jackie Robinson In the Army he struggled to get into Officer Candidate School because of race. He was also court-martialed for an incident involving race on a bus. He was acquitted by an all-white panel and received an honorable discharge in 1944.

96 Jackie Robinson In 1945, Jackie joined the Kansas City Monarchs – a Negro League baseball team. Branch Rickey – club president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers began to scout him. Rickey was looking for African-American baseball talent and Robinson was the guy.

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98 Jackie Robinson In 1946 Robinson enjoyed a successful Minor League season with the Montreal Royals. On April 15, 1947 Robinson made his debut with the Dodgers – 27,000 in attendance – 14,000 were black. Immediately the nation became divided over whether or not Robinson should play.

99 Jackie Robinson Robinson faced racial behavior from home fans, visiting fans, opponents and teammates. He was banned from staying in certain hotels were the rest of his team stayed. The St. Louis Cardinals threatened to strike if Robinson played – NL President Ford Frick threatened them with suspension.

100 Jackie Robinson Despite the abuse, Jackie hit.297, scored 125 runs and stole 29 bases in In 1948 the Dodgers had three other black players, and Larry Doby and Satchel Paige were playing in Cleveland. Robinson seemed to relax a bit from some pressure being taken off – he exploded in 1949.

101 Jackie Robinson Robinson won the NL MVP – and the Dodgers made it to the World Series. The song, “Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball?” went to #13 on the charts. By 1950 his $35,000 salary was the highest ever in Dodgers history.

102 Jackie Robinson He starred as himself in the movie – The Jackie Robinson Story. Robinson also got the five-star Chase Park Hotel in St. Louis integrated. In 1955, Robinson won his only World Series championship – Dodgers beat the Yankees.

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104 Jackie Robinson Robinson was traded to the Giants for Dick Littlefield and $35,000 – but retired from baseball. He was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962 – first African-American. Struggled with heart disease and died at age 53 in 1972.

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106 Jackie Robinson His legacy is long and distinguished – voted second most popular man in the country in named by Time magazine on the list of the 100 most influential people of 20 th century MLB named the Rookie of the Year Award the Jackie Robinson Award.

107 Jackie Robinson In 1997 Jackie’s #42 was retired by all Major League teams – no one can wear it anymore. UCLA baseball plays in the Jackie Robinson Stadium. April 15 th is Jackie Robinson Day around baseball – players wear #42 that day in his honor.

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111 YOUR TURN TO WRITE Imagine YOU are Jackie Robinson and it is one hour before your first game as a Brooklyn Dodger. Write a diary entry discussing your feelings and expectations before your first game.

112 Women in Baseball The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was founded by Philip K. Wrigley and existed from The teams generally played in second-tier Midwestern cities. The league started when America entered WWII – most men went to fight.

113 Women in Baseball The league held the initial tryouts at Wrigley Field in Chicago in The league played a version of baseball that was a hybrid of softball and baseball. The ball was 12-inches in circumference – baseball’s are 9 to 9.25 inches.

114 Women in Baseball The pitcher’s mound was only forty feet from home plate – much closer than the 60-feet-6- inches baseball has. Like softball, pitchers threw underhand windmill, and distance between bases was 65 feet. But there were similarities – nine player teams, and a pitcher’s mound.

115 Women in Baseball As the league went on, more rules were gradually modified to more closely resemble baseball. The ball eventually became the same size of a normal baseball – and the mound was moved back to 60 feet. Basepaths were also extended to 85 feet – and overhand pitching was allowed.

116 Women in Baseball The players were required to wear short skirts during play – and lipstick at all times. Each player also was required to have long hair and at no time could they wear pants. In 1947 the league enjoyed their most successful season – 1,000,000 fans.

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120 Batter up! Hear that call! The time has come for one and all To play ball. We come from cities near and far. We've got Canadians, Irishmen and Swedes, We're all for one, we're one for all We're All-Americans! Each girl stands, her head so proudly high, Her motto 'Do or Die.' She's not the one to use or need an alibi. Our chaperones are not too soft, They're not too tough, Our managers are on the ball. We've got a president who really knows his stuff, We're all for one, we're one for all, We're All-Americans!

121 Women in Baseball The Rockford Peaches won the most league championships with four (1945, 1948, 1949, 1950). Milwaukee/Grand Rapids Chicks, Racine Belles, South Bend Blue Sox and Kalamazoo Lassies won the others. In 1992 the movie A League of Their Own covered the founding of the league.

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123 Women in Baseball The movie starred Tom Hanks, Rosie O’Donnell, Madonna and Geena Davis. Although the AAGPBL was the first professional women’s baseball league, women had played baseball before. The first known women’s team played at Vassar College in 1866.

124 Women in Baseball The league was dissolved when men returned from war and television was introduced. Currently there are no women playing professional baseball in the United States. In 1994 the Colorado Silver Bullets were a professional women’s team – toured to U.S. and played Minor League teams.

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126 Women in Baseball In 1997 the Ladies League Baseball consisted of four teams – San Jose Spitfire, Long Beach Aces, Phoenix Peppers and Los Angeles Legends. They intended to play a 56-game schedule but low attendance, high insurance costs and high stadium rents forced the league to fold.

127 YOUR TURN TO WRITE Do you believe that a women’s professional baseball league would ever be able to exist and sustain success today? Why or why not?

128 Baseball’s Golden Age In 1958 New York baseball market was ripped apart. Yankees had become the dominant draw – and the Dodgers and Giants looked west for new markets. In 1961 the Washington Senators moved to Minnesota and became the Twins.

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134 Baseball’s Golden Age Television also revolutionized the game. For the first time fans could watch their favorite teams and players play the game without listening to the radio. NBC established a “Game of the Week” to highlight the best game on each Saturday.

