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The Age of Thomas Jefferson up Until 1815. Themes Profile Thomas Jefferson Marbury vs. Madison Louisiana Purchase War of 1812.

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of Thomas Jefferson up Until 1815. Themes Profile Thomas Jefferson Marbury vs. Madison Louisiana Purchase War of 1812."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of Thomas Jefferson up Until 1815

2 Themes Profile Thomas Jefferson Marbury vs. Madison Louisiana Purchase War of 1812

3 Thomas Jefferson Born in Virginia Not a great public speaker Very shy Rarely dressed up Wrote the Declaration of Independence Governor of Virginia Vice President under John Adams

4 Thomas Jefferson (Contradictions) Statements Common Man All are created equal Limited governmental power No intermixture Reality Monticello and Money Slave owner Bought Louisiana Sally Hemming

5 Election of 1800 Ugliest election to date (Federalist vs. supporters of Jefferson) Accusations against Jefferson that he fathered black children Federalists were split as President John Adams sought peace with France Jefferson attacked Adams labeling him a monarchist; attacking individual liberties Adams attacked Jefferson by labeling him an atheist and supporter of radicalism

6 Election of 1800 Thomas Jefferson & Aaron Burr John Adams & Charles C. Pinckney -The first place winner would be president and second place winner would be vice- president regardless of political party Jefferson and Burr TIED

7 Election of 1800 The election would be decided in the Federalist majority House of Representatives Federalist would determine the winner Thomas Jefferson was named next president Alexander Hamilton hated both men but supported Jefferson; lesser of two evils Burr and Hamilton later fought a duel in 1804: - Hamilton was killed

8 Election of 1800 (Impact) 1.12 th Amendment: - Electors would cast separate ballots for President and Vice President 2. Peaceful transfer of power should success of American experiment in democracy

9 Marbury vs. Madison (1803) The Midnight Appointments John Adams appointed several Federalists to positions in the judiciary Goal: maintain Federalist influence in at least one branch of government William Marbury was named a Justice of the Peace

10 Marbury vs. Madison (1803) Marbury never received his appointment into the judiciary New Secretary of State James Madison refused to deliver it Marbury sued; Judiciary Act of 1789 could force delivery of such documents

11 Marbury vs. Madison (1803) Chief Justice John Marshall ruling: 1. Madison should deliver the commission, but the Supreme court couldn’t force him 2. The Constitution never the Court the power to issue such rulings 3. The sections of the Judiciary Act granting this power was unconstitutional Long Term Effect Judicial Review – gave power to courts to review constitutionality of laws Supreme Court became equal to other branches

12 Louisiana Territory (1800-1803) Concern grew in Nueva Espania as the Americans drew close to their borders Spanish always welcomed Native Americans and some European immigrants into their lands, but were very cautious with Americans In 1800, Spanish struck a deal to return the Mississippi territory to France, in hopes that a French Louisiana provide a buffer zone between Spain and America Napoleon agreed to deal with Spain

13 Louisiana Purchase France gained control of the Louisiana area in 1802; access to New Orleans was restricted. Violated Pinckney's Treaty (1796) France was attempting to gain back control of North America; led by Napoleon President Jefferson sent Robert Livingston to France and authorized up to $2 million to purchase area of New Orleans France agreed; $15 million

14 Louisiana Purchase (1803)

15 Why Would France Sell? In modern day Haiti, a revolt against the French was led by Toussaint L’ouveture in the 1790s French attempted to retake Island in 1802 but were defeated Napoleon would give up on the New World and use the money to help fund the upcoming war in Europe

16 Louisiana Purchase (Results) Large purchase of land for the United States Jefferson was worried about the process; considers a constitutional amendment Sent it to Congress for their approval

17 Crops of Discovery Commissioned by the government to explore newly purchased land Leaders: - Meriwether Lewis: Jefferson’s personal secretary - William Clark: Army officer 27 other members

18 Lewis and Clark’s Goals 1. Scientific Expedition: Study and survey the land (plants and animals) Economic potential 2. Study Native American culture and lifestyle; possibly establish a trade network

19 Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-06) Started in St. Louis Plan: follow the Missouri River Winter of 1804 – 05 was at Ft. Mandan (ND) Very positive relations with the Mandan Indians

20 Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-06)

21 During the start of the second winter, Lewis and Clark made it to what is now Fort Clatsop in Oregon In 1806, returned home in success Helped by Sacajawea – Served as translator and navigator through the land. Told encountering tribes that Lewis and Clark led a peace party not a war party

22 Results of the Expedition 1.Observations of the land were very detailed and helped future travelers 2.Descriptions of Native Americans contained biases, but provided information about Indian culture and lifestyle 3.Improved U.S. claims to Oregon and Washington *Oregon and Washington 1840s*

23 Embargo Act (1807) War began in Europe in 1803 American trade ships were constantly being attacked (America neutral) Definition: Banned all importation of British goods into the country Goal: European reliance on American goods would force recognition of neutral rights Result: Complete failure; unemployment rose and policy unpopular

24 War of 1812 (Causes) Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) James Madison (1809-1817) War began in Europe in 1803 1.By 1805 British and French blocked trade routes into Europe. Both began seizing American ships Royal Navy forced some American Navy soldiers into service; 6,000 2.British support of Native Americans resisting U.S. presence in Northwest Territory 3. War hawks

25 Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (1807) U.S. warship (Chesapeake) refused to be boarded Leopard (British) fired its cannons, killing three Americans and wounding others Many Americans began calling for war

26 Battle of Tippecanoe (1811) Shawnee Chief Tecumseh sought to lead many Native American tribes against the expansion of the Americans William Henry Harrison (Indiana Governor) began to worry about this large Indian force The Prophet (Brother) – attacked Harrison’s forces and were defeated Results: - Harrison a hero! - Tecumseh must ally himself with British

27 War Hawks Name given to vocal supporters of war with Great Britain Leaders: Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun Supporters located in the West and South

28 Declaration of War Opposition to war was strongest in New England and New York (Federalist states) June 1812 Congress declared war

29 War of 1812 Early in the war, Americans constantly failed to invade Canada Americans surrender Fort. Detroit Oliver Perry finally defeated British at Put-In- Bay Tecumseh was killed at the Battle of the Thames

30 War of 1812

31 Battle of Bladensburg – American defeated; resulted in Washington, D.C. being burnt to the ground in 1814

32 Treaty of Ghent (1814) Negotiators from the United States, during the war, met with Great Britain and agreed to end hostilities Location: Ghent, Belgium Relations of the two countries were restored to pre-war status News took over two months to get across the ocean

33 Battle of New Orleans (1815) Led by Andrew Jackson Tremendous American victory with Jackson’s forces killing over 2,000 British soldiers

34 Hartford Convention (1814-1815) Federalists met in Hartford, Connecticut and proposed Constitutional Amendments 1.Require a 2/3 vote to declare war 2.Prohibit election of two successive Presidents from the same state Federalists remained pro-British After the war, Federalists were seen as traitors and led to the “Death” of Federalist Party

35 Symbols of Nationalism William Henry Harrison – Hero Presidential Mansion was repainted white then renamed White House Star Spangled Banner by Francis Scott Key was written during the battle of Fort. McHenry (Maryland) Andrew Jackson – Hero

36 Review Thomas Jefferson War of 1812: Causes and effects Rise of Nationalism

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