2French and Indian WarIn 1754 the British and the French went to war over the land north of the Ohio Valley in America. This war was called the French and Indian WarThis war spread to Europe resulting in the Seven Years’ War with France and Spain becoming allies (friends).Video Question:Who were the main European Powers in North America after the ending of the war and the Treaty of Paris?Spain and Britain
3Treaty of ParisIn 1763 after Great Britain won the war, and the Treaty of Paris required France and Spain to give land to the British.France gave up all the land around the Mississippi River and Canada while Spain gave up FloridaAfter the treaty, France no longer had ANY mainland on North AmericaThe French threat to Spain was gone
4Marques de Rubi … and the REPORT Who: Marques de Rubi was an inspector for Spain who spent 2 years touring the Texas missions and presidios.Why: Due to the changes in the New World and New Spain’s empire, Spain needed to inspect the conditions in “Texas”When: Beginning in 1766 and lasting for 2 yearsWhat: After completing his tour… he made the following recommendations in a report:
5The government approved Rubi’s recommendations Marques de Rubi ReportWhy?Why?Marqués de Rubí ReportThese had the best conditions- others were in desperate need of repairs and staffed by soldiers who lived in poverty.188.8.131.52.Spain should abandon all missionsand presidios in Texas except those at La Bahía and San Antonio.San Antonio should then replace Los Adaes as the capital of Texas.The Spanish in East Texas should be moved to San Antonio to strengthen the defenses of the missions and settlement there.The French were no longer a threat to East Texas…The Spanish should befriend the Comanche and use their help in fighting the Apache.The government approved Rubi’s recommendations
6Effects in East Texas…Spanish officials began to withdrawal from East Texas (and Los Adaes) in Residents were forced from their homes and land (many against their will) and sent to San Antonio. The 3 month journey killed many.San Antonio became the new capital in the early 1770’s and the newcomers were very unhappy. Farmland was already taken, etc.Antonio Gil Ybarbo led a group who moved back to East Texas and founded present day Nacogdoches on the site of the old mission. This town prospered and turned into a major trading post, trading with Louisiana and the Tejas Indians.
7Changes in the Indian Policies Because the mission system failed in keeping peaceful relations with the Plains Indians, the Spanish decided to try befriending the tribes by trading with them and exchanging gifts (If you can’t beat em…join em )In 1785, a peace treaty was signed between the Comanche Indians and the Spanish.THE TREATYThe Comanche Indians agreed to stop attacking Spanish settlements in return for annual giftsThe Spanish agreed to provide them with beads, clothes, mirrors and shoes. They even provided guns.
8What about the Apaches?After the treaty with the Comanche Indians, the raids by the Apache Indians continued.In 1790, several Native American tribes (including the Comanches) joined forces with the Spanish Army and was victorious during a war with the Apaches.This loss negatively effected the Apache’s strength in Texas for several years.
9What did you learn…. What led to the Rubi inspection tour? Answer the following questions about the powerpoint:What led to the Rubi inspection tour?Spain wanted to inspect the settlements because of the recent changes to the empire2. How did Spanish relations with the Indians change in the late 1700’s?Used trade and gifts to make allies; signed a peace treaty with the Comanche; defeated Apache during war3. How did the Treaty of Paris effect Texas?France had to cede all the land that bordered Texas and was no longer a threat.
11The Growing US Threat…1775 the US Revolutionary War begins as the American Patriots begin fighting for independence against Britain.Spain joined in fighting against Great BritainBernardo de Galvez was the governor of Spanish Louisiana at the time, and demanded resources from TexasIn 1783, the United States won its independence and became a republic. The republic began to grow quickly becoming a threat to Spanish power.
12The Threat Continues…U.S. Settlers began moving west towards the Mississippi River and some even moved into Spanish Territory in Louisiana.Spanish officials in Louisiana allowed U.S. immigration to help the population (was sparse at the time) BUT Texas officials went as far as setting up troops on the borders to keep “Americans” out.