135 Baseball’s Golden Age Also in 1961 Roger Maris of the Yankees broke Babe Ruth’s record of 60 home runs in one season with 61. In 1962 expansion continued – Houston Colt.45’s and the New York Mets were created – Kansas City Royals and Seattle Pilots were added to the league.

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137 Baseball’s Golden Age The Pilots played in Seattle for one season before moving to Milwaukee and became the Brewers. Montreal Expos and San Diego Padres also were created in In 1972 the Senators moved from Washington again – this time to Texas and became the Rangers.

138 Baseball’s Golden Age Expansion continued through 1998 to put the total number of teams at 30. By the late 1960s the pitchers regained the edge over hitters. In 1968 Carl Yastrzemski of the Red Sox won the AL batting title with a.301 average – lowest ever.

139 Baseball’s Golden Age That same year Denny McLain of the Tigers won 31 games and Bob Gibson of the Cardinals led in ERA with In 1969 the rules were changed – pitcher’s mound lowered and strike zone was reduced. In 1973 the AL was suffering from low attendance and introduced the designated hitter.

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142 Baseball’s Golden Age In 1969 the “Miracle Mets” won the World Series just 7 years into their existence. The Oakland A’s – nicknamed the “Swinging A’s” won the World Series in 1972, 1973 and The 1970’s also saw the formation of the Big Red Machine – the Cincinnati Reds.

143 Baseball’s Golden Age On April 8, 1974 Henry “Hank” Aaron of the Atlanta Braves hit his 715 th career home run – breaking Babe Ruth’s mark of 714. Aaron retired in 1976 with 755 career homers. Between 1973 and 1975 Nolan Ryan threw 4 no-hit games – and threw a record 7 before he retired in 1993.

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145 Baseball’s Golden Age The 1980s saw some very interesting changes to the game as well – not always good. Steroids and performance-enhancing drugs have been credited with inflating player’s statistics from the mid-1980s to the present. Thus the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s is often considered baseball’s “golden age”.

146 YOUR TURN TO WRITE In your opinion, why was baseball able to become so popular in the United States? Why was the pitcher’s mound lowered in 1969? What accomplishment is Roger Maris best known for? Hank Aaron?

147 Steroids in Baseball Steroids in sports is nothing new – been going on since the 1950s. First developed in Germany 1930s for German soldiers. Soviet and European weightlifters began using them – broke records at 1952 Olympics.

148 Steroids in Baseball Dr. John Ziegler of United States investigated rapid success of Soviets. He was told about manipulating the testosterone levels of the athletes. Four years later Ziegler was supplying U.S. weightlifters with steroids.

149 Steroids in Baseball Use grew throughout sports that uses physical strength. In 1963 Alvin Roy – strength coach – San Diego Chargers of the NFL began supplying his players. By 1970s steroids were being used in all US major league sports – including baseball.

150 Steroids in Baseball Once it was revealed that steroids were being used in high school athletics – Congress stepped in. Anabolic Steroid Control Act 1990 – made unauthorized distribution and use of anabolic steroids a federal offense. Punished by – up to one year in prison and $1,000 fine.

151 Steroids in Baseball In 2004 the Act was altered to double the penalty and prevent possession within 1,000 feet of a sports facility. In 2005 Jose Canseco – former MLB player – admitted to using anabolic steroids. He wrote a book: Juiced: Wild Times, Rampant Roids, Smash Hits & How Baseball Got Big.

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153 Steroids in Baseball Canseco claimed that 85% of baseball players used steroids. Canseco revealed that Mark McGwire, Jason Giambi, Rafael Palmeiro, Ivan Rodriguez and Juan Gonzalez used – he injected them. Most players denied allegations – except Giambi when he was under oath.

154 Steroids in Baseball Congressional hearing was held to confront steroid use in baseball. McGwire, Sammy Sosa, Palmeiro and Curt Schilling answered questions from Congress. Hearing was broadcast on television and radio.

155 Steroids in Baseball McGwire refused to talk about the past – looked sad and uneasy. Sosa had a hard time understanding English and gave broken English answers. Palmeiro emphatically denied using – but later that year tested positive for steroids.

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157 Steroids in Baseball In 2006 MLB commissioner Bud Selig hired George Mitchell to investigate steroid use in baseball. The Mitchell Report was released in December of 2007 naming more than 80 former and current players as users. Fans and media began questioning and suspecting every successful player.

158 Steroids in Baseball Sports Illustrated article broke in early 2009 claiming that Alex Rodriguez – arguably games best player – tested positive in In 2003 “A-Rod” hit 47 home runs and won his first AL MVP Award. A-Rod denied at first – but then admitted his use and took full blame.

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160 Steroids in Baseball Current home run king Barry Bonds became part of the scandal in Bonds’ trainer Greg Anderson was indicted by federal grand jury for supplying steroids to athletes. Bonds denied allegations – admitted to using a “clear cream” given to him to help arthritis.

161 Steroids in Baseball Bonds has been scrutinized ever since – media and fans analyzing photos. Bonds never was a “big” home run hitter until he turned 37 years old – most players decline then. Investigation on Bonds is on-going, and not yet 100% resolved.

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164 Steroids in Baseball Steroids affect the body by helping it grow lean muscle and aids in training endurance. Also has been proven to cause liver tumors and high blood pressure. Men are also affected – shrinking and retracting of testicles, infertility, baldness and development of breasts.

165 Steroids in Baseball Women grow increased facial hair and deepened voice. Emotional affects – paranoid, jealousy, irritability. Scariest part – long-term effects are unknown.

166 YOUR TURN TO WRITE Should steroids be banned from sports? Why or why not? Should all steroid testing for professional and amateur athletes be made public? Why or why not?


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