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The Jefferson Era.  How did the events of the Jefferson Era strengthen the nation?

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Presentation on theme: "The Jefferson Era.  How did the events of the Jefferson Era strengthen the nation?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Jefferson Era

2  How did the events of the Jefferson Era strengthen the nation?

3  Thomas Jefferson- 3 rd president of the United States, elected in 1801  Judiciary Act of 1801 – law that let president John Adams fill federal judgeships with Federalists  John Marshall- chief justice of the Supreme Court that has the final say in interpreting the Constitution.  Judicial Review: principle that states that the Supreme court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution.  Radical: person who takes extreme political positions.  Federalists: political party of Hamilton and Adams supported a strong central government  Democratic- Republican – Jefferson’s political party, feared a strong central government.

4  1800 Election was a contest between two parties with different roles about government. FederalistsJohn Adams65 electoral college Democratic Republican Thomas Jefferson73 electoral college

5  Thought they both threatened the Constitution  Dem/Rep- Thought they were saving the US from monarchy and oppression  Argued the Alien Sedition Act  Federalists –thought nation to be ruined by radicals *** Remember French Revolution  Radicals – People who take extreme political positions  Federalists: were split (Dem-Rep) wanted Aaron Burr as Vice President he received 73 electoral votes / so they had to decide Jefferson or Aaron Burr.

6  Hamilton backed Jefferson  Election of 1800: Jefferson President and Burr Vice President  Jefferson’s Personal library will be one of (Library of Congress) Love of Architecture of ancient Greece and Rome reflected of the capital.

7  1 st order of new president was to heal political wounds. He urged enemies to unite.  Promote common way of life  Small independent farmers  Strong morals and democratic ideals  An enormous amount of land would prevent people crowding into cities.  Avoid having to much government  Limited central government- people govern themselves.

8  Marbury v. Madison (1803)  Marshall Decision strengthened the Constitution’s system of checks and balances  Lasting balance among 3 branches

9  Jefferson wanted less power than under Federalists.  Reduced Federal Employees  Reduced Military  Ended federalist programs  Alien –Sedition Act ended (Released Prisoners)  End many taxes – Whiskey Tax

10  Jefferson had very little power over the courts  Judiciary Act of appointed federalist judges for life  Chief Justice John Marshall – upheld Federal Authority and strengthened federal courts  Judicial Review- A final authority of the supreme court on the meaning of the constitution.

11  Meriwether Lewis: army captain appointed by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory and lands west to the Pacific Ocean.  William Clark: co leader of the Lewis and Clark expedition.  Sacagawea: Shoshone woman who assisted the Lewis and Clark expedition  Louisiana Purchase: American purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in  Lewis and Clark Expedition: group that explored the Louisiana Territory and lands west also known as the Corps of Discovery.  Zebulon Pike: leader of a southern expedition in the Louisiana Territory  Corps: a number of people acting together for a similar purpose.

12  Lewis and Clark- set to explore American West. Hired French trapper as an interpreter with Native Americans.  His young wife Sacagawea- Shoshone Indian  Led many of Native American Tribes that they come in peace.

13  West was defined as the area between the Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River in  France and Spain – negotiating ownership of the Louisiana Territory region Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains.

14  Secret Treaty in 1800 – Spain returned the port back to France.  The United States Expands  U.S. offered to buy New Orleans from France – France asked to buy all the Louisiana Purchase- 15 million – 3cents an acre  Exploring the Louisiana Territory  Had to learn about the Territory

15  Corps of Discovery – Later called Lewis and Clark Expedition.  York--- African American Slave hunting skills – 1 st black man the Native American had seen.

16  Set out Summer of St. Louis (Gateway to the West)  March American flag flew over St. Louis for 1 st time.  West to Ocean  Jefferson instructed to explore the Missouri River in hopes of water route across Continent. Est. food relations with native Americans  1. Landscape  2. Plants  3. Animals

17  Continued on to the Columbia River which reaches the Pacific Ocean  Learned – all water route did not exist  Good maps of the Territory  Zebulon Pike- (1806) Explorer left Saint Louis on a Southerly route to find sources of the Arkansas and Red Rivers.

18  Embargo Act of 1807: law that forbade American Ships from sailing from sailing to foreign ports and closed American ports British ships.  Tecumseh : Shawnee chief who sought to stop the loss of Native American land to white settlers  War Hawk: western who supported the war of 1812  Oliver Hazard Perry: naval officer who led the U.S. victory over the British on Lake Erie in  Tribute: Payment in exchange for protection  Impressments: the act of seizing by force, between 1803 and 1812, the British impressed, or kidnapped about 6,000 American sailors to work on British ships.  Coercion: Practice of forcing someone to act in a certain way by use of pressure or threats.

19  U.S. at War with Tripoli- a state of Barbary Coast – North Africa  Barbary Pirates- U.S. Paying tribute or protection money attacking U.S. Ships (Wanted more Money)  Stephen Decatur- set a fire to U.S. ship Philadelphia

20  Jefferson wanted friendships with all nations- (Alliances with none)  Trouble due to American merchants throughout the world.  Problems with France and England  U.S. ships bound for Britain captured by France  U.S. ships bound for France captured by Britain. Lack of British sailors – Great Britain used Impressments or Kidnapping of American Merchant Sailors ( ) 6,000 sailors No More Trade Jefferson instead of Declaring War – Legislation to stop all foreign trade. Peaceable Coercion- Act certain way by pressure or threats.

21  Forbade American ships from sailing to foreign ports.  Closed American ports to British. Most lost money  1. Farmers :  2. Merchants :  Became part of election on Madison won- Repeated the Act  Allowed merchants to trade with anyone but Great Britain and France.  Law not effective

22  Americans also felt Great Britain was stirring up the Native Americans to stop our expansion.  Tecumseh: Shawnee Chief- vowed to stop the movement west to unite tribes  William Henry Harrison- Governor of Indiana Territory had some tribes sell land – Tecumseh declared treaty void.  Harrison’s forces defeated Shawnee and The Battle of Tippecanoe

23  Those who wanted to go to war with Great Britain for helping American / Policy on Seas  War Hawks:  President Madison – asked to declare war on Britain 1812  Great Britain – concentrated on war with France  Battled on the Seas- Constitution and United States won battles at sea.  Most important U.S. Naval victories took place on Lake Erie – Commodore- Oliver Hazard Perry- “Don’t Give up the Ship”

24  General Harrison attacked a retreating British army in Canada- defeated British at the Battle of Thames. Took life of Tecumseh

25  British defeated Napoleon in Europe  Britain now free to attack U.S.  British burned Whitehouse and capital building  British attacked Fort McHenry  Francis Scott Key wrote The Star Spangle Banner  American fleet defeated British battle of Lake Champlain  Battle of New Orleans  General Andrew Jackson  Treaty of Ghent – slow mail –ended the war- 2 weeks earlier  No Clear winner in war of 1812.

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