Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Missions and Settlements in Texas"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5 Missions and Settlements in Texas Spain expanded efforts to colonize “Texas”Time period: Late 1600’s to early 1700’sReason:To strengthen Spain's claim toThe land1691: Spain creates ProvinceOf Texas, appoints a Governor
21. to convert Natives to Christian faith Why missions?1. to convert Natives to Christian faith2. to change Native culture to Spanish ways3. to provide Native workers to grow crops, build shelters and provide labor4. to subdue Natives and prevent hostile attacksMissions in Texas
3West Texas First Mission in Texas 1682: Corpus Christi de la Ysleta (Body of Christ of Ysleta)Near El PasoSpain had settlement in New Mexico: Santa Fe 1609Close to other missionsNo French Threat yet!
4French claims to landFrance claimed all the land drained by the Mississippi RiverFrance focused on the fur tradeFrench trappers and traders lived in the land that is now the state of Louisiana, and worked with the Caddo in East TexasLa Salle’s settlement called Fort St. Louis: weak claim
5French Territory Louisiana Map from Lewis and Clark Expedition Later Map of Louisiana Purchase
6Louisiana State and Sabine River Basin This was not considered a border then.Just part of French “Louisiana” then
7Spain learned of La Salle & Fort St. Louis Alonso de Leon expedition to destroy fortFind no one alive at fort on April 22, 1689Fort in ruinsDe Leon travelled deeper intoEast Texas from there withAngelina, a Native guideand interpreter
8Spanish meet Hasinai They called them the “Tejas Indians” Hasanai: tribe of the CaddoFather Damian Massanet, Catholic Church official who was on the De Leon expedition promised to return to the Tejas.
9First East Texas Mission Father Massanet got permission from the Viceroy to return and found a mission among the Tejas.1690: Father Massanet, 4 friars and 100 soldiersTejas were friendlyCrude log buildings made up the Mission San Francisco de los TexasLocated near Neches River near present day Weches
10San Francisco de los Tejas Location not far from Caddo Mounds--- near Alto and WechesArea in brown is location of the East Texas MissionsReplica of original mission in historical park today.
12RoadsMost well known road:) El Camino Real, (The King’s Highway: highway markers today call it the Old San Antonio Road. Highway 19 to College Station: OSREl Camino Real de los Tejas: road to San Francisco de los TejasThese roads were dirt paths, often old Indian trails, used until paved highways were built in the 20th Century!
13First Tejas Mission Failed 1. Drought ruined crops2. Disease killed many Indians and one friar3. Tejas rejected Catholic religion4. Tejas resented Spanish attempts to change their way of life.
14What Spain gained from the Tejas Mission Learned missions needed presidios (Spanish Forts)Also, Spanish families needed to settle the landRealized France was not a threatNo reason to settle as far away from Mexico as East TexasWhat were the reasons Spain had trouble settling East Texas? (far from other missions and settlements for supplies, communication, defense)
15Spanish settlements along Rio Grande River Mission San Juan Bautista (St. John the Baptist) built on west side of Rio Grande in 1699.Known as the “Gateway to Texas” and the “Mother of Texas Missions”Located at crossroads, grew into 3 missions, a presidio and a town.Provided cattle, grain, horses for missionaries and soldiers travelling into Texas
17Father Francisco Hidalgo Spanish missionary had been at San Francisco de los Tejas. (Failed E. TX. Mission)Wanted to return to theHasanai.Viceroy ignored his requests.Devised a plan.
18France Threatens Again French traders in the Gulf Coast area wanted to trade with Spanish merchants in Mexico.Spanish law prohibited foreigners from trading with the colonies in New Spain. (Why?)French had no interest in taking territory or converting the IndiansBUT, Father Hidalgo stirred up a “hornets’ nest”Trying to get back to the Hasinai!
19Hidalgo secretly contacts French and one thing led to another… Hidalgo asked French to set up a mission in East TexasFrench see this as an opportunity to open trade with Spain. (Wrong!)French governor appointed Louis de St. Denis (Denee) to negotiate about this with Spanish officials on the Rio Grande.On the way, he set up a trading post named Natchitoches on the Red Riverin present-day Louisiana. Natchitoches (Nackitush)
20St. Denis meets Spanish officials. Date was 1714.Captain Diego Ramon was alarmed when the French St. Denis arrived at Mission San Juan Bautista (on the Rio Grande). Why?Ramon arrested St. Denis and sent him to Mexico City to be examined by viceroy to check his motives.
21Spanish and French 18th Century Spanish Soldier: Reenactment 18th Century French Soldier: Painting
22Viceroy thinks French are a Threat! Although St. Denis insisted France did not want to occupy East Texas, Spanish officials did not believe him.Viceroy ordered new Spanish missions to be built in East Texas along with soldiers to protect them.Ironically, St. Denis was sent to guide the Spanish into East Texas, and was allowed to marry Ramon’s step-granddaughter!!!St. Denis himself must have been very likeable!Bust of St. Denis
23Many attempts to colonize Texas: 1700 - 1750. 1716: Spanish came back to San Francisco de los Tejas with soldiers and Spanish families. (St. Francis of the Tejas) Due to French “Threat”!Indians were friendly.Spanish build 6 missions and a small fort (presidio) in East TexasPresidio: Nuestra Senora de los D0lores de los Tejas: “New Lady of Dolores of the Tejas” (Presidio Dolores)Located on Angelina River
24San Antonio is FoundedSpanish needed a midway settlement along the 500 mile journey from the Rio Grande settlements to the East Texas missions.Site on San Antonio River chosen:“The best site in the world, with good and abundant irrigation water, rich lands for pasture, plentiful building stone and excellent timber.”Known as San Antonio de Bexar---today, San Antonio is in Bexar County---the name is used today!
