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CAP Mission Aircrew SAR/DR Mission Pilot Course Revision April 2010 CAP Mission Aircrew SAR/DR Mission Pilot Course Revision April 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "CAP Mission Aircrew SAR/DR Mission Pilot Course Revision April 2010 CAP Mission Aircrew SAR/DR Mission Pilot Course Revision April 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 CAP Mission Aircrew SAR/DR Mission Pilot Course Revision April 2010 CAP Mission Aircrew SAR/DR Mission Pilot Course Revision April 2010

2 Introduction Administrative Items

3 CAPR 60-series Review (see Aircrew CAPR 60- series review slides)

4 Mission Pilot Requirements m Trainee Qualified CAP VFR or IFR Pilot, with at least 175 hours PIC that includes 50 hours cross-country Qualified as Mission Scanner Qualified as Transport Mission Pilot At least 18 years of age (minimum: should be mature) SQTR-MP Familiarization and Preparatory training Commanders authorization m Qualification SQTR-MP Advanced training requirements and CAPF 91 At least 200 hours PIC FEMA IS-200a course Exercise participation (two missions; see 60-3) Unit certification and recommendation Aircraft Ground Handling

5 m Primary Responsibility: Pilot the aircraft in a safe and proficient manner, following all CAP and FAA rules and regulations. m Second: Remember that you are a pilot, not a scanner. m In addition to these duties, the pilot must perform all the duties of the Observer if no qualified observer is on board MP Duties & Responsibilities

6 m In addition to the duties of Pilot-in-Command: m Responsible for obtaining complete briefings and for planning sorties m Thoroughly brief the aircrew before flight, including a briefing on their responsibilities during all phases of the upcoming flight m Obtain a proper flight release m Enforce sterile cockpit rules m Utilize CRM techniques and procedures MP Duties & Responsibilities

7 m Fly search patterns as completely and precisely as possible; report any deviations from the prescribed patterns during debriefing m Monitor the observer and ensure all events, sightings and reports are recorded and reported m Fill out all forms accurately, completely and legibly MP Duties & Responsibilities

8 Forms m CAPF 101 m CAP SQTRs m CAPF 104 m CAPF 108 m FAA Form m ICS forms

9 Forms 104 and 108 m CAPF 104 Mission Flight Plan / Briefing / Debriefing Form CAPR 60-3 Requirement Completed for each mission sortie (WMIRS) m CAPF 108 CAP Payment / Reimbursement Document for Aviation / Automotive / Miscellaneous Expenses CAPR Completed for each mission File within 30 days after mission completion Normally generated in WMIRS for missions

10 Flight Plans and Forms Summary m Forms are important! m Complete, accurate and legible m Label attachments m You implement the CAP mission m Know the source regulations CAPR 60-1 (flying operations) CAPR 60-3 (training and operational missions) MOUs

11 Communications (Chapter 2)

12  Throughout these slides, each objective is followed by :  The mission specialty rating to which the objective applies (O = Observer and P = Pilot) m The section in the MO/MP Reference Text where the answer to the objective may be found Objectives

13 m Describe how to use the Audio Panel and FM radio {O & P; & 2.1.3} m Discuss CAP FM radio reports {O & P; 2.1.5} List the minimum required reports Objectives (con’t)

14 Using the Audio Panel m On/Off, Volume control m Mic Selector switch and receiver switches m Split mode m Swap mode m Intercom mode

15 Audio Panel Transmitter combinations Intercom modes

16 Using the FM Radio m Main and Guard (squelch is automatic) m Normal settings: MN G1 HI 4 or 6 to scroll through frequencies 5 Scan (if enabled) 2 (increase brightness) and 8 (decrease brightness)

17 Using the FM Radio m Volume controls m National and wing communications officers program the radios (Guard 1 and Guard 2 are preset), so all you have to know is how to use the radio m Guard is set to G1; if base wants to call you, you will hear them no matter what (MN) frequency you’re on Just take MN/GD switch to GD, answer, then back to MN m G2 isn’t to be used for conversations; after making contact switch to a different (MN) channel

18 FM Radio Reports m Radio check (initial flight of the day) m Minimum required reports: Takeoff time Time entering search area (may be more than once) Time exiting search area (may be more than once) Landing time m Operations normal (Ops Normal) reports Defined during briefing, usually every one-half hour

19 CAP Aircraft Callsigns m CAP has the FAA authorized callsign “CAP” m FAA callsigns are stated in ‘group’ form m CPF 4239 is stated as “CAP Forty-Two Thirty-Nine”

20 CAP Aircraft Callsigns m CAP aircraft should only use the word “Rescue” in their callsign when priority handling is critical m “CAP Forty-Two Thirty-Nine Rescue” m DO NOT abuse this!

21 High Altitude and Terrain Considerations (Chapter 4)

22 OPTIONAL m Review the effects of high altitude on aircraft performance Objectives

23 m Concerning atmospheric pressure: State the pressure at sea level, and describe how to compensate for ‘other-than-sea level pressures’ when setting the altimeter Discuss the three factors that affect the density of an air mass. Define density altitude, and compute DA for a given situation using a chart and flight calculator m State the phases of flight affected by a decrease in atmospheric pressure, and how aircraft performance is affected Objectives

24 m Discuss strategies to compensate for high DA during searches m Discuss mountainous terrain precautions and strategies Objectives (con’t)

25 m A barometer is used to register changes in pressure; measured in inches of mercury m Standard sea-level pressure and temperature: inches of mercury 59 degrees F (15 degrees C) m A change of 1000 feet in elevation makes a change of about one inch m To correct for local elevation, set altimeter to latest reading (ATIS/AWOS/ASOS/FSS) or enter field elevation Atmospheric Pressure

26 m Three factors: Pressure Temperature Humidity m Altitude and pressure combined to determine pressure altitude m Add non-standard temperature to get density altitude m Remember: Drag, lift, power available and true airspeed are all affected by density altitude Density Altitude

27 TAS vs. DA

28 Density Altitude

29 Flight Computer m Circular slide rule Density altitude Nautical to statute miles True airspeed Other stuff

30 m Density altitude and aircraft weight have a tremendous effect on aircraft performance m Both must be accurately calculated, especially for mountain flying missions Aircraft Performance

31 m As altitude increases pressure decreases; this decrease can have a pronounced effect on flight: Engine (hp) and prop are less efficient Take off distance, climb rate, and landing distance effected m Take off distance almost doubles with a 5000 foot elevation increase m Rate of climb slows with higher elevation m Landing distance increases with higher elevation m Higher Humidity, Heat or Height result in reduced aircraft performance Pressure vs. Performance

32 DA & ROC

33 Reduced Performance

34 m Don’t fly at high elevation during the hottest part of the day m Carefully calculate DA and weight m Reduce load: Less fuel Crew of three instead of four Less baggage m Remember “High to Low, Look out Below” (update altimeter setting hourly) m If you fly in the mountains, take the Mountain Fury Course Strategies

35 Flight Near Mountainous Terrain m Crews must be constantly careful that the search never takes them over terrain that rises faster than the airplane can climb. Narrow valleys or canyons that have rising floors must be avoided, unless the aircraft can be flown from the end of higher elevation to the lower end, or the pilot is certain that the aircraft can climb faster than the terrain rises. Careful chart study by the crew prior to flight will help identify this dangerous terrain. m If you fly in the mountains, take the Mountain Fury Course

36 Flight Near Mountainous Terrain




40 Navigation and Position Determination (Chapter 5)

41 m Given coordinates and a sectional, use the Standardized Latitude and Longitude Grid System to draw a 7.5° x 7.5° search grid. {O & P; } m Given a grid and Attachment E of the U.S. National SAR Supplement to the International Aeronautical and Maritime SAR Manual, use the CAP Grid System to draw a 7.5° x 7.5° search grid. {O & P; and Attachment 1} Objectives

42 Sectional Aeronautical Charts m 1 to 500,000 m Medium to slow speed aircraft m Types of Information: Legend, Aeronautical, Topographical

43 Standardized Lat/Long Grid System m This system does not require special numbering m Lat-Long of lower right corner defines the grid (latitude first) m Letters are used to define sub-grids W W N N AB C B C D 36/102 AA N W W A B C D 36/102 ADB

44 Search Planning and Coverage (Chapter 6)

45 m In basic terms, discuss how search planners determine the Maximum Area of Probability and then the Probability Area {O & P; & 6.2.2} m Given a POD table, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various search altitudes and speeds over the three major types of terrain {O & P; 6.2.3} m Discuss the importance of proper execution of search patterns {P; 6.2.4} m Optional – Review POD Example Objectives

46 Narrowing the Search m Search Involves Estimating the position of the wreck or survivors Determining the area to be searched Selecting the search techniques to be used m Maximum Possibility Area Circle around the Last Known Position (LKP) The radius is equal to the endurance of the aircraft Correct for wind m Probability Area Where is the aircraft likely to be

47 Search Altitudes & Airspeed m Altitudes Per CAPR 60-1, sustained flight below an altitude or lateral distance from any object of 1,000 ft during the day or 2,000 ft at night is prohibited except for takeoff and landing or in compliance with ATC procedures (such as IFR flight). At no time will the pilot allow the aircraft to come within 500 feet of terrain or obstructions unless taking off or landing. So, pilots may descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to positively identify the target, but never below 500' AGL; once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 1000' AGL or higher. [Refer to CAPR 60-1 for special restrictions for over-water missions.] m Airspeed Should never be lower than Vx

48 Search Factors m Factors which effect detection Weather; terrain; lighting conditions Sweep Width (W) Track Spacing (S) Coverage Factor (C) Probability of Detection (P) m Determine factors for search area coverage Type and number of aircraft available Search visibility m Probability Of Detection (POD)

49 Determining the Maximum Possibility Area LKP Corrected for wind Wind vector No wind endurance Maximum possibility area Flight level winds: 330/20 Aircraft Speed: 100 Kts Endurance: 2 Hours 200 NM 40NM

50 Probability Area m Where was the last point where RADAR had the aircraft identified? m Is there an ELT? m Was there a flight plan (even if not on file with the FAA)? m Dead reckoning from LKP and heading m Reports of sightings Other aircraft People living along the intended route of flight

51 Narrowing the Probability Area m Flight plan m Weather information m National Track Analysis Program data m Airports along the intended flight track m Aircraft performance m Pilots flying habits m Radar coverage as a limiting factor m Nature of terrain along the flight track m Position reports — fuel stops, etc. m Most likely within 5 miles of intended track

52 Search Priorities m Areas of bad weather m Low clouds and poor visibility m Areas where weather was not as forecast m High terrain m Areas not covered by radar m Reports of low flying aircraft m Survival factors m Radio contacts or MAYDAY calls

53 Probability of Detection m POD expressed as a “percent” search object was detected m Four interrelated factors used to calculate: Track Spacing Search Visibility Search Altitude (Note: Normal is 1000’ AGL) Type of Terrain m Cumulative POD calculated using a chart m “Effectiveness” must also be considered

54 POD Table (104a, SAR Results)

55 POD Chart - detail 500 Feet 0.5 nm35%60%75% Feet 0.5 nm40%60%75%80% ,000 Feet 0.5 nm40%65%80%85% OPEN, FLAT TERRAIN SEARCH ALTITUDE (AGL) Track Spacing SEARCH VISIBILITY 1 mi 2 mi 3 mi 4 mi

56 Cumulative POD Chart 5-10% % % % % % % % % %11-20%21-30%31-40%41-50%51-60%61-70%71-80%80+% POD For This Search Previous POD


