How did the events of the Jefferson Era strengthen the nation?
Thomas Jefferson- 3 rd president of the United States, elected in 1801 Judiciary Act of 1801 – law that let president John Adams fill federal judgeships with Federalists John Marshall- chief justice of the Supreme Court that has the final say in interpreting the Constitution. Judicial Review: principle that states that the Supreme court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution. Radical: person who takes extreme political positions. Federalists: political party of Hamilton and Adams supported a strong central government Democratic- Republican – Jefferson’s political party, feared a strong central government.
1800 Election was a contest between two parties with different roles about government. FederalistsJohn Adams65 electoral college Democratic Republican Thomas Jefferson73 electoral college
Thought they both threatened the Constitution Dem/Rep- Thought they were saving the US from monarchy and oppression Argued the Alien Sedition Act Federalists –thought nation to be ruined by radicals *** Remember French Revolution Radicals – People who take extreme political positions Federalists: were split (Dem-Rep) wanted Aaron Burr as Vice President he received 73 electoral votes / so they had to decide Jefferson or Aaron Burr.
Hamilton backed Jefferson Election of 1800: Jefferson President and Burr Vice President Jefferson’s Personal library will be one of (Library of Congress) Love of Architecture of ancient Greece and Rome reflected of the capital.
1 st order of new president was to heal political wounds. He urged enemies to unite. Promote common way of life Small independent farmers Strong morals and democratic ideals An enormous amount of land would prevent people crowding into cities. Avoid having to much government Limited central government- people govern themselves.
Marbury v. Madison (1803) Marshall Decision strengthened the Constitution’s system of checks and balances Lasting balance among 3 branches
Jefferson wanted less power than under Federalists. Reduced Federal Employees Reduced Military Ended federalist programs Alien –Sedition Act ended (Released Prisoners) End many taxes – Whiskey Tax
Jefferson had very little power over the courts Judiciary Act of 1801- appointed federalist judges for life Chief Justice John Marshall – upheld Federal Authority and strengthened federal courts Judicial Review- A final authority of the supreme court on the meaning of the constitution.
Meriwether Lewis: army captain appointed by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory and lands west to the Pacific Ocean. William Clark: co leader of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Sacagawea: Shoshone woman who assisted the Lewis and Clark expedition Louisiana Purchase: American purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803. Lewis and Clark Expedition: group that explored the Louisiana Territory and lands west also known as the Corps of Discovery. Zebulon Pike: leader of a southern expedition in the Louisiana Territory Corps: a number of people acting together for a similar purpose.
Lewis and Clark- set to explore American West. Hired French trapper as an interpreter with Native Americans. His young wife Sacagawea- Shoshone Indian Led many of Native American Tribes that they come in peace.
West was defined as the area between the Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River in 1800. France and Spain – negotiating ownership of the Louisiana Territory region Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains.
Secret Treaty in 1800 – Spain returned the port back to France. The United States Expands U.S. offered to buy New Orleans from France – France asked to buy all the Louisiana Purchase- 15 million – 3cents an acre Exploring the Louisiana Territory Had to learn about the Territory
Corps of Discovery – Later called Lewis and Clark Expedition. York--- African American Slave hunting skills – 1 st black man the Native American had seen.
Set out Summer of 1803- St. Louis (Gateway to the West) March 1804- American flag flew over St. Louis for 1 st time. West to Ocean Jefferson instructed to explore the Missouri River in hopes of water route across Continent. Est. food relations with native Americans 1. Landscape 2. Plants 3. Animals
Continued on to the Columbia River which reaches the Pacific Ocean Learned – all water route did not exist Good maps of the Territory Zebulon Pike- (1806) Explorer left Saint Louis on a Southerly route to find sources of the Arkansas and Red Rivers.
Embargo Act of 1807: law that forbade American Ships from sailing from sailing to foreign ports and closed American ports British ships. Tecumseh : Shawnee chief who sought to stop the loss of Native American land to white settlers War Hawk: western who supported the war of 1812 Oliver Hazard Perry: naval officer who led the U.S. victory over the British on Lake Erie in 1813. Tribute: Payment in exchange for protection Impressments: the act of seizing by force, between 1803 and 1812, the British impressed, or kidnapped about 6,000 American sailors to work on British ships. Coercion: Practice of forcing someone to act in a certain way by use of pressure or threats.
U.S. at War with Tripoli- a state of Barbary Coast – North Africa Barbary Pirates- U.S. Paying tribute or protection money attacking U.S. Ships (Wanted more Money) Stephen Decatur- set a fire to U.S. ship Philadelphia
Jefferson wanted friendships with all nations- (Alliances with none) Trouble due to American merchants throughout the world. Problems with France and England U.S. ships bound for Britain captured by France U.S. ships bound for France captured by Britain. Lack of British sailors – Great Britain used Impressments or Kidnapping of American Merchant Sailors (1803- 1812) 6,000 sailors No More Trade Jefferson instead of Declaring War – Legislation to stop all foreign trade. Peaceable Coercion- Act certain way by pressure or threats.
Forbade American ships from sailing to foreign ports. Closed American ports to British. Most lost money 1. Farmers : 2. Merchants : Became part of election on 1808- Madison won- Repeated the Act Allowed merchants to trade with anyone but Great Britain and France. Law not effective
Americans also felt Great Britain was stirring up the Native Americans to stop our expansion. Tecumseh: Shawnee Chief- vowed to stop the movement west to unite tribes William Henry Harrison- Governor of Indiana Territory had some tribes sell land – Tecumseh declared treaty void. Harrison’s forces defeated Shawnee and The Battle of Tippecanoe
Those who wanted to go to war with Great Britain for helping American / Policy on Seas War Hawks: President Madison – asked to declare war on Britain 1812 1812-1814 Great Britain – concentrated on war with France Battled on the Seas- Constitution and United States won battles at sea. Most important U.S. Naval victories took place on Lake Erie – Commodore- Oliver Hazard Perry- “Don’t Give up the Ship”
General Harrison attacked a retreating British army in Canada- defeated British at the Battle of Thames. Took life of Tecumseh
British defeated Napoleon in Europe Britain now free to attack U.S. British burned Whitehouse and capital building British attacked Fort McHenry Francis Scott Key wrote The Star Spangle Banner American fleet defeated British battle of Lake Champlain Battle of New Orleans General Andrew Jackson Treaty of Ghent – slow mail –ended the war- 2 weeks earlier No Clear winner in war of 1812.