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Phytoremediation Status at a Former Waste Oil Recycling Facility in Denham Springs, Louisiana Combustion, Inc. Superfund Site EPA ID# LAD072606627 Site.

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Presentation on theme: "Phytoremediation Status at a Former Waste Oil Recycling Facility in Denham Springs, Louisiana Combustion, Inc. Superfund Site EPA ID# LAD072606627 Site."— Presentation transcript:

1 Phytoremediation Status at a Former Waste Oil Recycling Facility in Denham Springs, Louisiana Combustion, Inc. Superfund Site EPA ID# LAD Site ID: Patrick Ritchie SWS 6262: Soil Contamination and Remediation

2 Combustion, Inc. Site Location and History  3 miles northeast of Denham Springs in Livingston Parish, Louisiana  1960’s - Earl G. Dubose operated Dubose Oil Products Company, Inc., a waste oil recycling facility and commercial landfill  Earl G. and Betty J. Dubose incorporated Dubose Waste Oil Service, which later merged into United Fuel Oil Inc.  David Dubose later sold the waste oil recycling facility to Combustion, Inc. and operated until the 1980’s

3 Chronology of Events  1960’s – 1980’s – Dubose Oil Company subsequently Combustion, Inc. operations  Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CRCLA) Hazard Ranking System Score =  likelihood that a site has released or has the potential to release hazardous substances into the environment  characteristics of the waste (e.g. toxicity and waste quantity)  people or sensitive environments (targets) affected by the release  1985 – Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) Group formed and begin reporting  1986 – Site proposed for National Priorities List (NPL)  1987 – PRP initial settlement agreement  1988 – Re-proposal for NPL  1990 – Site listed on NPL  1992 – Remediation begins

4 History of Contamination  Process Area  2.5-acres  16 aboveground storage tanks  Small tanker truck  11 underground storage tanks  Boiler  Boiler shed  Pump shed

5 History of Contamination  Pond Area  6.5-acres  14 interconnected ponds  5 ponds contained floating oil  Wastewater  Sludge  2 aboveground storage tanks  1 underground storage tank

6 History of Contamination  It is documented that there are 61 known generators of waste that were treated, recycled, reclaimed, or disposed of at Combustion, Inc. from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas.  oil from electrical transformers  toluene  unknown rosin type material smelling of pine tar  waste oils  unknown corrosive chemicals  naptha  methanol  carbon black  hydrochloric acid  fuel oil  other unknown chemicals

7 Expedited Removal Action  58,086 gallons of oil were recovered and  11,297,162 gallons of water were treated on site using sequencing batch biological reactor and/or activated carbon  34,000 gallons of water were disposed of off-site  35,457 tons of solids including sludge, soil, stabilization fly ash, solidified paraffin, concrete and debris disposed off-site  18 ASTs and a truck tanker removed  12 USTs were uncovered, emptied, and removed

8 Residual Contaminants following ERA ContaminantTarget OrganCleanup Level (mg/L) 2,4/2,6-toluenediamineCarcinogenic(urinary, bladder)0.01 P-toluidineCarcinogenic(urinary, bladder)0.01 1,1,2-trichloroethaneLiver effects ,1-dichloroethaneLiver; kidney; respiratory and central nervous system; skin ,1-dichloroetheneLiver effects ,2-dichloroethaneCarcinogen0.005 AcetoneLiver effects; kidney toxicity0.564 BenzeneCarcinogenic0.005 ChloroethaneFetal toxicity0.028 Cis-1,2-dichloroetheneHematological effects0.518 Methylene chlorideLiver effects0.004 TetrachloroetheneLiver effects0.005 TolueneLiver effects; central nervous system; nasal cavitiy 1

9 Phytoremediation  The trees were planted in a manner designed to inhibit movement of groundwater contaminants toward the down gradient perimeter of the contamination and to degrade contaminants within the plume (EPA 2014)  Pilot study began in 2001 with 5 stands planted  Poplar and Eucalyptus  arborist evaluates trees  Mark trees to be removed and replanted  2004/ replanting  trees destroyed from Hurricane Katrina and 27 from Hurricane Rita  2005/2006 – replanting native trees and two additional stands  Hurricane Gustav and Hurricane Ike destroyed 52%