58 Mission Pilot (Chapter 9)

59 Objectives m State MP duties & responsibilities {P; 9.1} m Discuss safety matters related to CAP activities {P; 9.2} m Identify where to find the rules on transportation flights {P; 9.3.1} m Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions at night {P; 9.3.2} m Discuss special precautions needed for flying CAP missions in IMC {P; 9.3.3}

60 Objectives (con’t) m Discuss the special considerations for video imaging missions, and discuss the typical video imaging flight profile {P; 9.3.4} m Discuss proficiency {P; 9.3.5} m Discuss security and airspace restrictions {P; & 9.4.2} m Describe the three phases of an aircraft interception, your actions when intercepted, and discuss visual intercepting/intercepted signals {P; 9.4.3} m Describe the types of items that should be kept in the aircraft glove box {P; 9.5}

61 Objectives (con’t) m Discuss aircraft paperwork, documents and minimum equipment, loading, W&B fuel assumptions and reserve, and pre-start {P; 9.5.1} m Discuss startup checks, leaning the engine, and taxi {P; 9.5.2} m State crosswind limitations and discuss takeoff, climb and departure {P; 9.5.3} m Discuss transit to the search area, in the search area, and departing the search area {P; 9.5.4} m Discuss approach, descent and landing {P; 9.5.5}

62 Objectives (con’t) m Discuss after-landing, shutdown and post- flight {P; } m Discuss those items you can control to affect POD {P; 9.6} m State the normal, assumed number of aircrew needed for a mission {P; 9.7} m Discuss how you must alter normal search patterns if you only have one scanner onboard {P; 9.7.1} m Discuss special considerations while flying CAP searches {P; 9.7.2} m Discuss "go/no go" decision-making {9.7.3}

63 m Primary Responsibility: Pilot the aircraft in a safe and proficient manner, following all CAP and FAA rules and regulations m Second: Remember that you are a pilot, not a scanner m The mission pilot is responsible for incorporating Operational Risk Management and Crew Resource Management principles and practices into each mission MP Duties & Responsibilities

64 m In addition to these duties, the pilot must perform all the duties of the observer if no qualified observer is on board m In addition to the duties of Pilot-in-Command : Responsible for obtaining complete briefings and for planning sorties Thoroughly brief the aircrew before flight, including a briefing on their responsibilities during all phases of the upcoming flight Obtain a proper flight release Enforce sterile cockpit rules MP Duties & Responsibilities

65 Sterile cockpit rules m The “Sterile Cockpit” concept recognizes that flight operations other than routine cruise flight are intrinsically more hazardous and require the undivided and vigilant attention of all crewmembers. Non-essential conversations and activities not directly related to the operation of the aircraft and its mission are inappropriate. m The Pilot in Command (PIC) is responsible to ensure that these non-essential conversations, activities, and otherwise distracting actions do not occur during those portions of the flight that are considered critical. Examples of critical portions of flight would be taxi, takeoff, climb, descent and landing. Operations in high- density traffic areas or heavy ATC periods would also be considered critical. MP Duties & Responsibilities

66 Sterile cockpit rules m The simplest way to ensure that all crewmembers and passengers are aware of this requirement is to conduct a crew and passenger briefing prior to boarding the aircraft or prior to engine start. The ”Sterile Cockpit” brief can be as simple as a general statement by the PIC indicating that an announcement will be made when the flight is in a critical phase of flight, or possibly, a detailed briefing of the various phases of flight that are considered busiest and critical for the crewmembers to avoid distractions. m It is essential that the PIC include in the “Sterile Cockpit” brief a statement that safety of flight items are always appropriate to be brought to the immediate attention of the PIC. Safety concerns would be such items as potentially conflicting traffic, potential mechanical problems with the aircraft, i.e., electrical smoke or smoke of an unknown origin, leaking fuel, etc. MP Duties & Responsibilities

67 m Fly search patterns as completely and precisely as possible; report any deviations from the prescribed patterns during debriefing m Monitor the observer and ensure all events, sightings and reports are recorded and reported m Fill out all forms accurately, completely and legibly MP Duties & Responsibilities


69 Flying into and taxiing on unfamiliar airports m Small, non-towered, unlighted airports Runways Taxiways Obstacles Services Local NOTAMS

70 m Larger, busy airports Airspace and obstacles Taxiways Local NOTAMS m A/FD or Flight Guide (Airguide Publications, Inc.) m Download airport diagrams (AOPA website) m Taxiing around a large number of aircraft at mission base Taxi plan Marshallers If it looks too close or dangerous – STOP! Flying into and taxiing on unfamiliar airports




74 m Use the Discrepancy Log, especially in unfamiliar aircraft m Don’t let ‘minor’ squawks linger: Lights and bulbs Radios and navaids m Keep aircraft windscreen and windows clean Squawks

75 Fuel Management m Plan for a sufficient fuel supply to ensure landing with a minimum of one hour of fuel remaining (computed at normal cruise speed) m If it becomes evident the aircraft will not have that amount of fuel at its intended destination, the PIC will divert the aircraft to an airport that will ensure this reserve is met m Have a plan m Accurate Weight & Balance, accurate fuel levels

76 Fuel Management (con't) m Note your assumptions and brief crew: Power setting Wind direction and speed Leg and total flight distance m Compare assumptions against actual conditions m Modify plan and refuel, if necessary m Check fuel status at least hourly m When in doubt – land and refuel!

77 Unfamiliar aircraft equipment m Audio Panel, FM Radio, DF, GPS – if you don’t know it, don’t fly it! m Even simple differences can matter: If you’ve never flown an HSI, now isn’t the time to learn it! Sit in the aircraft and get up to speed Get another pilot to tutor you m What does the equipment and gear in the baggage compartment weight? W&B. m Don’t try to bluff

78 Unfamiliar terrain and weather m Plan for terrain and weather: Enroute Area you’ll be operating in m Clothing, equipment and survival gear

79 Trainees & Inexperienced Crew m Trainees: Extra time on briefing, duties & responsibilities When not to interrupt (sterile cockpit) m Inexperienced crew (or not proficient): Extra time on briefing May have to assume some duties Check SQTRs m Flight line marshallers may be cadets or seniors on their first mission Be alert and have your crew stay alert

80 Low and Slow m Often at 1000 feet AGL m May be less than 90 knots (no less than Vx) Include in your proficiency flying Strictly enforce sterile cockpit rules m May lose radar and communications coverage Climb to report “ops normal” m Maintain situational awareness “If the engine quits now, where do I land”

81 Low and Slow (con’t) m Sustained flight below an altitude or lateral distance from any object of 1,000 ft during the day or 2,000 ft at night is prohibited except for takeoff and landing or in compliance with ATC procedures (such as IFR flight). At no time will the pilot allow the aircraft to come within 500 feet of terrain or obstructions unless taking off or landing. m May descend below the designated search altitude to attempt to verify potential crash sites or the presence of survivors, and to prevent loss of life, property, or human suffering, but never below 500' AGL; once the target has been identified the pilot will return to 1000' AGL or higher. [Refer to CAPR 60-1 for special restrictions for over-water missions.] m Maintain airspeed above Vx


83 Transportation Flights m Always consult CAPR 60-1 (Passenger Requirements) and the chart in FAA Exemptions and non-CAP Passenger Requirements (located under “Special Operations” on the Stan/Eval/Flight Ops webpage) when you need to know who is authorized to fly as passengers in CAP aircraft, and the conditions under which they (and you) are authorized to fly m As a general rule, anyone other than CAP or US government employees need special permission to fly in CAP aircraft m All non-CAP members eligible to fly aboard CAP aircraft must execute a CAPF 9, Release (for non-CAP Members), prior to the flight

84 Remember to check the credentials of non-CAP passengers (center)


86 Night Flight m Per CAPR 60-1, night VFR is permitted; however, if the PIC and aircraft are IFR qualified and current then the flight should be conducted under IFR, if practical m Typically are transport, route searches and ELT searches m CAPR 60-1 requires pilots to maintain a minimum of 2000' AGL at night (unless under ATC control). During night over- water missions, both front-seat crewmembers must be CAP qualified mission pilots and both will be CAP Instrument Pilots and current (the right-seat pilot need not be qualified in the specific aircraft). m Must be night current and its preferable to have an experienced crew aboard m Extra attention to the pre-flight and other preparations Weather reports and advisories Dew point spread (fog predictor)

87 Night Flight (con’t) m Greatest threat is flying into weather you can’t see m Before you launch, ask yourself a few questions: m Are you really night proficient, or did you last fly 89 nights ago? m How long has it been since you’ve done a night cross-country? m How long has it been since you’ve done a night ELT search? m How long has it been since you’ve done night approaches? m When was the last time you practiced a night landing without a landing light? m How familiar are you with terrain and obstacles along the route? m Did you include all your flashlights in the weight & balance? m Include night flying (and DF) in your proficiency regimen!

88 Illusions of the Night m Some lead to spatial disorientation while others lead to landing errors m Illusions are the most common (JFK Jr.) m The ‘leans’: enter a bank too slowly to stimulate the motion- sensing system of the inner ear Coriolis Graveyard spin or spiral Inversion Elevator False horizon Autokinesis

89 Illusions of the Night (con’t) m Surface conditions and atmospheric conditions can create illusions of incorrect height above and distance away from the runway m Prevent these illusions by pre-planning and by flying a standard approach to all landings: Runway width Runway and terrain slopes Featureless terrain Atmospheric Ground lighting

90 Instrument (IFR) Flight m CAP missions are seldom conducted in IMC m Most likely is a transport flight (not to minimums) m Can do a route search, but ground teams are preferable under these circumstances m Can DF in IMC, but dangerous m It is recommended that night flights be conducted by current and qualified instrument pilots, if practical

91 IFR Flight (con’t) m Other requirements and recommendations: The pilot must be a current CAP Instrument Pilot PIC meets FAA instrument proficiency requirements PIC is proficient in the type of CAP aircraft she’ll be flying For any flight other than a simple transport flight, its highly recommended that another instrument-proficient pilot fly in the right seat Never fly a search in IMC alone Never fly an instrument search when ground teams are appropriate and available for the search

92 Aerial Photography m An increasingly important CAP mission m Aerial images are invaluable to emergency response personnel m Primarily: Digital still photos (some 35mm) Video (analog and digital) with or without audio comments Satellite Digital Imaging or ARCHER

93 Aerial Photography (con’t) m The great majority of our imaging missions are “fly back” missions where we take digital photos, return to base, and then transmit the images to our customer SDIS requires specialized equipment and training; however, the way we plan and take the photos is the same whether it is a fly back or SDIS mission m Aerial Imaging flight patterns are always flown at 1000' AGL or higher, and never at speeds below V x m The key to successful imaging mission is preparation, planning, patience and practice! Pilots need to practice flying imaging patterns with a Videographer in order to master the patterns and the communications necessary to get the best images m Planning sheets for imaging patterns may be found in the Flight Guide

94 Aerial Photography (con’t) m Essentials for a successful imaging sortie: Make sure each crewmember knows what the target is and what types of images are needed. For example, a sortie may require a digital photo of the target area for orientation, followed by close-up photos. Ensure the target location is identified so that you can find it. If the customer can’t define the target, plan time for a recon survey after the ID Pass to decide what patterns you’ll need to meet mission objectives. Thoroughly brief the route to and from the target, and the flight patterns within the target area. Mark them on the appropriate sectional chart and maps (e.g., road or topographical). Ensure minimum altitudes are established, both for the routes to and from the target and in the target area. Ensure all communications frequencies are well understood. This is particularly important for SDIS and ARCHER sorties.

