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Political Parties Develop

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1 Political Parties Develop 1788-1810
The First Administration 1. The Constitution became law June 21, 1788 2. Congress called for election for President and Vice President 3. George Washington became President. a. He organized a Cabinet b. He chose men he knew and trusted 4, John Adams became Vice President

2 Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Plan
The United States was in debt a. Long costly war b. Weakness of the Articles of Confederation c. Treasury was empty Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of Treasury a. Recommended that four important financial measures be taken 1. The $10 million debt to France and Netherlands be paid off 2. The $44 million owed to people of the various states was also to be paid 3. The central government was to take over debts that the state run up during war 4. The United States was to issue government bonds to raise much needed money

3 The Governments Progress
France declared war against England in 1793. Because the French helped Americans during Revolutionary war, France expected some help in return Washington thought it unwise to get into another war so soon Hamilton wanted the US to be neutral Jefferson thought US should help. Washington decided to stay neutral.

4 Trouble in the Western Lands
England and Spain continued to interfere with Americans as they moved westward. British stirred up Indians by selling them whiskey and firearms Indians fighting to protect their land that the settlers also claimed.

5 Trouble in the Western Lands (con’t.)
John Jay, a statesman and diplomat, was sent to London to discuss a treaty in 1794 He got the British to agree to leave the forts built on American soil. Treaty not popular with Congress Washington urged its approval

6 Spain Agrees to Treaty Spanish controlled the Mississippi River and New Orleans and a part of Florida Americans need them for trade Spain agreed to permit free navigation on the Mississippi This opened up the Port of New Orleans Florida territory was turned over to the US

7 George Washington The First President (1789-1797)
Washington was asked to serve a second term He accepted with failing health

8 Washington (con’t.) Differences in political ideas started emerging towards the end of his second term He refused to serve a third term He was tired and wanted to return to his Virginia home He died two years later at age 67

9 Washington (con’t) He had no example to follow
Chose excellent advisors Put country on its feet financially and politically Kept country out of European conflicts Called “Father of His Country” because of his many contributions

10 The Two Party System Thomas Jefferson and James Madison wanted states to have more power to run their own affairs Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan was not a big hit. Opponents did not want the central government given more power over states

11 The Two Party System (con’t)
The Democratic-Republican Party formed with Thomas Jefferson leading the way The new party supported stronger state government Federalist party supported stronger central government

12 The Second President The Federalists chose John Adams for President
The Democratic-Republican Party chose Thomas Jefferson for President Held the election in 1796

13 The Second President (con’t’)
Adams won president and Jefferson got Vice President The out come put Adams in difficult position He favored a strong central government Jefferson supported strong state government

14 Problem with the French
When Adams took office several European countries were at war with each other American neutrality policy angered the French They began to take American supply ships

15 French Problems (con’t)
Adams wanted to avoid war In 1800 French agreed to stop interfering with ships They refused to pay claims for earlier shipping losses. Americans not pleased. Wanted government to take stronger action

16 The Decline of the Federalists
John Adams was not a popular President He was honest and loyal American Also arrogant and stubborn Newspapers did not support him New immigrants joined opposing party

17 The Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalist wanted to take action to regain control Alien Act Alien acts of 1798, immigrants had to wait 14 years to become US citizens Could be deported or imprisoned if found to be dangerous

18 Sedition Act A crime for anyone to speak out, write or print articles against the government Those who did were convicted paid $5,000 fine Serve up to 5 years in prison Became major issue in election of 1800 Republicans thought these laws violated the Constitution

19 The Election of 1800 First real contest between the two parties
a. Federalists- supported the incumbent (in-office) President, John Adams 1. Picked Charles Pinckney to be his running mate

20 b. Democratic-Republican-supported Thomas
Jefferson 1. The farmers, small businessmen, and the and the ordinary workers liked him. 2. Chose Aaron Burr of New York to be his running mate

21 Election 1800 (con’t) An unusual problem arose
Constitution stated each member of the electoral college was to vote for two candidates. Person with highest number of votes would become President

22 Election 1800 (con’t.) The person with the second highest number
would become Vice-President Jefferson and Burr each had 73 electoral votes Adams had 65 Because of the tie the House of Representatives had to decide

