2 How did the events of the Jefferson Era strengthen the nation? Essential QuestionHow did the events of the Jefferson Era strengthen the nation?
3 Important VocabularyThomas Jefferson- 3rd president of the United States, elected in 1801Judiciary Act of 1801 – law that let president John Adams fill federal judgeships with FederalistsJohn Marshall- chief justice of the Supreme Court that has the final say in interpreting the Constitution.Judicial Review: principle that states that the Supreme court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution.Radical: person who takes extreme political positions.Federalists: political party of Hamilton and Adams supported a strong central governmentDemocratic- Republican – Jefferson’s political party, feared a strong central government.
4 Section 1 Jeffersonian Democracy 1800 Election was a contest between two parties with different roles about government.FederalistsJohn Adams65 electoral collegeDemocratic RepublicanThomas Jefferson73 electoral college
5 Thought they both threatened the Constitution Dem/Rep- Thought they were saving the US from monarchy and oppressionArgued the Alien Sedition ActFederalists –thought nation to be ruined by radicals *** Remember French RevolutionRadicals – People who take extreme political positionsFederalists: were split (Dem-Rep) wanted Aaron Burr as Vice President he received 73 electoral votes / so they had to decide Jefferson or Aaron Burr.
6 Hamilton backed Jefferson Election of 1800: Jefferson President and Burr Vice PresidentJefferson’s Personal library will be one of (Library of Congress) Love of Architecture of ancient Greece and Rome reflected of the capital.
7 Jefferson’s Democracy 1st order of new president was to heal political wounds. He urged enemies to unite.Promote common way of lifeSmall independent farmersStrong morals and democratic idealsAn enormous amount of land would prevent people crowding into cities.Avoid having to much governmentLimited central government- people govern themselves.
8 Marbury v. Madison (1803)Marshall Decision strengthened the Constitution’s system of checks and balancesLasting balance among 3 branches
9 Jefferson and The Federalists Jefferson wanted less power than under Federalists.Reduced Federal EmployeesReduced MilitaryEnded federalist programsAlien –Sedition Act ended (Released Prisoners)End many taxes – Whiskey Tax
10 Conflict with the Courts Jefferson had very little power over the courtsJudiciary Act of appointed federalist judges for lifeChief Justice John Marshall – upheld Federal Authority and strengthened federal courtsJudicial Review- A final authority of the supreme court on the meaning of the constitution.
11 Section 2 Important Vocabulary Meriwether Lewis: army captain appointed by President Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory and lands west to the Pacific Ocean.William Clark: co leader of the Lewis and Clark expedition.Sacagawea: Shoshone woman who assisted the Lewis and Clark expeditionLouisiana Purchase: American purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803.Lewis and Clark Expedition: group that explored the Louisiana Territory and lands west also known as the Corps of Discovery.Zebulon Pike: leader of a southern expedition in the Louisiana TerritoryCorps: a number of people acting together for a similar purpose.
12 The Louisiana Purchase and Exploration Lewis and Clark- set to explore American West. Hired French trapper as an interpreter with Native Americans.His young wife Sacagawea- Shoshone IndianLed many of Native American Tribes that they come in peace.
13 The Louisiana Purchase West was defined as the area between the Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River in 1800.France and Spain – negotiating ownership of the Louisiana Territory region Mississippi River and Rocky Mountains.
14 The Mississippi River and New Orleans Secret Treaty in 1800 – Spain returned the port back to France.The United States ExpandsU.S. offered to buy New Orleans from France – France asked to buy all the Louisiana Purchase- 15 million – 3cents an acreExploring the Louisiana TerritoryHad to learn about the Territory
15 Lewis and Clark Expedition Corps of Discovery – Later called Lewis and Clark Expedition.York--- African American Slave hunting skills – 1st black man the Native American had seen.
16 The Journey BeginsSet out Summer of St. Louis (Gateway to the West)March American flag flew over St. Louis for 1st time.West to OceanJefferson instructed to explore the Missouri River in hopes of water route across Continent. Est. food relations with native Americans1. Landscape2. Plants3. Animals
17 Continued on to the Columbia River which reaches the Pacific Ocean Learned – all water route did not existGood maps of the TerritoryZebulon Pike- (1806) Explorer left Saint Louis on a Southerly route to find sources of the Arkansas and Red Rivers.
18 Section 3 Important Vocabulary Embargo Act of 1807: law that forbade American Ships from sailing from sailing to foreign ports and closed American ports British ships.Tecumseh : Shawnee chief who sought to stop the loss of Native American land to white settlersWar Hawk: western who supported the war of 1812Oliver Hazard Perry: naval officer who led the U.S. victory over the British on Lake Erie in 1813.Tribute: Payment in exchange for protectionImpressments: the act of seizing by force, between 1803 and 1812, the British impressed, or kidnapped about 6,000 American sailors to work on British ships.Coercion: Practice of forcing someone to act in a certain way by use of pressure or threats.
19 The War of 1812U.S. at War with Tripoli- a state of Barbary Coast – North AfricaBarbary Pirates- U.S. Paying tribute or protection money attacking U.S. Ships (Wanted more Money)Stephen Decatur- set a fire to U.S. ship Philadelphia
20 A Path to WarJefferson wanted friendships with all nations- (Alliances with none)Trouble due to American merchants throughout the world.Problems with France and EnglandU.S. ships bound for Britain captured by FranceU.S. ships bound for France captured by Britain.Lack of British sailors – Great Britain used Impressments or Kidnapping of American Merchant Sailors ( ) 6,000 sailorsNo More TradeJefferson instead of Declaring War – Legislation to stop all foreign trade. Peaceable Coercion- Act certain way by pressure or threats.
21 Embargo Act of 1807Forbade American ships from sailing to foreign ports.Closed American ports to British. Most lost money1. Farmers :2. Merchants :Became part of election on Madison won- Repeated the ActAllowed merchants to trade with anyone but Great Britain and France.Law not effective
22 Tecumseh and Native American Unity Americans also felt Great Britain was stirring up the Native Americans to stop our expansion.Tecumseh: Shawnee Chief- vowed to stop the movement west to unite tribesWilliam Henry Harrison- Governor of Indiana Territory had some tribes sell land – Tecumseh declared treaty void.Harrison’s forces defeated Shawnee and The Battle of Tippecanoe
23 The War of 1812Those who wanted to go to war with Great Britain for helping American / Policy on SeasWar Hawks:President Madison – asked to declare war on Britain 1812Great Britain – concentrated on war with FranceBattled on the Seas- Constitution and United States won battles at sea.Most important U.S. Naval victories took place on Lake Erie – Commodore- Oliver Hazard Perry- “Don’t Give up the Ship”
24 General Harrison attacked a retreating British army in Canada- defeated British at the Battle of Thames. Took life of Tecumseh
25 The Second Phase of the War British defeated Napoleon in EuropeBritain now free to attack U.S.British burned Whitehouse and capital buildingBritish attacked Fort McHenryFrancis Scott Key wrote The Star Spangle BannerAmerican fleet defeated British battle of Lake ChamplainBattle of New OrleansGeneral Andrew JacksonTreaty of Ghent – slow mail –ended the war- 2 weeks earlierNo Clear winner in war of 1812.