Presentation on theme: "Manifest Destiny 1800-1850. Manifest Destiny Section 1 Migrating to the West What were the causes of westward migrations?"— Presentation transcript:
Manifest Destiny Section 1 Migrating to the West What were the causes of westward migrations?
Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny – the belief that America was destined to stretch across continent. This suggested that expansion was not only good but bound to happen. Popular among many for different reasons Southern expansionists & Northern abolitionists saw opportunities to expand their power in Congress Manifest Destiny became a gov’t policy under James K. Polk (11th president)
Manifest Destiny Expansion came at the expense of Indians and Mexicans “Manifest Destiny” mentioned in an 1845 newspaper editorial: “The American claim is by the right to our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and... self- government entrusted to us.” -John L. O’Sullivan - New York Morning News - December 27, 1845
Manifest Destiny “The American claim is by the right to our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and... self-government entrusted to us.” -John L. O’Sullivan- New York Morning News December 27, 1845
Buffalo & Indians are driven into obscurity… “American Progress” by John Gast, 1872 Lady Liberty “Star of Empire” Carries a schoolbook… …and telegraph wire …as settlers move westward “The tools of progress”
Americans Look Westward 1821 – Revolution overturned Spanish rule in Mexico, U.S. recognized Mexico as a republic American expansionists – those who favored U.S. territorial growth – looked at Texas, New Mexico, California as targets for American expansion Few people living there Rich in resources Mexican government and economy weak after revolution Mexicans did not deserve to keep territory Americans needed
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1776 Great Britain US declared independence from Great Britain A - 13 Original Colonies
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1783 Great Britain Part of results of Treaty of Paris (ended Revolutionary War) B B - Western Lands
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1803 France Napoleon needed $ Jefferson wanted to buy New Orleans He got all of this instead! B C - Louisiana Purchase C
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1819 Spain Andrew Jackson invaded Spain then sold it to us for $5 million B D - Florida D C
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1845 Republic of Texas (Independent Country) Texas independent from Mexico in 1836 Northerners feared it would become a slave state Fears finally overcome in 1844 Presidential election B E - Texas D C E
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1846 Great Britain Claimed by four countries (G. Britain, Russia, Spain, & US) Americans demanded “54 ° 40’ or fight!” Britain compromised 49 ° & US accepted B F - Oregon Territory D C E F
US Territorial Expansion A When? From Where? Why? 1848 Mexico Polk offers to buy G from Mexico & they refuse War! US wins In Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, US offers $15 million for G B G - Mexican Cession D C E F G
Obstacles Technology Indian Tribes Law and Order Forests had to be cleared to make way for new cities- ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
Technology Interchangeable Parts (1801) Cotton Gin (1793) & McCormick Reaper (1831) – accelerated farming Steamboats (1807) & railroads (1850’s) – provide faster movement of goods & services Telegraph (1837) – speeds up the pace of business
Different kinds of people move westward than had done during the 1600’s/1700’s (IN ORDER) Land Speculators overran the tribes looking for quick profits & ignoring treaties (which the gov’t also ignored) “The Law” (Gov’t, Police) follow the criminals Religious Zealots - People who are extremely religious Not Your Father’s Migration!
1. Sharing of Knowledge Trappers like Jedediah Smith and Jim Bridger explored the west taking beaver pelts Explored the Rockies finding routes through the mountains to the west coast Shared knowledge of routes with pioneers
Explorations of Jedediah Smith Southern Route Protected Pioneers!
2. Trade with Other Countries Mexican independence (1821) encouraged trade Merchants from Missouri opened trade across Great Plains with Santa Fe, capital of New Mexico Welcomed by Mexico Trade moved along what become known as the Santa Fe Trail
3. Opportunities to Own Land In 1836 missionaries Marcus and Narcissa Whitman followed what would be the Oregon Trail to the Willamette Valley in Oregon territory Founded Indian mission at Walla Walla Later led wagon trains to Oregon establishing the trail as the way to get to Oregon Killed by Cayuse Indians in 1847
4. Religious Reasons Mormons move west – after Joseph Smith was killed in Illinois in 1844, leadership of Mormon Church passed to Brigham Young 1847 Young led Mormon Exodus to east shore of Great Salt Lake Successful settlement in desert By 1860 over 40,000 Mormons in the West
5. Land Speculation Some Americans wanted to take away rich lands from Natives Louisiana Purchase (1803) legitimized expansion Speculators saw Natives as savages and not worthy of the land
The Results?? Wagons West – trains of 10 to 100 wagons moved settlers the 2000 miles from Missouri to Oregon or California 260,000 Americans made the trip Trip took 5 months Donner Party (cannibalism) showed the danger Those that made it got better farms
A Massive Migration Census reports record the new movement westward ( ) Ohio: 50, million Illinois: 12, ,000 Alabama: 22, ,000 By 1837, the number of states doubled to 26 Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Kentucky, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Indiana
Effects on Nation Events directly affected by “Manifest Destiny” 1. Indian Wars and Removal (1830’s) 2. The Alamo (1835) 3. Mexican War (1846) 4. Gold Rush (1849) 5. Reliance on slavery spins nation into Civil War (1861)