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The Presidencies of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe and the Market Economy (Unit II, Segment 1 of 3)

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Presentation on theme: "The Presidencies of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe and the Market Economy (Unit II, Segment 1 of 3)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Presidencies of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe and the Market Economy (Unit II, Segment 1 of 3)

2 ■ Essential Question ■ Essential Question: – How did Jefferson ’ s presidency change American government, territory, & foreign policy? ■ Warm-Up Question: – How will the fact that Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican influence his policies as America’s third president?

3 The period of time in U.S. history before the Civil War is known as the Antebellum Era (1800-1860) – Early Antebellum (1800-1840) American nationalism Age of the “ common man ” Industrial revolution, rise of “ king cotton, ” market economy – Late Antebellum (1840-1860) Manifest Destiny into the West Sectionalism divided North & South

4 1.George Washington 2.John Adams 3.Thomas Jefferson 4.James Madison 5.James Monroe 6.John Q. Adams 7.Andrew Jackson Jefferson’s defeat of Adams is often called the “Revolution of 1800”: –For the first time, a new political party took the presidency –Jefferson’s presidency marked the start of nearly 30 years of political dominance by the Democratic-Republicans

5 Jefferson as President ■As a Democratic-Republican, Jefferson tried to reverse Federalist policies & reduce the size & cost of the national gov’t: –He reduced the size of the army

6 Jefferson believed that America should be an “agrarian republic” that protects liberty

7 The United States in 1800 From 1800 to 1810, the population grew by 2 million people, thousands flooded into the west, & 3 new states were added to the USA Kentucky (1792) Ohio (1803) Tennessee (1796) In 1800, Napoleon reclaimed Louisiana from Spain, but by 1803, he needed money to fund his European war & offered to sell Louisiana

8 The Louisiana Purchase (1803) In 1803, Jefferson authorized the Louisiana Purchase from France for $15 million Lewis & Clark were sent by Jefferson to map & explore this new territory; Their findings revealed an abundance of natural resources for America As a “ strict constructionist ” Jefferson did not know if he had the Constitutional power to buy Louisiana but he did it anyway

9 Jefferson easily won re-election in 1804

10 Jefferson’s Legacy ■Jefferson came into office trying to reduce the size & power of the national government, but: –By buying Louisiana, he expanded government power beyond that of the Constitution

11 1.George Washington 2.John Adams 3.Thomas Jefferson 4.James Madison 5.James Monroe 6.John Q. Adams 7.Andrew Jackson James Madison won the presidency in 1808 & 1812 –Madison was the architect of the Constitution, was elected to Congress, & served as Jefferson’s VP –Madison continued the dominance of the Democratic-Republican Party & tried to continue Jefferson’s policies of limited national gov’t

12 The War of 1812 Unfortunately, the war between England & France continued to cause problems for Americans: –England & France continued to violate American free trade –The British navy continued to “impress” American merchants –Many Congressmen, called “War Hawks” demanded war with Britain to defend U.S. honor “ Free Trade & Sailors' Rights ” was a popular battle cry

13 Patriotism surged as War Hawks claimed the War of 1812 the “ Second American Revolution ” Madison eventually gave in & asked Congress for a declaration of war in June 1812

14 The War of 1812 (1812—1814) The U.S. was not ready to fight when the war began –Had a weak navy & poorly trained army –The war went badly at first …and laid siege to Baltimore where Francis Scott Key wrote the “ Star Spangled Banner ” The British attacked & burned Washington, DC…

15 The War of 1812 (1812—1814) Even though Britain was winning, they were fighting Napoleon’s army in Europe & wanted to end the war in America quickly

16 The War of 1812 (1812—1814) In 1814, Britain & U.S. signed the Treaty of Ghent ending the war Before news arrived, the Americans won the Battle of New Orleans The Americans were led by Andrew Jackson who became a national hero The victory at New Orleans led many Americans to feel as though they won the war

17 Treaty of Ghent ■ Treaty of Ghent ■ Treaty of Ghent ended the war, but it did not address trade rights or other causes of the war ■ Effects of the War of 1812: – Americans were united in a sense of nationalism, believing that they had beaten the British – America entered an “ Era of Good Feelings ” with a popular president & booming national economy

18 1.George Washington 2.John Adams 3.Thomas Jefferson 4.James Madison 5.James Monroe 6.John Q. Adams 7.Andrew Jackson James Monroe was elected president in 1816 & 1820 with a clear set of goals: –To promote national unity –To promote America’s power in the world Monroe was a Democratic- Republican, but by 1816 the Federalists were so weak that the Republicans could do almost anything