95 Aerial Photography (con’t) m Essentials for a successful imaging sortie: (continued) Pay careful attention to the Audio Panel setup, as good communications between crewmembers is essential for the success of the sortie. Define the duties of the PIC and the Photographer when in the target area. The Airborne Photographer will actually be in command of the mission and will give directions to the pilot, but the PIC retains responsibility for the safe operation of the aircraft. Ensure camera and video equipment batteries are fully charged and that extra batteries are available. Clean the aircraft windows. If you are shooting through the front right window, remove the window latch screw and put it in a safe place. For SDIS or ARCHER sorties make sure the equipment is secured and properly connected. Make a test transmission before you leave the ramp.

96 Proficiency m CAP Self-Conducted Pilot Proficiency Flight Guidelines and MP Proficiency Profiles m Practice search patterns with and without GPS m Practice at night m Simulated emergency procedures are prohibited during IMC or at night. Exception: partial panel instrument training and in-flight discussion of emergency procedures may be conducted during night VMC conditions. m Simulated forced landings will be discontinued prior to descending below 500’ AGL (unless you intend to land)

97 Proficiency (con’t) m With the GPS, practice: Maintaining a constant track over ground Select/display destinations Determine heading, time and distance to a waypoint Save lat/long coordinates as a User Waypoint Save your present position as a waypoint, call it up & rename Enter and use flight plans Exercise the nearest airport and VOR features Practice navigating with ‘present position’ (lat/long) displayed m Take someone with you! Good for them and more fun!



100 Security Concerns & Airspace Restrictions m Heightened security concerns and the potential for flight restrictions are now part of our world m CAP’s role in Homeland Defense will require greater attention to aircraft, aircrew and airport security

101 Security Concerns m CAP resources should be considered national security assets m Special security precautions must be taken to protect aircraft and other resources: hangar the aircraft whenever possible. May place small pieces of clear tape (that will break) on fuel caps, the cowling and/or doors to detect tampering. Pay extra attention during pre-flight inspections and look for signs of fuel contamination Be as “low-key” as possible; don’t draw unnecessary attention to yourself or discuss CAP business in public Be aware of your surroundings at all times

102 Airspace Restrictions m FAA may issue Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) at any time. May establish an ADIZ (see AIM Section 6) m Ask for FDC NOTAMS before each flight; if security is heightened, check them before each leg m Even without heightened security, avoid loitering or circling sensitive areas: Power plants (especially nuclear) Reservoirs and dams Government installations Large stadiums or gatherings of people, air shows m If you need to circle one of these structures for training, coordinate with the facility and ATC first m Monitor MHz

103 In-flight Interception m Know how to respond (AIM or ASA SA) m An intercept has three phases: Approach Identification Post-intercept m If intercepted you should immediately: Follow the instructions of the intercepting aircraft Notify ATC, if possible Attempt to communicate (121.5 MHz) Squawk 7700 unless told otherwise

104 Phases of Flight Mission Pilot Perspective m Checklist in Attachment 2, Flight Guide m Always follow the aircraft checklists; right-seat should read each item and you acknowledge m First, an often overlooked asset – the glove box: Small laminated sheets for crew and passenger briefings, crosswind chart, PA card (like CD), FM frequencies and callsigns, ELT deactivation stickers, and GPS cheat sheet Small cleaning cloth (like for glasses) to clean instrument faces Pencil/pen/grease pencil Backup flashlight Check periodically and purge non-essential stuff

105 Prior to Startup m Familiarize yourself with the aircraft paperwork: Engine, prop, airframe, and avionics logbooks Can you tell when the oil change is due? Next 100 hour/Annual? When the 24-month instrument certifications are due? m Other checks: Due date on CO monitor and Fire Extinguisher inspection ELT battery due date Last VOR check (within 30 days of instrument flight) m Fill out the Flight Log; double-check Hobbs & Tach times m Check the Discrepancy Log and make sure none of the entries make the aircraft unsafe for flight or reduce mission readiness m ORM

106 Documents and Minimum Equipment m Certificates and documents: Airworthiness and Registration certificates Operating limitations Passengers’ credentials m Minimum Operable Equipment (FAR 91 Subpart C): VFR Day, VFR Night, IFR FAR to determine if you can take off with inoperable equipment m Other CAP requirements (CAPR 66-1 & CAPF 71): Review of logbooks, W&B data Restrictive placards Pulselite, Avionics/Control Lock, Fire extinguisher, CO detector, cargo net, chocks and tie-downs, survival kit

107 W&B, Loading and Pre-start m Weight & Balance: Use accurate weights of passengers and all equipment Note all fuel assumptions (fuel burn, winds aloft, etc.) Ensure adequate fuel reserve (plan for one hour at normal cruise) m Loading: Ensure equipment, crew weights and supplies correspond to your W&B assumptions Charts and maps Windows clean (modify for video imaging mission) Check and test special equipment Parking area clear of obstacles m Pre-start Passenger briefing, sterile cockpit rules, emergency egress procedure Brief fuel management and taxi plan/diagram Enter settings into GPS

108 Startup m Aircraft checklists: Always use them (habit) and keep them close at hand Seat belts and shoulder harnesses m Startup: Ensure DF, FM radio & Audio Panel properly set up Rotating Beacon ON and signal marshaller Lean the engine after starting (engine manufacturer) Set up radio and navigation instruments

109 Taxi Mishaps m Becoming a bigger problem each year (#1 trend in CAP) m Pilots are: Straying from designated taxi routes Not allowing adequate clearance and not considering the tail and wings during turns Taxiing too fast for conditions and taxiing with obscured visibility Distracted by cockpit duties Not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance

110 Taxi Mishaps m Strategies: Thorough planning and preparation eliminates distractions Crew assignments for taxi If within ten feet of an obstacle, stop, and then taxi at a pace not to exceed a “slow walk” until clear Do not follow other taxiing aircraft too closely (e.g., 50 feet behind light aircraft; 100 feet behind light multi-engine or jet aircraft; 500 feet behind helicopters and heavies) Use proper tailwind/headwind/crosswind control inputs Treat taxiing with the seriousness it deserves Use exterior lights (be considerate of others) Read back all clearances and hold-short instructions Sterile cockpit rules

111 Taxi m Collision avoidance! Follow CAPR 60-1 requirements for taxi operations. Read back all taxi/hold-short instructions. m Review crew assignments for taxi, takeoff, & departure m Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect m Remind crew that most midair collisions occur: Daylight VFR Within five miles of an airport (especially un-controlled) At or below 3000 AGL m Signal marshaller before taxi, test brakes m Exterior lights on (be considerate at night)

112 Takeoff, Climb and Departure m Takeoff: Collision avoidance! Check for landing traffic; turn on Landing light when you begin rolling Cross-wind limits (POH or 15 knots, whichever is less) High density altitude – lean for full power before takeoff m Climb: Collision avoidance! Lean (burn gas; not valves) Use shallow S-turns and lift wing before turns to check traffic m Departure: Collision avoidance! Keep crew apprised of conflicts. Sterile cockpit rules can be relaxed when clear Organize the cockpit, review assignments, set up for next task Check fuel status and altimeter setting hourly

113 The Search Area m Transit: In none assigned, use odd altitudes during transit to minimize chance for midair collision Cross military training routes perpendicular. If you see one fighter, look for the wingman Double-check settings and review methods to reduce crew fatigue or high altitude effects Update weather, file PIREP, review procedures m Approaching the search area: Review assignments Check navigational instruments against each other Stabilize aircraft at least two miles out Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect Exterior lights on Evaluate the scene (situational awareness) for conflicting traffic

114 The Search Area m In the search area: Log and report “In the Search Area” Log deviations from assigned search parameters Hourly updates of altimeter (closest source) and fuel status Limit time spent below 1000 AGL (no lower than 500 AGL during daylight; 2000 AGL at night) Monitor yourself and crew for fatigue and high altitude effects m Departing the search area: Log and report “Leaving the Search Area;” reorganize cockpit Double-check heading and altitude assigned to transit to next search area or return to base Reorganize the cockpit

115 Approach, Decent and Landing m Approach: Get ATIS/AWOS, review airport/airspace diagram, taxi plan Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect Collision avoidance! Lights on within 10 miles of airport. m Decent: Collision avoidance! Shallow S-turns and lift wings before turns Richen mixture as you reduce power m Landing: Read back all clearances and hold-short instructions Defer after-landing check until off the active runway Remember to “fly the plane ‘till you shut off the engine” Taxi back per taxi plan, watch for Marshallers At engine shutdown, show Marshaller the keys, install chocks

116 Shutdown and Post-Flight m Shutdown: Fill out logs Enter any discrepancies (be specific and complete) Secure aircraft m Post-flight. If this was the last flight of the day: Install chocks, tie-downs, avionics/control lock, Pitot cover and engine plugs Check Master Switch and Parking Brake OFF Remove trash, personal equipment, and special equipment Lock windows, doors and baggage compartment Inspect aircraft; check oil and refuel Clean the aircraft (at least the windshield and windows) m Sign off any SQTR tasks that were accomplished


118 How can I improve POD? m Pay attention and ask questions during briefings m Plan thoroughly so you can concentrate on the mission at hand m Hit your numbers! Altitude, airspeed, position m Use the GPS – very accurate, especially with no landmarks m Be mindful of your crew – no unnecessary steep turns; look for less turbulence or cooler air if possible; ensure sufficient breaks; ensure sufficient fluid consumption; watch for the crewmember who’s obviously not feeling well but doesn’t want to complain. m Give a thorough debriefing and be totally honest m Stay proficient!

119 Flying the Mission m Mechanics of planning and executing search patterns are covered in Chapters 7 and 8 m Number of scanners: Most planning (and tables) assume there are at least two scanners on board, one looking out each side of the aircraft Remember – you (the pilot) are not a scanner! m If there is only one scanner: Will only be scanning out one side, usually the right You must plan and fly so as to keep the right side of the aircraft facing the search area at all times, on each leg Increases the time needed to search a given area Reduces search effectiveness (less double coverage) Parallel track or creeping line patterns not recommended

120 Flying a Search Pattern m Your primary contribution to the success of the mission is to fly assigned search patterns completely and precisely m This must be done while fulfilling the duties of a PIC; primarily “see and avoid” obstacles and other aircraft m Must consider the possibility of engine trouble or failure at low altitudes; always have an ‘out’ Low and slow and the engine quits. Where do you land? m Always be honest and forthright with yourself and crew: Not at the right airspeed or altitude when you enter the pattern? Exit and re-enter when you’re set up. Made the last turn a tad wide? Redo the leg, if necessary. Scanner complaining that he can’t see anything? Slow to something less than 120 knots.

121 To Go or Not to Go? That is the Question m Let’s see…..been briefed, planned the sortie, got my releases, preflight is done and the crew is briefed m A mission pilot may accomplish all of this and still not be safe to fly the mission m How can this be?