10 Phytoremediation  Purpose:  Clean up Groundwater  Adds Control to Groundwater (e.g. Containment)  Reduction of Contaminant  Root zone breakdown  Uptake  Planted down gradient from Process Area Native Trees Replanted Bald Cypress Eastern Cottonwood Loblolly Pine Overcup Oak Sycamore Spruce Pine Weeping Willow Willow Oak

11 Phytoremediation Goals  The monitored natural attenuation enhanced with phytoremediation  1-2-dichlroethane (EDC) was selected as the tracking constituent for the volatile organic compounds  2,4/2,6- toluenediamine were selected as the tracking constituent for the aromatic amine compounds  Achieve 10% reduction in geometric mean concentration of tracking constituents from Year 1 (2006) sampling event to the Year 5 event

12 Phytoremediation Results

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14  Advection, dispersion, sorption, decay, and reducing conditions contribute to reductive dechlorination  Presence of daughter products  EDC: ethane, ethene, chloroethene, chloroethane  Increased alkalinity  TDA: toluene  Decrease in geometric mean of ORP from -72 to  Anaerobic microorganisms use alternate electron acceptors from: nitrate, iron, sulfate, and carbon dioxide  Dechlorination can occur under mildly reducing conditions (NO3- and Fe3+ reduction)  Chlorinated solvents serve as electron acceptors proportional to the number of chlorine molecules attached

15 Phytoremediation Effectiveness  The stands of trees have been cultivated to a robust state and measured by tree health indicators  Tree girth  Appearance  Leaf coloration  Tree crown cover  Evaluation of contaminant uptake and degradation by the trees  Tree tissue sampling  Rhizosphere soil sampling  Transpiration gas sampling  Calculate tree sap flow rate and tree transpiration

16 Success or Failure? Alternatives

17 References  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). February Polychlorinated Biphenyls.  Compton, Henry R., Prince, George R., Fredericks, Scott C., Gussman, Christopher D. Summer Phytoremediation of Dissolved Phase Organic Compounds: Optimal Site Considerations Relative to Field Case Studies. Remediation Wiley Periodicals Inc  lnterstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group. Phytoremediation Work Team. (1999). Phy- toremediation decision tree. Document no. PHYTO-1. lnterstate Technology and Regulatory Coopera- tion Work Group, Retrieved from [2003, March 141].  Krembs, Friedrich J., Master's thesis, Colorado School of Mines, 226 pp, 2008  Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality Electronic Document Management System (LDEQ EDMS) Record search resulted in historical information, regulatory documents, Water Pollution Control Division documents, etc.  Mackay, D.M. and J. A. Cherry Groundwater Remediation: Pump and Treat Remediation. Environmental Science and Technology 23 (6):  Minnich, Marti. May Behavior and Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Soil: A Literature Review. EPA/600/R-93/140.  Mulligan, C.N., Yong, R.N., Gibbs, B.F., June Remediation technologies for metal-contaminated soils and groundwater: an evaluation. Engineering Geology. Volume 60. Issues  NRC Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup. National Academy Press, Washington, D. C., 315pp.  The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. February 16, 1988  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxicological Review of Benzene (Noncancer  Effects).  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated January 3, Using Phytoremediation to Clean Up Sites.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated November 27, NPL Site Narrative for Combustion Inc.  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated November 23, Remediation Technologies.  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated March 20, Used Oil Management Program.  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated August 1, In Situ Oxidation.   U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. October 16, Combustion Inc. Superfund Site.  URS. August 10, Annual Report Year 5 Remedy Implementation Combustion, Inc. Site Livingston Parish, Louisiana. File No  Woodward-Clyde International Americas (WCIA). December Final Report, Remedial Investigation Report, Combustion, Inc. Site, Livingston Parish Louisiana.  Yost, Brian. October First Five Year Report for Combustion, Inc. Superfund Site Livingston Parish, Louisiana. EPA ID NO.LAD EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.


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