19 The Era of Good Feelings

20 American Nationalism ■ Monroe & the Democratic - Republicans in Congress promoted nationalism & American unity through the – Economy: Encourage industry & build better transportation to link the South, North, & West

21 The American System American System ■ In 1816, Congressman Henry Clay proposed the American System to unify the economies of the North, South, & West – Created a tariff to promote U.S. industry & limit the importation of British manufactured goods – A nat’l system of roads & canals

22 The Market Revolution ■ From 1800 to 1840, the U.S. developed a “ national ” economy: – New technologies allowed the North (industry), South (cotton), & West (commercial farming) to develop specialized economies – Improved transportation reduced travel time & cost to ship goods which helped connect the country

23 The National Economy: The North Technology: By 1840, Eli Whitney ’ s interchangeable parts & other textile technology led to an Industrial Revolution in the North

24 Eli Whitney ’ s Other Major Invention: Interchangeable Parts

25 Samuel Slater: Father of the American Factory System Spinning Mule Power Loom Sewing Machine

26 The National Economy: The North Specialized Regional Economy: By 1840, Northern factories mass produced textiles, farm equipment, other finished goods The growth of factories in the North led to an increase in cities (urbanization)

27 Textile Production Before the Industrial Revolution

28 The Lowell Mill in Massachusetts was the most famous textile mill Lowell managers hired young, single girls to work & live at the factory Textile Production During the Industrial Revolution

29 American Population Centers in 1820 American Population Centers in 1860

30 The National Economy: The West Technology: Cyrus McCormick’s reaper & John Deere’s steel plow allowed western farmers to grow enough food to sell

31 Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper John Deere & the Steel Plow

32 The National Economy: The West Specialized Regional Economy: The West became a network of cash-crop farms producing wheat, corn, hogs, & cattle

33 Commercial Farming in the West

34 The National Economy: The South Technology: In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin making cotton easy to refine & very profitable

35 The Cotton Gin

36 The National Economy: The South Specialized Regional Economy: By 1820, cotton became the dominant cash crop of the Deep South The spread of cotton increased slavery & plantation agriculture in the South

37 The Rise of “ King Cotton ” ■ Southern cotton was so important to the antebellum economy that it was known as “ King Cotton ” – The South provided 75% of world ’ s cotton – Southern cotton stimulated the growth of Northern textile industry, shipping, & marketing


39 Slave Population, 1820Slave Population, 1860

40 Connecting Regional Economies Into a National Market Economy

41 The Market Revolution ■ During the antebellum era, these 3 regional economies became connected as a result of: – Henry Clay ’ s American System (tariff on foreign manufacturing, & national funding for transportation) – A transportation revolution of roads, canals, & early railroads that built America ’ s infrastructure

42 Rivers, Roads, Canals, & Railroads Transportation Revolution 1820- 1860 Rivers, Roads, Canals, & Railroads

43 Steamboats & Canals ■ Canals & steamboats helped connect the West & East: – Western farmers could now get industrial farm equipment – Canals & Robert Fulton ’ s steamboat helped cut shipping costs by 90% for farmers – As a result, western farmers could produce more food & make more profits

44 Major Canals by 1840 Because the Erie Canal brought so much trade down the Hudson River, New York City became the commercial capital of the U.S. The most important canal was the Erie Canal (1825) because it provided the 1 st major link between the East & West Robert Fulton ’ s The Clermont, the 1 st steamboat

45 Inland Freight Rates

46 Railroads In the 1830s, railroad construction first began By 1860, railroads had become the greatest transportation network in America

47 Immigration ■ In the 1840s, millions of Irish & Germans immigrated to the U.S. – Immigrants filled low-paying jobs in Northern factories or moved west (Swedes and Norwegians to MN) to become farmers – Immigrants, especially Catholics, faced prejudice from native-born Americans (this was called Nativism) – The Know-Nothing Party was formed to limit immigration & keep immigrant men from voting

48 Immigration to the US 1820-1860 Where did antebellum immigrants go? Industrial workers Farmers

49 Propaganda from the Know-Nothing Party attacking German & Irish immigrants

50 Closure ■ Chart: – Big picture—where do we go from here? – Map background—what ’ s keeping the country together (nationalism?) – What is going to start breaking the country apart (sectionalism?)



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