122 To Go or Not to Go? That is the Question It all comes down to the individual and the circumstances: How long has it been since you’ve taken off with a 14 knot cross-wind? Have you ever taken off and landed on an icy runway? When did you last fly cross-country at night? When was the last time you flew in actual IMC? m Two primary stupid (mission) pilot traits: Overconfidence (Who? Me?? No!!!) The need to accomplish the mission no matter what

123 To Go or Not to Go? That is the Question m The most effective way to prevent you from becoming the weak link in an accident chain: Be brutally honest about your abilities, given the present (or predicted) circumstances m A mission pilot must have the courage and integrity to decline a mission you don’t feel comfortable doing Always remember that others are putting their lives in your hands! m DISCUSS SOME SITUATIONS from the text and from the pilots


125 Electronic Search Patterns (Chapter 7)

126 m Discuss the various types of ELTs {O & P; 7.1.1} m Describe how an ELT can be detected {O & P; 7.2} m Describe how the aircraft DF works in both the Alarm and DF modes {O & P; 7.3.1} m Discuss using the DF during a typical ELT search {O & P; 7.3.2} Response during initial phase, including signal fade Response when getting close Response as you pass over the beacon Objectives

127 m Describe the following ELT search methods: {O & P; 7.4 – 7.7} Homing Wing null Aural Signal m Discuss signal reflection and interference {O & P; 7.9} m Describe how to silence an ELT and the legal issues involved {O & P; 7.10} Objectives (con’t)

128 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis128 Emergency Locator Transmitter Direction Finding for Aircrews: use of equipment commonly found in CAP aircraft N98987

129 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis129 Objective: The Elusive ELT m Automatic radio beacon (100 milliwatts) Roughly equal to that of a regular flashlight m Can be heard on a line-of-sight basis m Remember that the ELT may be attached to an aircraft or vessel in distress! Click Icon to Hear an ELT

130 m Activated by g-force (when armed) Some can be activated by the pilot in the cockpit m Three primary frequencies: MHz (VHF emergency) 243 MHz (UHF emergency – military guard) MHz (third generation advanced ELT/EPIRB/PLB) m General types: General aviation aircraft Military (“beepers” or “beacons”) Marine EPIRB Test station (training practice beacon) Advanced (406) The ELT

131 ELT Antennas: 406 (left) & (right)

132 Most GA aircraft have MHz ELTs installed But they don’t always survive a crash

133 Most GA aircraft have MHz ELTs installed But they don’t always survive a crash

134 m Most common type is the URT-33/C m Personnel ejecting/parachuting will have a 243 MHz beacon m Some downed pilots may be able to communicate via two-way radio on 243 MHz using a PRC-90 or later military survival radio Beacon mode transmits like an ELT on 243 MHz Military beacons

135 m Personal Locator Beacon (PLB) or Personal Emergency Transmitter (PET): Intended for hikers and other remote wilderness travelers Use a 406 MHz transmitter and a MHz homing signal (at only 25 milliwatts) Many are also equipped with a built-in GPS receiver that provides lat/long coordinates Each PLB must be registered [See discussion in Advanced ELT Course (separate slides)] Personal beacons

136 m Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon m Similar to an ELT, an EPIRB is used on ships and boats m Mandatory on certain commercial vessels m Most have installed the new 406 MHz EPIRBs m Some activate automatically and others are manually activated Marine EPIRB

137 m Designed to operate with SARSAT/COSPAS MHz beacons have data burst encoding every 50 milliseconds that identifies each registered individual beacon Also produces 100 milliwatt 121.5/243 MHz homing signals, and may transmit GPS coordinates Sends a coded signal that can be used to obtain the owner's name, address, phone numbers and type of aircraft, so AFRCC can call the number to see if the aircraft is really missing (70% resolved) Since geostationary satellites process the signal it will be heard more quickly and allow a much faster response (~ 6 hours). If the unit has a GPS receiver, it can transmit lat/long coordinates to further speed the search. The signal can also penetrate dense cover (e.g., trees). Still very expensive (~ three times as much as a MHz ELT) 406 MHz ELTs

138 m Designed to operate with SARSAT/COSPAS System accuracy in pinpointing location greatly improved: MHz ELT accuracy is limited to a nm radius (~ 500 square nm) 406 MHZ ELTs can be narrowed down to a 1-3 nm radius (~ 25 square nm) 406 MHz units interfaced with the aircraft’s GPS can be narrowed to within 100 yards Strong (5 watts) power output MHz homing signal facilitates target location by either the old DF units or using the new Becker (Doppler) units 406 MHz ELTs (con’t)

139 m Training Practice Beacons Includes ones used by CAP m All should be converted from to MHz by now (if it isn’t, don’t use it) m During practice searches, avoid calling the practice beacon an ‘ELT’ when communicating over the radio May cause confusion m Always use the term ‘Practice Beacon’ Practice Beacon

140 m Can test the aircraft’s ELT within the first five minutes after each hour m Only allowed up to three sweeps (five seconds for the 406 MHz units) m When was the last time you tested the ELT in your aircraft? m Do you regularly monitor MHz after you land (or look at the 406 MHz remote LED)? Ensure your ELT didn’t activate This isn’t considered a test, by the way, but you can try this excuse if you like Testing an Aircraft ELT

141 m Excessively hard landings (Welcome aboard, Ensign!) m Inadvertent change of switch position m During removal/installation m Malfunction m Non-ELT source on MHz (computers, broadcast stations, even pizza ovens!) m Monsieur Murphy Inadvertent Activation

142 m Approximately 97% of received MHz ELT signals are false alarms For MHz ELTs about 1 in 1000 are actual emergencies (2 in 100 composite alerts) For 406 MHz ELTs abut 1 in 10 are actual emergencies m What’s the big deal? Waste time and manpower They block emergency communications on and 243 MHz (guarded by towers, overflying aircraft, and the military) False Alarms



145 m In the event the 406 MHz ELT is activated (such as during a crash) it will transmit the position information to the geostationary satellites that constantly monitor MHz transmissions m Once activated it transmits the standard swept tone on and MHz at 100 milliwatts m Additionally, every 50 seconds for 520 milliseconds the MHz 5-watt transmitter turns on; during that time an encoded digital message is sent to the NOAA-SARSAT satellite (part of the COSPAS-SARSAT satellite system). Information includes: Serial Number of the Transmitter or Aircraft ID Country Code I.D. Code Position Coordinates (Lat/Long), if coupled to the aircraft’s GPS unit SARSAT/COSPAS Detection

146 m The unique identification code that is transmitted to the satellite helps the Air Force Rescue Coordination Center (AFRCC) determine whether an emergency actually has occurred, as this permits accessing a registration database that contains the: Owner's Name Owner's Address Owner's Telephone Number Aircraft Type Aircraft Registration Number Alternate Contact m This data facilitates inquiries as to the whereabouts of the aircraft (e.g., Flight Plan filed) SARSAT/COSPAS Detection

147 m For 406 MHz ELTs without the position data, it is necessary for the satellites to pass overhead, using Doppler Shift technology to determine position; this results in position accuracy of 1-3 nm m If the unit is coupled with the aircraft’s GPS position accuracy is within 100 yards! m In a worst-case scenario there could be a 3-4 hour wait for a polar orbiting satellite to pass overhead. [Note: This is still much better than the MHz ELT position accuracy of nm] SARSAT/COSPAS Detection

148 m AS AN EMERGENCY! m Its not possible to know for sure whether an ELT signal is a distress signal or a false alarm m Although the statistics are against a ELT, you must act as though it is a valid distress call m If you take advantage of them, every ELT mission allow you to keep your skills sharp! OK, So How Should I Treat an ELT Mission?

149 m The remainder of this chapter (except for Silencing an ELT ) deals with searching for a 121.5/243 MHz ELT signal If the signals are coming from a 406 MHz ELT the initial search area will be much smaller and so easier to find, even if your aircraft is not equipped with the Becker SAR-DF (Doppler) unit You can easily modify the following procedures for this case m Route or parallel track to pick up the signal m If no SARSAT hits or definitive LKP: 4,000 to 10,000 AGL Large track spacing (start at 60 nm, then do halves) m Once signal is located, DF the signal Locating the ELT Signal

150 Direction Finder (DF) A direction finder compares signal strengths from two antenna patterns to let the user know: – When you are “centered” on a signal headed directly towards OR away from the signal source – Which direction to turn when not centered – Similar to an ADF needle, but only points left or right, hence the term “left-right homing”

151 L-Tronics DF (Becker SAR DF is in the Flight Guide ) m Normal: Alarm toggle in ‘up’ position m DF: toggle is ‘down’

152 DF Antenna (old) These are mounted on the bottom, but may be on top The Becker SAR DF antenna looks like a one pound coffee can mounted below the baggage compartment (what a drag!)

153 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis153 Step 1: Acquire the Signal m To hear the signal you can use your L-Tronics receiver or one of your comm radios m To acquire with a comm radio, turn the squelch OFF (pull out the volume knob out or flip the appropriate switch) The static you hear may be annoying, but it will allow you to hear the signal at the earliest possible time Allows for a weak or distant signal to be heard m Proceed at a reasonable altitude to the SARSAT composite hit, or to the point designated by your incident commander

154 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis154 NO SIGNAL SIGNALHEARD! ELT Beginning The Search: Altitude Selection m Higher altitudes allow for reception of the ELT signal at greater distances m ELTs transmit on MHz and MHz, both of which limit reception to “line of sight” m Terrain will block ELT signals m HIGHER is therefore usually BETTER to acquire a signal m Medium altitude is generally better for searching (after signal heard) 3,000 to 5,000 AGL

155 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis155 Altitude Selection

156 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis156 Step 2: Track (DF) the Signal m There are many different ways to DF an ELT signal: Left-Right DF Homing (L-Tronics DF) Wing Shadow Method Aural Search Metered Search Combinations of the above techniques

157 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis157 Wing Shadowing m By flying the airplane in a circle, at some point the wing will block the ELT signal to the receiver antenna This causes an audible decrease in volume, called a “null” m Almost any VHF-AM aircraft communications radio may be used with this method

158 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis158 Wing Shadowing: Antennas m To properly use the Wing Shadowing method, you MUST know where the antenna for the radio you are using is installed & located on the aircraft m Communications radio antennas are usually, but not always, located above the wings Can be above the fuselage, in the tail, etc. m L-Tronics Aircraft DF antennas may be above or below the aircraft Below the aircraft is the preferred installation

159 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis159 Communications Antennas Above the Wing N98987 Antennas Above the Wing

160 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis160 DF Antennas Below the Wing N98987 Antennas Below the Wing


162 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis162 How To DF by Wing Shadowing m Fly a constant bank angle 360° turn m the audio will “null,” m or get significantly quieter, m when your wing blocks the antenna’s reception of the ELT signal N S E W

163 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis163 Wing Shadowing: Signal Blocking For Antennas Above the Wings SIGNAL ELT NULL

164 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis164 Wing Shadowing: Antennas Above the Wing m Turn in a circle until you hear the null (significant decrease in volume) m The ELT is 90º to your LEFT m SUBTRACT 90º from your heading N S E W ELT

165 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis165 Wing Shadowing: Signal Blocking For Antennas Below the Wings SIGNAL ELT NULL

166 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis166 Wing Shadowing: Antennas Below the Wing m Turn in a circle until you hear the null (significant decrease in volume) m The ELT is 90º to your RIGHT: ADD 90º to your heading N S E W ELT

167 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis167 Aural (Hearing) Search Method m This is based on the assumption that the area of equal beacon signal strength is circular: do NOT adjust volume during this search; you will need it to determine equal levels of signal m Begin by plotting your position as soon as you receive the ELT signal m Fly that course for a short distance, then turn 90º left or right and proceed until the signal fades m Turn around (180º) and mark where the signal fades on the other side of the circle m Plot chord lines similar to that of the diagram m Bisect the chord lines at a perpendicular m Plot a course to the location where the perpendicular lines intersect: this should be the location of the target!