13The Louisiana Purchase In 1800 a land deal known as the Louisiana Purchase took place. This deal forced Spain to sell Louisiana back to the French… who in turn sold it to the U.S. in This doubled the size of the U.S.Video Question: How much did the U.S. pay for the land during this land deal?$15 Million
15Border Disputes in Texas The U.S. now bordered New Spain and alarmed the Spanish.Disputes on the ACTUAL borders began to surface. The U.S. claimed that Texas was part of Louisiana and of course Spain disagreed.The disputed land was designated as “neutral ground”.In 1819, Spain and the U.S. signed the Adams-Onis Treaty that set up a defined border.
16What did you learn….Answer the following questions about the powerpoint:What events increased Spain’s fears of the United States?- Expansion of U.S. Settlements and the Louisiana Purchase.2. How did these events affect Texas?The U.S. now bordered New Spain and led to border disputes and who official had land control of Texas.
18Colonists Grow Unhappy with Spain As the small colonies grew into towns, the settlers worked together to solve their own problems.The settlers couldn’t wait for Spain to direct them.The settlers felt that the king lived too far away to truly understand their needs.
19In the last decades of the 1700’s Spain became involved in huge problems in Europe. Conflicts with England and France took up most of Spain’s time and money.
20Spain didn't haveenough moneyto spend on thenew towns incurrent-day Texas.
21How was Spain going to get money to fight the conflicts with England and France? Spain placed HEAVY TAXES on the settlers in Texas.Spain forced the settlers in Texas to donate money to pay for European wars.
22Would you be upset like the Spanish Texas settlers? How would you like to work hard all week and have to give the Spanish King and Queen take most of your income/money in taxes?What you had left, they tried to make you “donate” to Spain to pay for their European Wars.Would you be upset like the Spanish Texas settlers?
23By 1800, the settlers were feeling dissatisfied. Colonists were unhappy with the Spanish rulers.Colonists wanted to make their own rules.
24The Enlightenment Movement People tried to apply reason and science to all aspects of society, including government.This movement challenged the idea that kings had a God-given right to rule.A government should support the people’s nature rights and interests. (If a government does not do this, it should be replaced.)
25Father Hidalgo Calls for Independence Father Hidalgo believed strongly in the ideals of the Enlightenment.Father Hidalgo worked among Mexican farming families for years just north of Mexico City. He saw how these families struggled and how Spain’s crown neglected to help them.
26(liberation – the act of becoming free) Father Hidalgo knew that as long as the king was in charge, conditions for these Mexican families would never change.Father Hidalgo called for the liberation of the Mexican people from Spain.(liberation – the act of becoming free)
27conspiring – to join in a secret agreement When the king and queen of Spain heard that Father Hidalgo was conspiring to overthrow the Spanish government, they decided to ARREST HIM.Hidalgo heard about this beforehand and knew he had three choices:stay in Dolores (small town north of Mexico City)hide out and hope not to get caughtbegin a revolutionconspiring – to join in a secret agreement
29Grito de Dolores Cry of Dolores call_ind.htmlOn September 16, 1810, Father Hidalgo gave a speech titled “Grito de Dolores”. (Remember Dolores was the city he was in, just north of Mexico City.)In the speech, Hidalgo called for Mexican citizens to rise up and fight for independence.
30Father Hidalgo is killed. On his was to meet up with his supporters, Hidalgo was seized by Spanish authorities and executed.Although Father Hidalgo did not live to see Mexican independence from Spain, he had a great effect on the future of Mexico and Texas.
31Hidalgo’s Supporters Rebel Against Spain A group of rebels led by Juan Bautista de las Casas overthrew the Spanish government in San Antonio.They named Las Casas governor and then took control of La Bahia and Nacogdoches.On January 22, 1811, Las Casas declared the Mexican state of Texas independent of Spain.
