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The Presidencies of Thomas Jefferson,

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Presentation on theme: "The Presidencies of Thomas Jefferson,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Presidencies of Thomas Jefferson,
James Madison, James Monroe and the Market Economy (Unit II, Segment 1 of 3)

2 Essential Question: How did Jefferson’s presidency change American government, territory, & foreign policy? Warm-Up Question: How will the fact that Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican influence his policies as America’s third president?

3 The period of time in U.S. history before the Civil War is known as the Antebellum Era (1800-1860)
Early Antebellum ( ) American nationalism Age of the “common man” Industrial revolution, rise of “king cotton,” market economy Late Antebellum ( ) Manifest Destiny into the West Sectionalism divided North & South

4 Jefferson’s defeat of Adams is often called the “Revolution of 1800”:
For the first time, a new political party took the presidency Jefferson’s presidency marked the start of nearly 30 years of political dominance by the Democratic-Republicans George Washington John Adams Thomas Jefferson James Madison James Monroe John Q. Adams Andrew Jackson

5 Jefferson as President
As a Democratic-Republican, Jefferson tried to reverse Federalist policies & reduce the size & cost of the national gov’t: He reduced the size of the army

6 Jefferson believed that America should be an “agrarian republic” that protects liberty

7 The United States in 1800 From 1800 to 1810, the population grew by 2 million people, thousands flooded into the west, & 3 new states were added to the USA In 1800, Napoleon reclaimed Louisiana from Spain, but by 1803, he needed money to fund his European war & offered to sell Louisiana Ohio (1803) Kentucky (1792) Tennessee (1796) Americans were flooding into the “west”

8 The Louisiana Purchase (1803)
As a “strict constructionist” Jefferson did not know if he had the Constitutional power to buy Louisiana but he did it anyway In 1803, Jefferson authorized the Louisiana Purchase from France for $15 million Lewis & Clark were sent by Jefferson to map & explore this new territory; Their findings revealed an abundance of natural resources for America

9 Jefferson easily won re-election in 1804

10 Jefferson’s Legacy Jefferson came into office trying to reduce the size & power of the national government, but: By buying Louisiana, he expanded government power beyond that of the Constitution

11 James Madison won the presidency in 1808 & 1812
George Washington John Adams Thomas Jefferson James Madison James Monroe John Q. Adams Andrew Jackson James Madison won the presidency in 1808 & 1812 Madison was the architect of the Constitution, was elected to Congress, & served as Jefferson’s VP Madison continued the dominance of the Democratic-Republican Party & tried to continue Jefferson’s policies of limited national gov’t

12 “Free Trade & Sailors' Rights” was a popular battle cry
The War of 1812 Unfortunately, the war between England & France continued to cause problems for Americans: England & France continued to violate American free trade The British navy continued to “impress” American merchants Many Congressmen, called “War Hawks” demanded war with Britain to defend U.S. honor “Free Trade & Sailors' Rights” was a popular battle cry

13 Patriotism surged as War Hawks claimed the War of 1812 the “Second American Revolution”
Madison eventually gave in & asked Congress for a declaration of war in June 1812

14 The British attacked & burned Washington, DC…
The War of (1812—1814) The U.S. was not ready to fight when the war began Had a weak navy & poorly trained army The war went badly at first …and laid siege to Baltimore where Francis Scott Key wrote the “Star Spangled Banner”

15 The War of (1812—1814) Even though Britain was winning, they were fighting Napoleon’s army in Europe & wanted to end the war in America quickly

16 The Americans were led by Andrew Jackson who became a national hero
The War of (1812—1814) The Americans were led by Andrew Jackson who became a national hero In 1814, Britain & U.S. signed the Treaty of Ghent ending the war Before news arrived, the Americans won the Battle of New Orleans The victory at New Orleans led many Americans to feel as though they won the war

17 Treaty of Ghent Treaty of Ghent ended the war, but it did not address trade rights or other causes of the war Effects of the War of 1812: Americans were united in a sense of nationalism, believing that they had beaten the British America entered an “Era of Good Feelings” with a popular president & booming national economy

18 To promote national unity To promote America’s power in the world
George Washington John Adams Thomas Jefferson James Madison James Monroe John Q. Adams Andrew Jackson James Monroe was elected president in 1816 & 1820 with a clear set of goals: To promote national unity To promote America’s power in the world Monroe was a Democratic-Republican, but by 1816 the Federalists were so weak that the Republicans could do almost anything