168 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis168 Aural Search Equal signal strength circle: barely audible signal in aircraft receiver at search altitude chord 1 chord 2 chord 3 ELT commence low altitude pattern descending SIGNAL FADES SIGNAL HEARD SIGNAL HEARD SIGNAL HEARD SIGNAL FADES

169 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis169 Metered Search (Build & Fade) Method m This search requires a signal strength meter (like that on the L-Tronics DF units-if the DF portion of the unit is inoperative you can still use this type of search as long as RECeive is OK m Note your signal strength when beginning the search m Fly a straight line until the signal gets lower, then increases to your original level m Turn 180º and return to the lowest level of signal, then turn 90º left or right m You should now be headed directly towards or away from the transmitter m If the signal increases in strength, you are headed directly for the ELT m If the signal decreases in strength, turn 180º


171 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis171 Left-Right DF Homing m Most CAP corporate aircraft have L-Tronics LA-Series Left-Right Homing DF units m These units operate virtually the same, but there are two major varieties: Single Meter Models Dual Meter Models

172 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis172 L-Tronics DF Types m Single Meter Model m Dual Meter Model L-Tronics ALARM OFF AUX   SENS  VOL VHF DF DF STRENGTH L-Tronics ALARM OFF   SENS  VOL VHF-DF AUX DF REC

173 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis173 Frequency Switch m Selects frequency to be used m Use MHz for actual ELTs/EPIRBs m MHz may also be used for all actual electronic searches m Use MHz for training m Refer to owners manual for use of the “AUX” position L-Tronics ALARM OFF   SENS  VOL VHF-DF AUX DF REC

174 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis174 Mode Switch m Only Single-meter units have this switch Dual-meter units use two displays, so both REC and DF operate continuously and simultaneously m REC is short for RECeive mode REC makes the unit’s dial work as a strength meter m DF is short for Direction Find DF gives left-right homing to the ELT/EPIRB signal m ALARM is for NON-MISSION flights only Use only during normal flying to alert the presence of an ELT or EPIRB L-Tronics ALARM OFF   SENS  VOL VHF-DF AUX DF REC

175 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis175 Volume & Sensitivity m Volume controls the audio level to the speaker or headsets m Sensitivity controls the amount of signal that enters into the DF unit It is critical that the proper amount of signal enters the DF: half- scale, or the middle, is an optimum starting place m As the signal gets stronger, reduce SENSITIVITY, not volume The DF will be unreliable as too much signal is received, so you must cut out part of it by reducing the sensitivity More than three-quarters scale is too much L-Tronics ALARM OFF AUX   SENS  VOL VHF DF DF STRENGTH

176 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis176 DF Settings for Single-Meter Models m MISSIONS Select (or for training missions) Select DF Mode Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise) Turn Volume to About Mid-Scale DF Needle Will Move Slightly Left and Right m NON-MISSION FLIGHTS Select Select Alarm Mode Turn Sensitivity To Maximum

177 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis177 DF Settings for Dual-Meter Models m MISSIONS Select (or for training missions) Ensure Alarm Toggle Off (down position) Turn Sensitivity to Maximum (Full Clockwise) Turn Volume to About Mid-Scale DF Should Stay About Centered Strength Meter Will Move Up-Scale to Right m NON-MISSION FLIGHTS Select Turn Alarm Toggle On Turn Sensitivity To Maximum

178 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis178 Pre-Flight Functional Check m Just as you pre-flight the rest of the aircraft, you should preflight your DF when going on an ELT electronic search mission m These procedures are covered in the MO/MP Reference Text


180 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis180 Six Steps for DF m Use these 6 steps for locating ELTs and EPIRBs with L-Tronics LA- series airborne DF equipment m Use the full procedure every time for the best results RECeive HALF DF TURN CHECK SHOOT m Each of these steps will be described in detail in the slides to follow

181 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis181 Step 1: RECeive m Once you have started to receive the ELT or EPIRB signal on the proper frequency m If you have a single-meter unit, turn the mode selector to RECeive and turn the volume to a comfortable level m If you have a dual meter unit, refer to the STRENGTH window (no need to change modes)

182 RECeive Mode/Strength Window m In receive mode or in the strength window, the unit measures signal strength Needle to the left means low; to the right means high m Values are relative depending on the sensitivity you have selected m You may still be able to use the strength meter even if the DF is not functioning perfectly It is possible to locate an ELT using only the Receive Mode Utilize Aural Search/Metered Search methods to accomplish If the unit isn’t completely operable, try wing shadowing using one of the aircraft’s communications radios and use the DF unit’s strength meter as a backup using the aural/metered methods

183 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis183 Step 2: Half m Now that the unit is in RECeive mode and you have a good signal, turn the Sensitivity Knob to HALF SCALE This is in the center of the window m If you are flying with a dual-meter unit, turn the Sensitivity Knob so the needle reads HALF SCALE in the STRENGTH window m A half-scale strength reading will prevent too much signal (over sense) from entering the unit and will provide you with a good starting point m It is also the optimum for the DF homing antennas

184 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis184 Step 3: DF m For single-meter units, turn the mode selector knob to DF m In DF mode, you can think of the needle as always pointing D irect to the F lipping target. m For dual-meter models, simply refer to the DF window (no need to change modes)

185 DF Antenna m The aircraft DF unit has a 2 or 3 “element” antenna Commonly, we might call this two or three antennas It just means there are two or three rods! m This antenna setup is directional One element actually receives the signal The other elements (rods) reflect the signal away from the first rod N98987 Antenna Elements

186 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis186 Antenna Reception Pattern m When viewed from the bottom, an antenna setup like the one pictured on the previous slide produces a reception pattern like the one shown here This pattern is called “carotid,” which means “heart-shaped” m The pattern is the same even if the antennas are mounted above the wing Element 123

187 Direction Finding Mode/Window m The DF mode rapidly alternates the receiving and reflecting antenna elements It chooses one element as the receiver and the other two as the reflectors, then switches to the other set m This produces a carotid pattern each time the unit switches one is shown in blue, the other in yellow m By comparing the two patterns, the unit will determine when they are equal m When they’re equal, the needle centers! m When the needle is centered, the target is either directly ahead or behind you!

188 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis188 Step 4: Turn m Turn at least one FULL circle, noting where the DF needle centers m Under ideal conditions, the needle will center twice When facing directly at the source of the signal When facing 180º away from the target m You will solve this problem (called ambiguity) in the next step

189 DF CENTERS Alternating Antenna Patterns Alternating Antenna Patterns WHEN THE PATTERNS ARE EQUAL, THE DF NEEDLE CENTERS! ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

190 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis190 Step 5: Check m Use T urn to T ell m Remembering that in DF mode the needle always points D irect to the F lipping target m When you have the needle centered, turn left or right If you turn left and the needle goes left, the ELT is 180º from your present heading If you turn left and the needle turns right, the ELT is dead ahead

191 AMBIGUITY ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2) m When Needle Centers ELT is Directly Ahead or Behind m This situation is called “ambiguity” m To Solve ambiguity: m Use Turn to Tell Make a turn left or right The needle always points D irect to the F lipping Target (DF!)

192 DF NEEDLE ELT m Compare the YELLOW (LEFT) and the BLUE (RIGHT) antenna patterns m In this case, the LEFT pattern is stronger than the RIGHT m In DF mode, the needle would then point LEFT The needle always points D irect to the F lipping Target!

193 SOLVING AMBIGUITY m Actual ELT position is unknown to user m Make a small turn left or right As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

194 SOLVING AMBIGUITY m Actual ELT position is unknown to user m Make a small turn left or right As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” m Example: TURN LEFT needle goes left ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

195 SOLVING AMBIGUITY ELT (Possibility 2) m Actual ELT position is unknown to user m Make a small turn left or right As a teaching reminder, “Use a TURN to TELL” m Example: TURN LEFT If needle goes left ELT is to your left (behind you) ELT (Possibility 2)

196 SOLVING AMBIGUITY m If you turn Left and the needle moves Right m The ELT is in Front of you! ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2)

197 SOLVING AMBIGUITY ELT (Possibility 1) ELT (Possibility 2) m If you turn Left and the needle moves Right m The ELT is in Front of you! m Example: Turn left Needle goes right

198 SOLVING AMBIGUITY ELT (Possibility 1) m Solution: If you turn Left and the needle moves Right The ELT is in Front of you!

199 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis199 Step 6: Shoot m Use your DG to determine a bearing to the target & follow it m You may need to fly through a zone of signal dropout m Be watchful for signs of signal passage If you get signal passage, consider using the “pinpointing the target” techniques listed in this presentation m Frequently repeat the full six steps to ensure you are heading in the right direction and that you didn’t inadvertently over fly the ELT N S E W

200 How A DF Unit Works: Summary m Two Main Modes of Operation RECeive DF m RECeive Mode is a Strength Meter Left is low, right is high m DF Mode Centers on Signal Always points to the signal Use a T urn to T ell when solving ambiguity m Aircraft and ground units work the same way


202 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis202 Reflections m Reflections of an ELT signal work just like a flashlight off of a mirror m Any flat, hard, or wet object can cause signal reflections Mountains, especially cliff faces Hangars and other metal structures Wet grass or snow Large bodies of water or ice m Power lines can also have a large effect on a low-powered signal such as an ELT

203 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis203 Beating Reflections m Check your sensitivity at half-scale or lower But ensure that its high enough to receive adequate signal m Reflections will generally be weaker than the most direct path to the target m Following reflections will generally take your closer to the target m If sensitivity is set to minimum, try DFing on a different frequency For example, if you are trying to locate an actual ELT on MHz, try locating it on or MHz when you get close m When all else fails, fly somewhere else to get a good DF bearing- or try that at the first sign of problems!

204 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis204 Carrier-Only Signals You don’t always need to hear the ELT or EPIRB to find it – A carrier-only signal may be broadcasting with no audible sweep This is especially true with low or old batteries, damaged ELTs, or spurious transmissions You can identify a carrier-only signal by DEFLECTION Good needle deflection generally indicates a signal that is strong enough to DF Compare your deflection to another frequency – If you are using MHz, try it on MHz If deflection is the same in both frequencies, you DON’T have a signal, just random noise If deflection is different, keep at it! You have the signal. If a signal is only received on 243 MHz, it may be a malfunctioning antenna (e.g., an FAA tower). If you DF to the location (particularly on or near an airport) and you keep ending up at an antenna, investigate. Find out who owns the antenna and its purpose. Inform the IC and let the controlling agency troubleshoot the problem.

205 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis205 Vertical Reflections & Signal Dropout m The transmission pattern (similar to the reception pattern of the DF antennas, only for transmission) of an ELT is not a perfect circle or sphere m It has lobes, or, stronger and weaker points m This is accentuated when the ELT is transmitting from a location above the surrounding ground m When you get a good DF heading and the signal fades or drops out completely you may just be outside of one of the signal lobes m When you reacquire the signal, it should be stronger than when you lost it

206 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis206 Signal Dropout NO SIGNAL SIGNALHEARD m If you encounter a signal dropout, continue to fly on your last good DF heading m You should reacquire the signal in a few minutes Actual time will depend upon your distance to the target m If you are unable to reacquire, return to where you last heard the signal and re-DF

207 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis207 Signal Strength m The rate of change in signal strength increases as you get closer to the transmitter, and RECeive mode or the STRENGTH window measures signal strength m This is due to Maxwell’s inverse square law: When you double the distance from an object, the energy it you receive from it is 1/4 of what you originally received, or the inverse square: 1/(2 2 ) = 1/4 – After Scottish Physicist James Clerk Maxwell, m You will therefore need to turn down the sensitivity to keep the unit at half scale in the RECeive mode or STRENGTH window much more often as you get close to the source of the signal This should let you know that you’re getting close


209 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis209 Cone of Confusion Cone of Confusion m Antennas receive best when the pole is perpendicular to the signal m When you approach the directly overhead position on an ELT, your DF will become unreliable It may swing left and right It may center regardless of your heading m You should practice to see what this “station passage” reading looks like It is similar to crossing a VOR

210 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis210 Reception in the “Cone of Silence” antenna signal GOOD POOR m You may also get a significant drop in ELT signal since the antennas don’t receive well directly off of their tips m Although called a cone of silence, you will probably only see & hear a large decrease in signal instead of complete silence

211 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis211 Pinpointing the ELT m If you get a station passage indication, make an approximate 180 degree turn and DF back to the target m Repeat this process using different approach angles each time, remembering that your path may be curved due to wind (like uncorrected NDB holding) m The point where station passage is received several times should be the location of the target 1 2 3

212 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis212 Pinpointing the ELT m After you think you have the target located make a low pass over the suspected location and visually scan if signal strength decreases significantly or drops out, climb back and try again this is not the target: sometimes false targets will appear due to reflections or other interference m If you hear the ELT at low altitude, you probably have the right place a low pass down a runway might be a good idea if you suspect a particular airport


214 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis214 After Locating The ELT m After location, coordinate with ground teams to bring them on-scene m Use radio communication and relay GPS coordinates m Pick up the ground team at a predetermined location and lead them to the target m Alternately, coordinate a pick up point on the radio m Practice your air-to-ground coordination skills often try it both with and without radio communication m Air-to-ground is CAP’s best unique ES skill!

