2 Election of 1800 Federalists Supported: John Adams for President Charles Pinckney for VPRepublicans Supported:Thomas Jefferson for PresidentAaron Burr for VPDirty PoliticsThis election was the first of the United States that was directly affected by personal attacks from both sides.Jefferson was called “Godless” by the Federalist because he believed in freedom of religion.Republicans tried to say that Adams only cared for the rich people country and would try to bring back a Monarchy to the country.
3 It’s a Tie!! What are Electors and the Electoral College? The Electoral College was a compromise between Federalists (who thought only qualified, educated people, should vote for president) and Republicans who thought every qualified citizen (usually white, land owning, male) should be able to vote (also called the popular vote).Each state has as many Electors as they do have representation in congress. Example: Florida has 27 Reps. + 2 Senators= 29 ElectorsAt first, Electors cast two ballots in the Senate without specifying who they preferred to be President or VP. This led to a tie between both Republican Candidates (73 votes for each).Who had to decide the vote then?Because of the tie, the House of Representatives had to vote to break the tie. They remained tied for 35 ballots until one Federalist finally decided to NOT vote for Burr and Jefferson won the top spot for President and Burr received the Vice Presidency.
5 Jefferson’s Goals as Prez A Wise and Frugal government.“The support for State Governments in all their rights”. Jefferson believed a large federal government threatened liberty and that individual states could better protect freedom.What’s his problem with big government?Sometimes large governments aren’t able to deal with problems that only affect small groups of people. Especially in those days when communication was slow. Worst case scenario, rich and powerful people use their money and power to influence the government to help only the rich and powerful people. Kind of like what happen in France with King Louis and Marie Antoinette.Remember these People?This is what happened when enough of the poor people got pissed!!
6 Jefferson acts to fulfill his goals Wise and Frugal Government:Reduced National Debt and Military ExpensesLimited the number of government workers
7 Power to the Supreme Court Judiciary Act of 1801 The Congress, which was controlled by mostly Federalists, passed the Judiciary Act of 1801 after the election but before Jefferson took office.Adams appointed hundreds of judges to the recently re-organized Judicial System/Branch before Jefferson could get into office and appoint his own choice of people.New appointees don’t become official until they receive their official paperwork called Commissions.After Jefferson was inaugurated and he took over, some of those Adams appointees, William Marbury being one of them, still wasn’t given their Commission Paperwork.Jefferson told his Secretary of the State, James Madison, to not issue his paperwork.Marbury asked the Supreme Court to force the delivery of the paperwork but Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Judiciary Act of 1801 was unconstitutional.What was the effect of Marbury vs Madison: The 3 Principles of Judicial ReviewThe Constitution is the Supreme Law of the land.The Constitution must be followed when there is conflict with any other law.The Judicial Branch can declare laws unconstitutional.Judicial Review is the key Check on the power of the Legislative and Executive branches
8 John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall served for 34 years and in his time he expanded the power of the Supreme Court more than a few times. Sometimes at the expense of states rights.McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)- States do NOT have the right to tax the federal government.Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)- the Supreme Court held that federal law overrules state law in matter affecting more than one state.Worcester v. Georgia (1832)- the Supreme Court held that only the Federal Government had the power to regulate Native AmericansCan anyone think of why it was found to be Constitutional that only the Federal Government has the power to regulate Native Americans?
9 Westward Ho’!In 1800, Americans traveled west in search of land and adventure.They traveled in “Conestoga Wagons”
10 The French ThreatThomas Pinckney’s treaty with Spain allowed Americans to travel and trade on the Mississippi River up until 1802 when the Spanish suddenly changed the rules.Jefferson later learned that Spain had secretly transferred ownership of the Louisiana territory to France.Jefferson was scared that Napoleon Bonaparte, the new French leader, who later became Emperor to France, was planning on creating a French Empire in Europe and the Americas.
11 Santo Domingo, Haiti & the US What does Haiti have to do with the Louisiana purchase?Napoleon wanted to create a French Empire in Europe and the Americas.He planned to use Saint Domingue (Santo-Domingo) as an important naval base to work from.Napoleon’s plans for empire in the Americas were foiled because of a slave uprising in Santo Domingo. The Slaves, led by a man named Toussaint L’Ouverture, were able to defeat the French in 1804 which led to Napoleon no longer wanting to waste resources on the Americas. France was still at war with Britain.After the French lost Santo Domingo, the island reverted back to its old name Haiti.
12 The Louisiana Purchase Napoleon still needed money…..badly….because he was still fighting a way with Britain.How could Napoleon come up with money….FAST?Napoleon offered to sell the Louisiana Purchase to the American Ambassadors to France, Robert Livingston and James Monroe who DID NOT have the authority to say yes. The offer was too good so they took the chance and said yes.The final price was $15 million.Even though Livingston and Monroe didn’t have the authority to make the decision the Senate approved the purchase in October 1803.The Louisiana Purchase DOUBLED the size of the US.
13 The Lewis & Clark Exposition Jefferson persuaded Congress to sponsor (pay for) an exposition into the newly acquired lands in the west of which little to no Americans knew anything about.One of the goals was to document findings about the territories people, plants, animals and recommended sites for future forts.Another goal was to find the “Northwest Passage”, a shorter route to get to the Orient for Americans and Europeans instead of having to sail all the way around the southern most tip of Africa.
14 The Lewis & Clark Exposition And the Pike’s Expedition The expedition included a crew that had expert sailors, gunsmiths, carpenters, scouts, and a cook. Two men of mixed Native American and French heritage served as interpreters.During the expedition, a Shoshone woman named Sacagawea joined the group as a guide.After traveling 18 ( ) months and almost 4000 miles they finally reached the Pacific Ocean and then returned home to write and tell about everything they found.Pike’s ExpeditionJefferson also send Lieutenant Zebulon Pike to explore the central and lower parts of the Louisiana Purchase.Pike’s PeakPike’s Path
15 A Plan to Secede from the Union & The Duel When the Louisiana Purchase occurred, some politicians (Federalists) from the north, mainly New England, felt that their power was going to be diminished. They planned to become the Northern Confederacy.Those northern politicians knew that for their “Northern Confederacy” to survive, they would need the state of New York so they asked New York US Senator Aaron Burr to help.Hamilton had found out about the plan and accused Burr of treason, a crime punishable by death.Burr was having political difficulties and he blamed them on Hamilton. He challenged Hamilton to the duel.Both fired their weapons, Hamilton missed while Burr did not. Burr struck Hamilton in the abdomen and Hamilton later died.Burr fled to the south to escape arrest. He was never tried for the crime, (Dueling was made illegal). He later returned to finish his term as vice president but had no reputation left over and lost his job and money.