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Combustion, Inc. Superfund Site EPA ID# LAD Site ID: Patrick Ritchie

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Presentation on theme: "Combustion, Inc. Superfund Site EPA ID# LAD Site ID: Patrick Ritchie"— Presentation transcript:

1 Phytoremediation Status at a Former Waste Oil Recycling Facility in Denham Springs, Louisiana
Combustion, Inc. Superfund Site EPA ID# LAD Site ID: Patrick Ritchie SWS 6262: Soil Contamination and Remediation

2 Combustion, Inc. Site Location and History
3 miles northeast of Denham Springs in Livingston Parish, Louisiana 1960’s - Earl G. Dubose operated Dubose Oil Products Company, Inc., a waste oil recycling facility and commercial landfill Earl G. and Betty J. Dubose incorporated Dubose Waste Oil Service, which later merged into United Fuel Oil Inc. David Dubose later sold the waste oil recycling facility to Combustion, Inc. and operated until the 1980’s

3 Chronology of Events 1960’s – 1980’s – Dubose Oil Company subsequently Combustion, Inc. operations Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CRCLA) Hazard Ranking System Score = 35.11 likelihood that a site has released or has the potential to release hazardous substances into the environment characteristics of the waste (e.g. toxicity and waste quantity) people or sensitive environments (targets) affected by the release 1985 – Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) Group formed and begin reporting 1986 – Site proposed for National Priorities List (NPL) 1987 – PRP initial settlement agreement 1988 – Re-proposal for NPL 1990 – Site listed on NPL 1992 – Remediation begins

4 History of Contamination
Process Area 2.5-acres 16 aboveground storage tanks Small tanker truck 11 underground storage tanks Boiler Boiler shed Pump shed

5 History of Contamination
Pond Area 6.5-acres 14 interconnected ponds 5 ponds contained floating oil Wastewater Sludge 2 aboveground storage tanks 1 underground storage tank

6 History of Contamination
It is documented that there are 61 known generators of waste that were treated, recycled, reclaimed, or disposed of at Combustion, Inc. from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. oil from electrical transformers toluene unknown rosin type material smelling of pine tar waste oils unknown corrosive chemicals naptha methanol carbon black hydrochloric acid fuel oil other unknown chemicals

7 Expedited Removal Action 1992-1993
58,086 gallons of oil were recovered and 11,297,162 gallons of water were treated on site using sequencing batch biological reactor and/or activated carbon 34,000 gallons of water were disposed of off-site 35,457 tons of solids including sludge, soil, stabilization fly ash, solidified paraffin, concrete and debris disposed off-site 18 ASTs and a truck tanker removed 12 USTs were uncovered, emptied, and removed

8 Residual Contaminants following ERA
Target Organ Cleanup Level (mg/L) 2,4/2,6-toluenediamine Carcinogenic(urinary, bladder) 0.01 P-toluidine 1,1,2-trichloroethane Liver effects 0.005 1,1-dichloroethane Liver; kidney; respiratory and central nervous system; skin 0.749 1,1-dichloroethene 0.006 1,2-dichloroethane Carcinogen Acetone Liver effects; kidney toxicity 0.564 Benzene Carcinogenic Chloroethane Fetal toxicity 0.028 Cis-1,2-dichloroethene Hematological effects 0.518 Methylene chloride 0.004 Tetrachloroethene Toluene Liver effects; central nervous system; nasal cavitiy 1

9 Phytoremediation The trees were planted in a manner designed to inhibit movement of groundwater contaminants toward the down gradient perimeter of the contamination and to degrade contaminants within the plume (EPA 2014) Pilot study began in 2001 with 5 stands planted Poplar and Eucalyptus arborist evaluates trees Mark trees to be removed and replanted 2004/ replanting trees destroyed from Hurricane Katrina and 27 from Hurricane Rita 2005/2006 – replanting native trees and two additional stands 2008- Hurricane Gustav and Hurricane Ike destroyed 52%