215 m Many times the ELT is located at an airfield where it is easier for you to land and locate the ELT than it is to get a ground team to the scene m You can use a hand-held radio or hand-held DF unit m The most commonly used in CAP is the Little L-Per m You did remember to put one of these (with charged batteries) in the aircraft before you left, didn’t you? DF upon Landing

216 m Six Steps Receive Half DF Center Turn Shoot Little L-Per

217 m You land at an airport with multiple hangars and each hangar is full of aircraft m This can make it difficult to find the ELT m Two methods can help: Signal-offset Using a hand-held radio without its antenna m If the suspect aircraft has an external DF antenna and you can’t get inside to turn the ELT off, try placing an aluminum foil ‘sleeve’ over the antenna to see if the signal strength decreases significantly OK, which of these planes is it in?

218 m Signal-offset: reflected signals are generally weaker so by tuning your radio further away from the primary frequency you can isolate the signal: Assume ELT transmitting on 121.5; set to As you home in set in (you may even work up to 121.7) As you get further away from the area where the signal will break through the squelch becomes smaller and smaller (you can even turn up the squelch to get further isolation) OK, which of these planes is it in?

219 m Using a hand-held radio without its antenna: Once you’ve narrowed the suspects down to one or two aircraft (usually side-by-side), remove the radio’s antenna and hold it next to one of the ELT antennas Turn the volume down until you just hear the signal Don’t key the radio’s transmitter with the antenna removed! Move to the other aircraft’s ELT antenna If the signal is stronger you probably have it; if weaker, its probably the other aircraft May also put an aluminum foil ‘sleeve’ over the antenna Can also combine this with the signal-offset method OK, which of these planes is it in?

220 m ELTs are usually located in or near the rear of the aircraft. Also look for remote switches. Single-engine Cessna: right side of the upper baggage area immediately aft of the baggage door Multi-engine Cessna: left side of the fuselage just forward of the horizontal stabilizer. Accessed through a small push-plate on the side of the fuselage. Single- and multi-engine Piper: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage. Single- and multi-engine Bonanza: in the aft fuselage. Accessed through a small access plate on the right side of the fuselage. Large piston twins (e.g., King Air) and small jets: if installed its probably in the rear section. No visible antenna. May have a small round push-plate that lets you manipulate the ELT switch. OK, where is the thing?

221 m Some aircraft have remote indicating lights (usually red; below) that flash when the ELT has activated; also look for obvious signs of disturbance near an ELT m Most 406 MHz ELTs also have a siren-type aural monitor OK, where is the thing?

222 m The preferred method is to have the owner (or someone designated by the owner) turn it off and disconnect the battery m Second best is to just turn it off The owner may take the switch to ‘Off’ and then back to ‘Armed’ If this is done, stick around awhile and monitor to ensure it doesn’t go off again m If you can’t find the owner, you may have to build a foil ‘tent’ (refer to CAPP-2) Silencing the ELT

223 WARNING! m Some new aircraft have a ballistic (rocket- propelled) parachute mounted on top of the fuselage m Warning signs on either side m If aircraft is damaged, avoid this area

224 Silencing the ELT m Foil Tent m 1’ x 5’ m Encloses antenna m Flaps at least 18” beyond antenna on fuselage m Securely taped (masking tape preferred)

225 m Ensure that the owner is notified that the ELT was disabled m If you can’t get a phone number, you can place a note on the aircraft (not the window) Silencing the ELT

226 m Per CAPR 60-3 Chapter 1, CAP members will not enter private property and should not do anything that could cause harm or damage to the distress beacon or aircraft/boat m Entry to the ELT should be made by the owner or operator or law enforcement m A transmitting ELT is under the legal authority of the FCC, and federal law requires that it be deactivated ASAP (a crashed aircraft is under the authority of the NTSB) Legal Issues

227 m CAP members do not have the authority to trespass onto private property, either to gain access to the aircraft or to enter the aircraft to gain access to the ELT m Besides the owner/operator, some owners give FBO personnel permission to enter their aircraft Legal Issues

228 m While entry upon private property may be justified if such an act is for the purpose of saving life, every effort should be made to obtain the controlling agency's and/or the property owner's consent m If you need entry onto private property in order to search for an ELT, law enforcement authorities such as local police, the county sheriff's office or game wardens may be contacted for assistance. Legal Issues

229 m Normally, local law enforcement officials are happy to assist you; if they are not familiar with CAP and your responsibilities, a simple explanation often suffices m If this doesn't work, try calling AFRCC and have them explain the situation Legal Issues

230 m The most important aspect is the manner in which you approach the matter m The local civil authorities are in charge, but if the AFRCC tasks you to search, you go search and offer assistance to the civil authorities when the opportunity presents itself m If they tell you go home, then phone the IC and/or AFRCC and close the mission Legal Issues

231 ©2000 Scott E. Lanis231 QUESTIONS? Good Hunting!

232 Visual Search Patterns and Procedures (Chapter 8)

233 m Plan and describe how to fly: Route (track crawl) search. {O & P; 8.2} Parallel track (sweep) search. {O & P; 8.3} Creeping line search. {O & P; 8.4} Point-based (expanding square or sector) search. {O & P; 8.5 & 8.6} m Discuss how to plan and fly a basic contour search. {O & P; 8.7} Objectives

234 m “Hey! Wait a minute. This is stupid.” m Do my headings, waypoints, lat/long coordinates, and distances look sensible? m Perform: After planning When you start your pattern Periodically thereafter The “Stupid Check”

235 m The following examples and worksheets are covered to aid in pre-planning a search pattern m Designed for non-moving map GPS, but include all the information you need to set up the GX50/55 m Even if your aircraft has GPS with SAR functions, planning in this manner will make your search easier and enable you to be more flexible in the air m Advantages of pre-planning: Sets the details of the sortie in your mind Makes entering data (correctly) into your GPS easier Allows pilot and observer to concentrate on their primary task by minimizing navaid setup time and reducing confusion Examples

236 m One minute latitude = nm Fly one minute north or south, cover one nautical mile (a 1-nm leg width) m One minute longitude = anywhere from to nm in the continental U.S. Means you’ll have to fly anywhere from 1.1 – 1.4 minutes of longitude (east or west) to cover one nautical mile Not hard to do, but for training we will use one minute = one mile, even though we’ll be flying less than 1-nm leg widths To get the relationship in your area, go to Latitude, Longitude and Distance (and the GPS)

237 Route search pattern Track of missing aircraft 1/2 S Track of search aircraft

238 m Assume we’re searching for an aircraft along Highway 46, between Columbus and Greensburg: Draw the route on the worksheet Include significant turns in the highway and other identifiers such as towns, airports and major intersections Search two miles either side of the highway Route search example

239 Route search worksheet example

240 Parallel Track search pattern

241 m Assume we’re searching STL #104-D for a missing aircraft: Quarter-grid, 7.5' x 7.5' Enter the northeast corner One nm track spacing North/South legs No aircraft assigned to adjacent grids Grid search example

242 Grid search worksheet example m GX50/55 Data m Type Grid & Sectional: US, STL m Pattern: Parallel Line m Grid: 104D2 m Spacing: 1 nm m Direction of Travel: N/S

243 Creeping Line search pattern sssss Direction of Search

244 m Assume we’re searching for an aircraft along Highway 31: Draw the route on the worksheet Start at the intersection of Hwys 31/9 (southeast of Columbus) Stop at the intersection of Hwys 31/50 (east of Seymour) Search three miles either side of Hwy 31 1-nm track spacing Creeping Line search example

245 Creeping Line search worksheet example

246 m Assume we’re searching for an aircraft along the extended runway centerline of BMG runway 06: Draw the route on the worksheet Search 10 nm beyond the end of runway 06 (southwest) Search three miles either side of the extended centerline 1-nm track spacing Creeping Line search example (CDI method)

247 Creeping Line search worksheet example (CDI) m GX50/55 Data m Type Grid & Sectional: US, STL m Pattern: Creeping Line m Starting Waypoint: BMG m Spacing: 1 nm m Direction of Travel: 060º m Leg Length: 3 nm m Start Side: Right

248 Expanding Square (second pass rotated 45°)

249 m Assume we’re searching for a missing ultra-light: Draw the route on the worksheet Center is a 483 AGL tower approximately 8 nm west of Seymour Use cardinal headings, starting to the north Expanding Square search example

250 Expanding Square search worksheet example m GX50/55 Data m Type Grid & Sectional: US, STL m Pattern: Expanding Square m Starting Waypoint: N 38º 59´ W 86º 10´ m Spacing: 1 nm m Direction of Travel: 000º

251 CIRCLING AIRBORNE IMAGING PROFILE Note: Diagram designed for imaging from the right seat; reverse when necessary

252 4-SQUARE AIRBORNE IMAGING PROFILE Note: Diagram designed for imaging from the right seat; reverse when necessary

253 OVERVIEW AIRBORNE IMAGING PROFILE Note: Diagram designed for imaging from the right seat; reverse when necessary


255 Point-based (Sector) search pattern Sector search is easier to fly than expanding square The pattern provides concentrated coverage near the center of the area This pattern is used when an electronic search has led the crew to a general area to find the exact location visually The pattern and headings are planned in advance S max S mean

256 Contour search pattern This is a difficult and dangerous pattern to fly. Requires special training such as the Mountain Flying course.