32Mexican Unrest Continues Even though the rebellions led by Hidalgo and Las Casas failed, people began opening their eyes to the possibility of freedom from Spanish control.They believed that with the right army, the colonists could “win” their independence.
34Jose Bernardo Gutierrez Left Nuevo Santander and fled to Louisiana to raise an army.Gutierrez and his army commander, Augustus Magee, marched back to Texas and briefly took control from Spain. They were defeated shortly thereafter.
35Meanwhile in SpainA group of liberals staged a successful revolt in 1820.This revolt forced the king of Spain to make changes.The conservatives in Spain started to think twice about all of its choices.Many conservatives joined with Father Hidalgo’s followers to defeat Spanish forces.
36August 24, 1821A treaty was signed, making Mexico independent from Spain.Texas then became the new Republic of Mexico.
37Spanish Influence Lives On Spaniards explored Texas, built towns, established missions, and developed missions for hundreds of years.Spanish culture, language, customs, beliefs, etc. heavily impacted life in Texas.Even though Spain lost political control of Texas, Spanish influence has remained strong throughout history.
39missions and presidios. Mexican colonists, including those in Texas, seek independence from Spain.Spain establishesmissions and presidios.More colonists come to Texas, establishing towns and ranches.
41Mexico Wins Independence After the death of Father Hidalgo and Father Pavon (two leaders of Mexican Independence), the revolution seemed at an end.In 1820 political changes in Spain weakened the government and breathed new life into the revolt.Agustin de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero led an army that defeated Spain and Mexico won it’s independence.
42Now What…This war of independence took a great toll on both Mexico and Texas. Indian attacks on settlements increased and little man-power remained for defense. The loss of livestock and crops due to the war destroyed the economy.By 1821 only about ½ of the population of tejanos remained (near 30,000 Indians still remained however).About 1,500 tejanos lived in San Antonio and around 1,000 lived in La Bahia (renamed Goliad in 1829)Nacogdoches was deserted.
43Causes and Effects of Mexican Independence Wide economic and social divisions between the rich and poor in New SpainPolitical corruption in SpainExamples of other revolutions, including the American Revolution and those occurring in Latin AmericaFather Hidlago’s Grito de DoloresEffectsCreation of Mexico as an independent republicEconomic ruin and loss of life in Mexico, including Texas.Political instability in MexicoAttempts to increase the Texas population with immigrants from Europe and the United States
44Tejano RanchersSeveral ranches began to pop up and thrive around the Rio Grande Valley and Laredo. Livestock included cattle, horses and sheep.Martin de Leon was a famous tejano rancher to helped to establish the cattle industry in TexasRanching also became a huge economy booster around the San Antonio area as well setting up trade with Louisiana and trading posts in MexicoMany of the wealthiest tejanos lived and worked on ranches in Texas.
45Mexican Policies in Texas Now that Mexico was an independent republic, they had to decide which Spanish policies to continue in Texas.THE MISSION SYSTEM:Spain has begun to secularize the remaining mission beginning in 1793 (moving from religious to civil control)San Antonio de Valero was the first to be secularized and housed a military unit called San Jose y Santiago del Alamo de Parras.All Texas missions were secularized by 1831 and most of the Native Americans began to settle among the Spanish
46More Mexican Policies in Texas Mexico was concerned about the low population in Texas. Too much land and too few Tejanos… defense??Few Mexicans wanted to live in the unsettled Texas frontierRight before the independence of Mexico, Spain had offered open immigration to the U.S.Would Mexico honor this offer??…
47What did you learn… Answer the following based on the powerpoint… Under Spain, and then Mexico, what happened to the Mission System in Texas?It was secularized beginning in 1793 under Spain and finishing in 1831 under Mexico2. How did the Mexican Independence affect Texas?It made Texas part of the independent nation of Mexico; ruined the economy and drained the resources; greatly decreased the Tejano population; worsened Indian relations in Texas