10 Phytoremediation Native Trees Replanted Bald Cypress
Eastern Cottonwood Loblolly Pine Overcup Oak Sycamore Spruce Pine Weeping Willow Willow Oak Purpose: Clean up Groundwater Adds Control to Groundwater (e.g. Containment) Reduction of Contaminant Root zone breakdown Uptake Planted down gradient from Process Area

11 Phytoremediation Goals
The monitored natural attenuation enhanced with phytoremediation 1-2-dichlroethane (EDC) was selected as the tracking constituent for the volatile organic compounds 2,4/2,6- toluenediamine were selected as the tracking constituent for the aromatic amine compounds Achieve 10% reduction in geometric mean concentration of tracking constituents from Year 1 (2006) sampling event to the Year 5 event

12 Phytoremediation Results

13 Phytoremediation Results

14 Phytoremediation Results
Advection, dispersion, sorption, decay, and reducing conditions contribute to reductive dechlorination Presence of daughter products EDC: ethane, ethene, chloroethene, chloroethane Increased alkalinity TDA: toluene Decrease in geometric mean of ORP from -72 to Anaerobic microorganisms use alternate electron acceptors from: nitrate, iron, sulfate, and carbon dioxide Dechlorination can occur under mildly reducing conditions (NO3- and Fe3+ reduction) Chlorinated solvents serve as electron acceptors proportional to the number of chlorine molecules attached

15 Phytoremediation Effectiveness
The stands of trees have been cultivated to a robust state and measured by tree health indicators Tree girth Appearance Leaf coloration Tree crown cover Evaluation of contaminant uptake and degradation by the trees Tree tissue sampling Rhizosphere soil sampling Transpiration gas sampling Calculate tree sap flow rate and tree transpiration

16 Success or Failure? Alternatives

17 References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). February Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Compton, Henry R., Prince, George R., Fredericks, Scott C., Gussman, Christopher D. Summer Phytoremediation of Dissolved Phase Organic Compounds: Optimal Site Considerations Relative to Field Case Studies. Remediation Wiley Periodicals Inc lnterstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation Work Group. Phytoremediation Work Team. (1999). Phy- toremediation decision tree. Document no. PHYTO-1. lnterstate Technology and Regulatory Coopera- tion Work Group, Retrieved from [2003, March 141]. Krembs, Friedrich J., Master's thesis, Colorado School of Mines, 226 pp, 2008 Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality Electronic Document Management System (LDEQ EDMS) Record search resulted in historical information, regulatory documents, Water Pollution Control Division documents, etc. Mackay, D.M. and J. A. Cherry Groundwater Remediation: Pump and Treat Remediation. Environmental Science and Technology 23 (6): Minnich, Marti. May Behavior and Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Soil: A Literature Review. EPA/600/R-93/140. Mulligan, C.N., Yong, R.N., Gibbs, B.F., June Remediation technologies for metal-contaminated soils and groundwater: an evaluation. Engineering Geology. Volume 60. Issues NRC Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup. National Academy Press, Washington, D. C., 315pp. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. February 16, 1988 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxicological Review of Benzene (Noncancer Effects). U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated January 3, Using Phytoremediation to Clean Up Sites. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated November 27, NPL Site Narrative for Combustion Inc. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated November 23, Remediation Technologies. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated March 20, Used Oil Management Program. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Last Updated August 1, In Situ Oxidation. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. October 16, Combustion Inc. Superfund Site. URS. August 10, Annual Report Year 5 Remedy Implementation Combustion, Inc. Site Livingston Parish, Louisiana. File No Woodward-Clyde International Americas (WCIA). December Final Report, Remedial Investigation Report, Combustion, Inc. Site, Livingston Parish Louisiana. Yost, Brian. October First Five Year Report for Combustion, Inc. Superfund Site Livingston Parish, Louisiana. EPA ID NO.LAD EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.

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