258 Step Through a Typical Mission (Chapter 10)

259 m Discuss the items you should check before leaving on a mission: {O & P; 10.1} Personal and aircraft items CAPF 71 State the flight time and crew duty limitations (per the current CAPR 60-1) State the three unique entries made by a CAP pilot on a FAA Flight Plan and where they go on the flight plan “IMSAFE” and flight release Preflight & loading Departure m Discuss the approach and your actions upon arrival at mission base, including the general briefing {O & P; 10.2 & 10.4} Objectives

260 m Discuss the six steps of ORM and the four principles involved {O & P; 10.3} m Discuss the aircrew briefing {O & P; 10.5} m Describe the information contained in and how to fill out the flight planning and briefing sections of the CAPF 104 {O & P; 10.6} m Discuss the items checked and actions taken before leaving on a sortie: {O & P; 10.7} Release and preparation Preflight and Departure State when the ‘sterile cockpit’ rules starts and ends m Discuss duties during the sortie, including: {O & P; 10.8} Preparations prior to entering the search area Required radio reports State when the ‘sterile cockpit’ rules starts and ends Objectives (con’t)

261 m Discuss your actions upon arrival back at mission base {O & P; 10.9} m Describe the information contained in and how to fill out the debriefing section of the CAPF 104 {O & P; 10.10} m Discuss the aircrew debriefing {P; 13.11} m Discuss your actions upon arrival back home, including: {P; 13.12} What to do with the aircraft What to do if you observe signs of post-traumatic stress When the mission is officially over for you and your crew Objectives (con’t)

262 What’s the Rush? m Why do we go to so much trouble to train mission aircrew members and encourage members to spend the time it takes to stay proficient? m Time is such a critical factor in missing person or aircraft crash searches m Treat every minute after you been alerted as critical to the survival chances of the victims

263 Survival Rates m Of the 29% who survive a crash, 60% will be injured: 81% will die if not located within 24 hours 94% will die if not located within 48 hours m Of those 40% uninjured in the crash: 50% will die if not located within 72 hours Survival chances diminish rapidly after 72 hours

264 Response Times m Average time from the aircraft being reported missing to AFRCC notification: 15.6 hours if no flight plan was filed 3.9 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed 1.1 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed m Average time from the aircraft being reported missing (LKP) to CAP locating and recovering: 62.6 hours if no flight plan was filed 18.2 hours if a VFR flight plan was filed 11.5 hours if an IFR flight plan was filed

265 What’s the Rush? m What do these statistics tell us? We must take each mission seriously! Strive to do everything better, smarter and faster! m Training, practice and pre-planning help us accomplish these goals m Also tells us, as pilots, to always file a flight plan

266 Leaving Home Base m Proper uniforms per CAPM 39-1 m Required credentials m Current charts for the entire trip (gridded, if you have them) m Personal supplies and money m Equipment such as cell phone and flashlights (including spare batteries) m Charts and maps NOTE: Mission Pilots may skip the portions that were covered in Chapter 12, Phases of Flight

267 Leaving Home Base m Check the Weight and Balance, ORM, CO monitor & Fire Extinguisher status, fuel reserve and management plan, Discrepancy Log m Tie-downs, chocks, Pitot cover and engine plugs m Equipment such as fuel tester, survival kit, binoculars, sick sacks, and cleaning supplies

268 Leaving Home Base m Obtain briefing and file FAA Flight Plan (use Flight Following) m Complete “Inbound” 104 and get released by FRO (may be mission base if AFAM)

269 Leaving Home Base “IMSAFE” m I llness m M edication m S tress m A lcohol m F atigue m E motion

270 Leaving Home Base -- FRO Checklist Review CAPF 99, CAP Flight Release Log, reverse, CAP FRO Checklist Questions m Are PIC(s) qualified to fly the CAP aircraft for the type of flight proposed (consult the Ops-Qual FRO Report)? Does the PIC(s) possess the appropriate pilot currency for the flight? m Are all aircraft occupants CAP members? If not, have applicable procedures been followed for non-CAP members, including CAPF 9 if applicable? m Is the correct mission symbol selected? m Is the route of flight complete, and does the PIC have permission to fly to destinations outside the wing? Does permission exist for all landings at every airport IAW CAPR 60-1? m Will a flight plan be filed (required for over 50 nm)? If not, what is the estimated landing time? Unless an FAA flight plan is filed and activated, the FRO is responsible for initiating missing aircraft procedures two hours after the estimated landing time if not notified the flight was safely concluded

271 Pre-flight begins even before you even get to the aircraft

272 Preflight m Check the aircraft: Pre-flight (e.g., CAPF 71, CAP Aircraft Inspection Checklist ) m Check the date and starting Tach & Hobbs times to ensure you won't exceed : Mid-cycle oil change (40-60 hours, not to exceed six months) 100-hour/Annual 24-month Transponder inspection, Pitot-Static system inspection, Altimeter calibration, & ELT inspection/Battery replacement date 30-day VOR check for IFR flight m Check the AD compliance list m Fill in the CAP Flight Log

273 Preflight m Check the Discrepancy Log; ensure no discrepancy makes the aircraft unsafe for flight or reduces your ability to accomplish the mission m Verify any outstanding discrepancies during your aircraft preflight. If new discrepancies are discovered, log them and ensure the aircraft is still airworthy and mission ready m During loading, ensure that all supplies and equipment correspond to what you used in your Weight & Balance m Windshield and windows are clean, and that the chocks, tie- downs, and Pitot tube covers/engine plugs are stowed m Check and test special equipment

274 Preflight m Check parking area for obstacles, arrange for marshaller or wing-walker m The mission pilot will perform the passenger briefing, Sterile Cockpit rules, and review the emergency egress procedure. The pilot should also brief the crew on the fuel management plan and assumptions, and assign responsibility for inquiring about fuel status once an hour. m The pilot will review the taxi plan and taxiway diagram, and assign crew responsibilities for taxi m Once everyone is settled in, organize the cockpit and review the "Engine Fire on Start" procedure

275 Departure m Always use the checklists; use the challenge/response method m Seat belts and shoulder harnesses m Collision avoidance! An increasing number of taxi mishaps are the number one trend in CAP. Investigations reveal that pilots are: straying from designated taxi routes, not allowing adequate clearance, not considering the tail and wings during turns, taxiing too fast for conditions, taxiing with obscured visibility, distracted by cockpit duties, and not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance. Use exterior lights!

276 Departure m CAPR 60-1 taxi rules : Taxi no faster than a slow walk when within 10 feet of obstacles Maintain at least 50' behind light single-engine aircraft, 100' behind light multi-engine or jet aircraft, and 500' behind helicopters and heavies m Go over the crew assignments for takeoff and departure and make sure each crewmember knows in which direction they should be looking during each. m Remind the crew that midair collisions are most likely to occur in daylight VFR conditions within five miles of an airport at or below 3,000’ AGL ! This means that most midair collisions occur in or near the traffic pattern. Since the pilot has only one set of eyes, this (and aircraft design) leaves several 'blind spots' that the observer and scanner must cover -- particularly between your 4 and 8 o'clock positions.

277 Departure m Be sure and include the DF unit's Alarm light self-test in your scan during startup. The light should blink for several seconds; if it doesn't your unit may be inoperative. m Ensure that the DF, Audio Panel and FM radio are set up properly. If possible, perform an FM radio check. Select your initial VOR radial(s) and GPS setting (e.g., destination or flight plan). m Obtain ATIS and Clearance (read back all clearances and hold-short instructions). Then verify the crosswind limitation. Set up the navigational instruments (e.g., VOR radials and GPS destination, entry points and waypoints) m Once you begin taxiing, check your brakes

278 Departure m Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect m Keep the checklist close at hand, open to Emergency Procedures m Check for landing aircraft before taking the active m Good idea to state what you intend to do if you have engine problems on takeoff m After takeoff, start the Observer Log with the time and Hobbs for “Takeoff“ m The FAA's "operation lights on" encourages pilots to keep aircraft lights on when operating within 10 miles of an airport, or wherever flocks of birds may be expected m While departing the airport environs practice collision avoidance and maintain the sterile cockpit until well clear of traffic and obstacles. The pilot should use shallow S-turns and lift a wing before turns to check for traffic. The crew must keep each other appraised of conflicting aircraft and obstacles

279 Arrival at Mission Base m Obtain ATIS (or AWOS) as soon as possible. May be able to contact mission base on FM radio. m Review taxi plan/airport taxi diagram and make crew assignments for approach, landing and taxi m Make sure each crewmember knows in which direction they should be looking during each. Remind the crew that midair collisions are most likely to occur in daylight VFR conditions within five miles of an airport at or below 3,000’ AGL ! This means that most midair collisions occur in the traffic pattern, with over half occurring on final approach m Sterile cockpit rules are now in effect

280 Arrival at Mission Base m Practice collision avoidance by turning the aircraft exterior lights on when within 10 miles of the airport. The pilot should use shallow S-turns and lift a wing before turns to check for traffic. Read back all clearances and hold-short instructions m Defer after-landing checks until clear m Log and report “Landing" m Watch for Marshallers and follow their directions, signal Ignition Switch OFF (hold keys out the window) so they can chock

281 Arriving at Mission Base (with style)

282 Arrival at Mission Base m Secure the aircraft : Avionics/Control lock, Master Switch OFF Tie-downs, chocks, Pitot tube cover and engine plugs Close windows, Fuel Selector Switch in 'Right' or 'Left,' and Parking Brake OFF; remove personal items and special equipment; lock the doors and baggage compartment. m Oil & fuel, clean windows and leading edges m Close FAA flight plan, call FRO m Check aircrew and aircraft into the mission m Complete “Inbound” 104 (WMIRS) m Get sortie assignment m Determine food and lodging

283 General Briefing m Mission objective and status m Safety and hazards m Mission base procedures m Weather m Frequencies

284 Operational Risk Management m Accomplish the mission with the least possible risk m More than common sense, more than just a safety program m Educated (informed) risk versus taking a gamble m Part of the CAP culture m ORM Courses on the National website

285 ORM – Six Steps m Identify the hazards m Assess the risks m Analyze risk control measures m Make control decisions m Implement risk controls m Supervise and review

286 ORM Principles m Accept no unnecessary risks m Make risk decisions at the appropriate level m Accept risk when the benefits outweigh the costs m Integrate ORM into CAP practices, procedures, and planning at all levels

287 ORM and the Aircrew m Acknowledge risks in order to deal with them m Each crewmember is responsible to look for risks m Don’t ignore risks; if you can’t eliminate or reduce the risk, tell someone m PIC has ultimate authority and responsibility to deal with risks during the sortie m PIC has the responsibility to inform his or her crew of the risks involved, and to listen to and address their concerns

288 Aircrew Briefing m Sortie Objectives m Weather m Altitudes m Duties


290 CAPF 104 (WMIRS) - Flight Plan - Briefing form




294 Preparing to Leave on a Sortie m Check in with Briefing Officer, who will check your 104 and sign m Flight Release Officer will inform you of any changes and release you m Pilot pre-flights aircraft m Observer checks mission equipment and supplies m Review flight time and duty limitations m Final restroom visit

295 Preparing to Leave on a Sortie m Pilot’s briefing: Seat belts and shoulder harness, no smoking Emergency egress procedure Fuel management plan and assumptions Taxi plan/diagram, crew assignments Startup and Taxi emergency procedures When sterile cockpit rules are in effect m When more than one flight is accomplished by the same crew during the day, subsequent briefings are not required to be so detailed but must, at a minimum, highlight differences and changes from the original briefing

296 Preparing to Leave on a Sortie m If this is the first sortie of the day the observer will perform an FM radio check with mission base; you may also perform a DF functional check if this is an ELT search. Other special equipment should also be tested before the first sortie (camera, camcorder, SDIS). m Enter sortie settings into the GPS (destination or flight plan, entry points and waypoints)

297 Taxi Mishaps m Becoming a bigger problem each year (#1 trend in CAP) m Pilots are: Straying from designated taxi routes Not allowing adequate clearance and not considering the tail and wings during turns Taxiing too fast for conditions and taxiing with obscured visibility Distracted by cockpit duties Not using other crewmembers to ensure clearance m Strategies: Thorough planning and preparation eliminates distractions Crew assignments for taxi Treat taxiing with the seriousness it deserves Use exterior lights (be considerate of others, especially at night) Sterile cockpit rules