19 The Era of Good Feelings
After the War of 1812, America experienced an “Era of Good Feelings” from 1815 to 1825: Monroe & the Democratic -Republicans in Congress used this time to promote American nationalism Nationalism—the interests of the USA should be placed ahead of regional interests

20 American Nationalism Monroe & the Democratic - Republicans in Congress promoted nationalism & American unity through the Economy: Encourage industry & build better transportation to link the South, North, & West

21 The American System In 1816, Congressman Henry Clay proposed the American System to unify the economies of the North, South, & West Created a tariff to promote U.S. industry & limit the importation of British manufactured goods A nat’l system of roads & canals

22 The Market Revolution From 1800 to 1840, the U.S. developed a “national” economy: New technologies allowed the North (industry), South (cotton), & West (commercial farming) to develop specialized economies Improved transportation reduced travel time & cost to ship goods which helped connect the country

23 The National Economy: The North
Technology: By 1840, Eli Whitney’s interchangeable parts & other textile technology led to an Industrial Revolution in the North

24 Eli Whitney’s Other Major Invention: Interchangeable Parts

25 Samuel Slater: Father of the American Factory System
Power Loom Sewing Machine Spinning Mule

26 The National Economy: The North
Specialized Regional Economy: By 1840, Northern factories mass produced textiles, farm equipment, other finished goods The growth of factories in the North led to an increase in cities (urbanization)

27 Textile Production Before the Industrial Revolution

28 The Lowell Mill in Massachusetts was the most famous textile mill
Lowell managers hired young, single girls to work & live at the factory Textile Production During the Industrial Revolution

29 American Population Centers in 1860

30 The National Economy: The West
Technology: Cyrus McCormick’s reaper & John Deere’s steel plow allowed western farmers to grow enough food to sell

31 Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper
John Deere & the Steel Plow

32 The National Economy: The West
Specialized Regional Economy: The West became a network of cash-crop farms producing wheat, corn, hogs, & cattle

33 Commercial Farming in the West

34 The National Economy: The South
Technology: In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin making cotton easy to refine & very profitable

35 The Cotton Gin

36 The National Economy: The South
Specialized Regional Economy: By 1820, cotton became the dominant cash crop of the Deep South The spread of cotton increased slavery & plantation agriculture in the South

37 The Rise of “King Cotton”
Southern cotton was so important to the antebellum economy that it was known as “King Cotton” The South provided 75% of world’s cotton Southern cotton stimulated the growth of Northern textile industry, shipping, & marketing


39 Slave Population, 1820 Slave Population, 1860

40 Connecting Regional Economies Into a National Market Economy

41 The Market Revolution During the antebellum era, these 3 regional economies became connected as a result of: Henry Clay’s American System (tariff on foreign manufacturing, & national funding for transportation) A transportation revolution of roads, canals, & early railroads that built America’s infrastructure

42 Transportation Revolution 1820-1860 Rivers, Roads, Canals, & Railroads

43 Steamboats & Canals Canals & steamboats helped connect the West & East: Western farmers could now get industrial farm equipment Canals & Robert Fulton’s steamboat helped cut shipping costs by 90% for farmers As a result, western farmers could produce more food & make more profits

44 Major Canals by 1840 Robert Fulton’s The Clermont, the 1st steamboat
The most important canal was the Erie Canal (1825) because it provided the 1st major link between the East & West The Erie Canal (1825) provided the 1st link between East & West Because the Erie Canal brought so much trade down the Hudson River, New York City became the commercial capital of the U.S.

45 Inland Freight Rates

46 Railroads In the 1830s, railroad construction first began
By 1860, railroads had become the greatest transportation network in America

47 Immigration In the 1840s, millions of Irish & Germans immigrated to the U.S. Immigrants filled low-paying jobs in Northern factories or moved west (Swedes and Norwegians to MN) to become farmers Immigrants, especially Catholics, faced prejudice from native-born Americans (this was called Nativism) The Know-Nothing Party was formed to limit immigration & keep immigrant men from voting

48 Where did antebellum immigrants go?
Farmers Immigration to the US Industrial workers

49 Propaganda from the Know-Nothing Party attacking German & Irish immigrants

50 Closure Chart: Big picture—where do we go from here?
Map background—what’s keeping the country together (nationalism?) What is going to start breaking the country apart (sectionalism?)



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