25San Antonio de Bexar: Location Location of San AntonioMap of all Texas Missions
26San Antonio Missions: most missions in one location
27Design of Spanish missions Coahuiltecan Indians adapted well to mission life. Why?
28San Antonio was a series of missions along river. Missions provided a church for the people.The church was the focal point of community life. The structure was prominent within the compound. The convento, or living quarters of the missionaries and several lay assistants, was in close proximity to the church building. The cemetery, well used as the result of European diseases, lay adjacent. Daily life was centered around the church with its summons to worship and prayer, the fields, the workshops, and the classrooms. Conversion was encouraged when living in the missions, and required in order to become Spanish citizens.
29Presidio San Antonio de Bexar Fort: housed the soldiers1718, built by Martin de AlarconSoldiers brought their families and settled permanently.Why was this presidio a good idea?What threats do you think the Spanish faced?
31San Antonio de Valero San Antonio de Valero was a mission. Built in 1718.The mission church became known as the Alamo, and was the site of the fateful battle of the Texas Revolution.
32San Antonio TodayMISSION TRAILSAN ANTONIO RIVER:RIVER WALK
331719: War between France and Spain (?) This was during the War of the Quadruple Alliance in Europe, with France and Spain on opposite sides.A small band of French soldiers “attacked” a Spanish mission near Natchitoches and stole some chickens.Known as the Chicken War!The fleeing Spaniards exaggerated the size of the French “invasion”.The result: Viceroy sends Aguayo and 500 soldiers to reestablish abandoned missions and moved Presidio Nuestra Senora de la Dolores further east, closer to the French.
34War of Quadruple Alliance The War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720) was a result of the ambitions of King Philip V of Spain to retake territories in Italy and to claim the French throne. It saw the defeat of Spain by an alliance of Britain, France, Austria (then a State of the Holy Roman Empire), and the Dutch Republic.This cost Spain a lot of theGold they took from theNative Americans!!!!
35Aguayo Founds two settlements as result of the Chicken War: Los Adaes and La Bahia Los Adaes: Aguayo built a large presidio near Natchitoches, the French trading post founded by St. Denis, in present-day Louisiana.Nuestra Senora del Pilar de los Adaes, which we will call just “Los Adaes”100 soldiers and their families started a village near the fort.St. Denis protested.Spanish fort was in French territory.French did not protest or attack.
36Natchitoches, La. Today Where it is: What it looks like: French architectural influence
37Los Adaes: (read: don’t write) BUILT ON THE EDGE of the Spanish empire, the Los Adaes settlement had both a mission and a fort (presidio). It served as the capital of the Province of Texas for nearly 50 years. Los Adaes was a place of rare cooperation among the Spanish, the French, and the Caddo Indians.
38Los AdaesLocation of Spanish fortLouisiana Marker today
39Los AdaesDiagram of the fortDiagram of Historic Park
40French and Spanish Relations France:Spain:Continued to trade with East Texas IndiansConsidered the Arroyo Hondo the Border between French and Spanish TerritoryNo settlements in Spanish territoryKept Presidio at Los Adaes, close to French border: Warning—Keep Out!This was the unofficial capital of Texas for the next 50 years.Inconvenient, right?
41La Bahia: 2nd fort Aguayo built Aguayo moves on to site of Fort St. Louis: design of original fortBuilds a presidio on the site named La Bahia-later moved and this is the 2nd one.
42La Bahia moved from Fort St La Bahia moved from Fort St. Louis site to present day Goliad due to Karankawa problemsLa Bahia in the distanceChapel at La Bahia near Goliad today.
43Presidio La BahiaSpanish Cannon BarrelLocation of Goliad, Texas
44La Bahia is the future site of the Goliad Massacre during the Texas Revolution Battle Flag and Memorial to those killed in the Massacre
45Aquayo’s Impact on Texas 9 missions2 villages4 presidiosAquayo goes back to his home in Coahuila1727: Spanish officials need money because of war expenses in Europe.Remove presidio (Dolores) on Angelina River,Reduced the number of soldiers at Los AdaesMoved 3 missions to San Antonio
46Why did this help reduce expenses? East Texas:San Antonio:Closer to major settlements in Mexicoand on Rio Grande by250 milesmissions and settlements in a group shared defense, supplies and officialsRoughly 250 miles further away from Mexico than San Antonio.More people and places to keep defended, supplied, and checked on.
47Plains Indians Resent Missions Intruders on their hunting groundsPriest and Friars try to convert them anyway!Apaches raided San Antonio de Bexar often.Comanche fought fiercely, valued captured horses!: 3 missions founded along San Gabriel River in Central Texas, near present day Rockdale to serve Tonkawa.Failed: Apache raids, smallpox, drought, Tonkawas left
481757: San Saba Mission—bold step Far from nearest San AntonioWanted to convert Apache, who wanted protection from the Comanche.Apache didn’t take to mission life.Comanches attacked, moved mission to Nueces River.Ruins of San Saba Mission
49Missions unsuccessful with Plains Indian Spanish problems:1. Remote location made it hard to supply and administer the missions.Plains people too fiercely independent to settle down to mission ways.Remember: Plains Indians hunted the buffalo and were nomadic!
50Significance of some missions Mission or PresidioLocationImportanceSan Francisco de los TejasNeches River, East TexasFirst East Texas MissionSan Juan BautistaRio Grande RiverMother of Texas MissionsPresidio San Antonio de BexarSan Antonio RiverMidway point, became San AntonioPresidio: Los AdaesLouisiana: near French BorderFarthest east, known as the capital of province of Texas