298 Taxi and Departure m The sterile cockpit rules begin at this time m Startup, taxi and departure were covered earlier m If there are flight line Marshallers, they will expect you to turn on your rotating beacon and signal the impending engine start before starting the engine. You are also expected to signal (e.g., turn on your pulse light or flash your taxi/landing light) before beginning to taxi. m Observer begins Observer Log with time and Hobbs, reports “Takeoff” m Takeoff, climb and departure were covered earlier m Once clear of the airport/controlled airspace environs the crew settles into the transit phase

299 During the Sortie m Depending on circumstances (e.g., the airspace is still congested or multiple obstacles are present) the sterile cockpit rules are normally suspended at this time. The aircrew maintains situational awareness at all times during the flight m Double-check navigational settings that will be used in the search area, review search area terrain and obstacles, review methods to reduce crew fatigue during the search or to combat high altitude effects. m Update in-flight weather, file PIREPs, periodically check navigational equipment against each other to detect abnormalities or failures

300 During the Sortie m The pilot should stabilize the aircraft at the assigned search heading, altitude and airspeed at least two miles before you enter the search area, and turn sufficient aircraft exterior lights on to maximize visibility (so others can "see and avoid") m The sterile cockpit rules begin at this time m Observer logs and reports “Entering the Search Area,” primary duty is now Scanner m Periodic “Ops Normal” reports, Observer asks about fuel status and altimeter setting at least hourly m Scanner and observer logs, sketches

301 During the Sortie m During the actual search or assessment, the aircrew must be completely honest with each other concerning their own condition and other factors affecting search effectiveness. If you missed something, or think you saw something, say so. If you have a question, ask. m If target spotted notify mission base immediately ; begin recovery ASAP m Mission commander monitors for fatigue, ensures crew drinks enough fluids, schedules breaks

302 Return to Base m When the aircraft completes its mission and leaves the search area, the observer notes the time and the Hobbs reading and reports "Leaving the Search Area“ m Double-check heading and altitude with what was assigned for transit to the next search area or return to base m Reorganize the cockpit in preparation for approach and landing m Approach, landing and arrival were covered earlier

303 Return to Base m Check back in and take a break m Complete the CAPF 104 and prepare for debriefing m The Debriefing section of the F104 contains your observations and comments regarding your sortie and your assessment of sortie effectiveness

304 CAPF 104 WMIRS Debrief

305 Debriefing m Note both Positive and Negative results m Use the Debriefing Information section of the CAPF 104 m Used to determine how effective the search was: Weather — shadows, visibility, snow cover Terrain — open, flat, mountainous, rough Ground Cover — barren, forest, scrub, sparse, dense Other information — hazards, changes from plan m Used to calculate the “probability of detection” that is used for subsequent search planning

306 Debriefing m Discuss items on the 104 m Assemble and label attachments m Report to Debriefer m Be TOTALLY HONEST during the debriefing

307 Debriefing m Crew comments about effectiveness m Times (and Hobbs readings) m Sketches and attachments m Fuel receipt m Be TOTALLY HONEST during the debriefing

308 End of the Mission m Turn in equipment and supplies m Settle fuel, food and lodging bills m Plan the trip home m Fill out “Outbound” CAPF 104 (WMIRS) m Check weather and file FAA Flight Plan m Check out with mission staff, obtain flight release

309 The Trip Home m Maintain crew discipline and continue to use mission procedures and checklists m SAR personnel can experience post-traumatic stress, so look for signs (refer to CAPR 60-5) m Once on the ground, secure the aircraft and ready it for its next mission m Close FAA Flight Plan m Complete the “Outbound” 104 (WMIRS) m Once everyone is at home, call mission base to close out the mission

310 Local Drills and Exercises m Easy m Inexpensive m Very efficient m Very worthwhile m Fun


312 Crew Resource Management (Chapter 11)

313 m Discuss failures and error chain {O & P; 11.2} m Discuss situational awareness {O & P; 11.3} m Discuss how to regain SA once lost {O & P 11.4} m Describe barriers to communications {O & P; 11.5} m Define/discuss task saturation {O & P; 11.6} m Discuss assignments and coordination of duties {O & P; 11.8} Objectives

314 Why CRM? m Properly trained aircrew members can collectively perform complex tasks better and make more accurate decisions than the single best performer on the team m An untrained team's overall performance can be significantly worse than the performance of its weakest single member m We will cover behavior and attitudes of teamwork and communication among team members

315 Why CRM? m CAP m Aircraft accidents95631 m Per 100,000 hours m A/C flight incidents m A/C ground incidents78368 m Fatalities72320

316 Why CRM? m MISHAP m Taxi949 m Ground463 m Landing8810 m Other432

317 Failures m Parts and equipment. Mechanical failures m People. Human failures

318 The Error Chain m A series of event links that, when considered together, cause a mishap m Should any one of the links be “broken,” then the mishap probably will not occur m It is up to each crewmember to recognize a link and break the error chain

319 Situational Awareness (SA) m Know what is going on around you at all times m Requires: Good mental health Good physical health Attentiveness Inquisitiveness

320 Loss of SA m Strength of an Idea m Hidden agenda m Complacency m Accommodation m Sudden Loss of Judgement

321 Symptoms of Loss of SA m Fixation m Ambiguity m Complacency m Euphoria m Confusion m Distraction m Overload

322 Hazardous Attitudes m Anti-authority m Impulsiveness m Invulnerability m Macho m Resignation m Get There It-us

323 Regaining SA m Reduce workload: Suspend the mission. m Reduce threats: Get away from the ground and other obstacles (e.g., climb to a safe altitude). Establish a stable flight profile where you can safely analyze the situation. m Remember: “Aviate, Navigate, Communicate”

324 How do we get it back? m Trust your gut feelings m “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid.” Pilot establishes aircraft in a safe and stable configuration, and then discuss the problem m Sterile Cockpit Limit talk to the minimum necessary for safety. Taxi, takeoff, departure, low-level flying, approach, landing


326 Barriers to Communication m Hearing The biological function of receiving sounds, converting them to electrical impulses, and having the brain interpret them m Listening Correctly identifying what the sender has sent in their message

327 Barriers to Communication m Distracters Physical/Mental: Noise, static, simultaneous transmissions; fatigue and stress Wording: Incomplete or ambiguous message, too complex or uses unfamiliar terminology Personal: Boring, lack of rapport or lack of credibility

328 Task Saturation m Too much information at one time m Too many tasks to accomplish in a given time m Usually occurs when an individual is confronted with a new or unexpected situation and loses SA

329 Task Saturation m Keep your workload to an acceptable level m If you feel overwhelmed, tell the others before becoming saturated and losing you situational awareness m Watch your team members for signs of saturation

330 Identification of Resources m External and internal m Identify your resources, know where to find them, and how to use them to accomplish the mission

331 Assignment of Duties m CAPR 60-3 m Flight-related -- aircraft commander m Mission-related -- mission commander

332 Crew Coordination m Understand and execute your assignments m Communicate m Question

333 Summary m Pay close attention to all briefings m Understand the “big picture” m Watch for task overload in yourself and other crewmembers m 67% of air transport accidents occur during 17% of the flight time - taxi, takeoff, departure, approach and landing. Keep casual conversation and distractions to a minimum during these phases of flight. m Begin critical communications with instructions, then explain

334 Summary m Successful missions hinge on each and every crewmember m Learn how to use the procedures and tools available to you, and use them correctly m Never stop learning m Don’t be afraid to ask questions m Never criticize someone for asking questions m Anyone can call “Time Out,” “Abort,” or “This is Stupid” m Remember that the Mission Pilot must make the final decision based on the crew’s input



337 Pilot Records and Form 91 Review

338 Introduction m The purpose of this section is to review the CAPF 91 (CAP Mission Pilot Checkout)

339 Pilot Records (from 60-1) m All pilot data must be entered into the CAP OPS Quals system by the member or authorized unit Stan/Eval and validated by the unit commander or designee Data entered shall include all relevant FAA pilot qualifications, CAPF 5, Aircraft Questionnaire(s), commander written designations, and other items needed to establish CAP aircraft operating privileges m All CAP pilots must sign a one time copy of the CAP Statement of Understanding, which will be maintained on file with the authorized unit Stan/Eval

340 Optional Records (Personal) m FRO Personal authorization m Current CAP Membership card m Current CAP 101 card and CAPF 114 (training record) m CAP Communications certificate (CAPF 76, ROA) m Award of Aeronautical Rating (CAPF 2a) m Documentation of total PIC hours (photocopy of last page of your logbook) m FAA A & P certificate m Emergency Notification Data (CAPF 60) m FAA Wings certificate (highest level held) m Current CPR, Basic Care, Bloodborne Pathogens cards m Keep expired Form 5s at home

341 CAPF 91 Mission Pilot Checkout m This section reviews the CAP Mission Pilot Checkout m CAPF 91 instructions describes what to expect before, during and after your check ride m Remember, you can use the “Approved Mission Pilot Proficiency Flight Profile #5” to practice for your checkout

342 Oral Discussion (CAPF 91, I.) m Ensure current CAPF 116 Part 1 Exam Passed m Ensure IS-100, IS-200 and IS-700 completed m Mission Base Procedures m Air-to-ground signals m Mission safety principles m CAP Radio Procedures (as required) m Individual & Crew Equipment/Clothing m Search Procedures m Map and Chart Reading

343 Oral Discussion m Mission flight planning, including WMIRS, CAPF 104, and uploading documents m Observer/Scanner briefing and utilization (CRM/ORM) m Use of the standardized chart grid system m Debriefing procedures

344 Pre-Flight Planning (CAPF 91, II.) m Determine Performance Limitations m Obtain Mission Briefing m Gridded Sectional m Observer Briefing m Fuel Planning & Reserve m Ground Team Coordination

345 Visual Search Patterns & Procedures (CAPF 91, III.) m Locate Grid or Area (without electronic aids) m Establish Search Altitudes m Grid (parallel track) Search Patterns m Creeping Line Search Procedures m Expanding Square or Sector Search m SDIS procedures, if applicable m ARCHER Procedures, if applicable

346 Electronic Search Patterns & Procedures (CAPF 91, IV.) m Locate Starting Point (with & without electronic aids) m Establish Appropriate Search Altitude m VHF-DF Procedures m Wing Null Procedures m Aural (build-fade) Procedures

347 Mountainous Terrain Procedures (CAPF 91, V.) m Locate Grid/Area (with & without electronic nav) m Establish Search Altitude m Contour Search Procedures m Canyon Search Procedures m Ridge Crossing procedures m Communications Procedures m Wind/Updrafts/Downdrafts m Mountain Wave Effect

348 Emergency Procedures (CAPF 91, VI.) m Low Altitude Engine Failure m Ditching m Landing on Unprepared Surface m Deteriorating Weather

349 Mission Flight Maneuvers (CAPF 91, VII.) m 720° Steep Turns m Turns About a Point m Message Drop Procedure (verbal) m Airspeed Control m Low Speed Maneuvering m Low Level Navigation (without electronic navaids) m Judgment

350 Safety Awareness (CAPF 91, VIII.) m Clearing Turns and Collision Avoidance m Vigilance m Cockpit Resource Management m Risk Management

351 Proficiency m CAPR 60-1 gives considerable attention to proficiency: Self-Conducted Proficiency Flight Guidelines m Mission Pilot Proficiency Profiles (use with B12): Profile 1: Visual Search Mission Profile 2: Video Imaging Mission Profile 3: Electronic Search Mission Profile 4: Transportation Mission Profile 5: CAPF 91 Practice Profile 6: Mountain Search Mission Profile 7: Proficiency Flight Mission Profile (with CFI/CFII) Profile 8: ARCHER Mission


353 Review and Test

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