23 Hamilton’s Influence Congress found it difficult to choose between
Jefferson and Burr The Federalists wanted Burr a. His views were closer to the Federalists than Jefferson OR

24 Hamilton Influence (con’t.)
Alexander Hamilton was in influential Federalist He had very little respect for Jefferson’s political ideas He thought even less of Burr a. Jefferson thought he could not be trusted Hamilton was able to swing the vote in Jefferson favor. Jefferson became President and Burr Vice-President *Burr killed Hamilton in a dual ** see handout

25 The constitution was ratified in 1804.
The 12th amendment prevented another tie situation The electors would vote for each. a. President b. Vice-President

26 The Electors – An Explanation
Every state chose a certain number of electors Each elector cast a ballot That made it possible for the President and Vice-President to be of different parties

27 Thomas Jefferson Was President for 8 years Got country organized
Major influence in decline of Federalist Party Rich land owner of Virginia Many thought he was untidy and not friendly Intelligent Graduated from William and Mary College in Virginia

28 Jefferson (con’t.) Author of Declaration of Independence
Believed government could only do what Constitution allowed Moved nation’s Capital from Philadelphia to Washington DC in 1800

29 Jefferson’s Accomplishments in Office
Alien and Sedition Act Expired a. those imprisoned under that act was released, charges removed from record b. the residence requirement for new citizens was lowered to 5 years

30 The Federal debt was substantially lowered
The United States Military Academy at West Point was established Slaves could no longer be imported The acquisition of the Louisiana was completed

31 The Louisiana Territory
Jefferson learned Spain signed over a large region of land over to France. The “mouth of the Mississippi” was an important port for international trade United States made agreement with Spain to navigate the lower part of the Mississippi for imports

32 Louisiana Territory (con’t.)
Two years after France and Napoleon Bonaparte took control, this agreement was withdrawn US had no outlet for Eastern trade Jefferson did not want to go to war with France Jefferson needed to talk Napoleon into selling New Orleans and small region nearby to him

33 Louisiana Purchase President Jefferson sent James Monroe to Paris
in 1803 Was to buy as much land as he could with 10 million dollars

34 Louisiana Purchase (con’t)
US Ambassador to France, Robert Livingston, was already negotiating with Napoleon in Paris Bonaparte offered to sell the entire region for 15 million dollars

35 The US could get 823,000 square miles for about 3 cents an acre
Louisiana Territory became part of the US on December 20, 1803.

36 The Importance of The Louisiana Purchase
US now controlled the entire Mississippi River. Merchandise could be transported to the port of New Orleans Louisiana’s land was rich and fertile It was divided into 13 additional states

37 Lewis and Clark Jefferson sent group led by Lewis and Clark into newly purchased Louisiana Territory The trip took 2 years They started in St. Louis and went to Pacific Ocean and came back by a different route

38 Lewis and Clark (con’t)
The expedition was aided by an Indian guide Sacajawea She was able to get supplies from Indian tribes The expedition was able to provide nation with info about climate, land, animals, and Indian tribes

39 Jefferson’s Second Term
Vice-President Burr decided to run against Alexander Hamilton for Governor of New York Hamilton said Burr could not be trusted in Government Burr was insulted

40 Burr wanted revenge and challenged Hamilton to a duel
On July 11, 1804 the two men fought Burr shot Hamilton, who died 30 hours later

41 Jefferson Avoids War At this time, England and France were at war
The US was neutral and traded with both France and England Both France and England did not look favorably on the US

42 Jefferson believed the oceans were a neutral area and ships could go as they pleased
France and England had a different view Each country put up blockades

43 Jefferson knew England and France both needed supplies from America
He proposed that all American ships stay home Hoped this would force France and England to allow American ships into their ports

44 The Embargo Act Congress passed the Embargo Act on
on December 22, 1807 No American ship could trade with foreign nations Jefferson called it “peaceful coercion”

45 American merchants resent the embargo act.
Many shippers went against the law The act was a failure Jefferson repealed the Embargo Act in 1809 before he left office

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