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Changes in Spanish Texas

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1 Changes in Spanish Texas

2 French and Indian War In 1754 the British and the French went to war over the land north of the Ohio Valley in America. This war was called the French and Indian War This war spread to Europe resulting in the Seven Years’ War with France and Spain becoming allies (friends). Video Question: Who were the main European Powers in North America after the ending of the war and the Treaty of Paris? Spain and Britain

3 Treaty of Paris In 1763 after Great Britain won the war, and the Treaty of Paris required France and Spain to give land to the British. France gave up all the land around the Mississippi River and Canada while Spain gave up Florida After the treaty, France no longer had ANY mainland on North America The French threat to Spain was gone

4 Marques de Rubi … and the REPORT
Who: Marques de Rubi was an inspector for Spain who spent 2 years touring the Texas missions and presidios. Why: Due to the changes in the New World and New Spain’s empire, Spain needed to inspect the conditions in “Texas” When: Beginning in 1766 and lasting for 2 years What: After completing his tour… he made the following recommendations in a report:

5 The government approved Rubi’s recommendations
Marques de Rubi Report Why? Why? Marqués de Rubí Report These had the best conditions- others were in desperate need of repairs and staffed by soldiers who lived in poverty. 1. 2. 3. 4. Spain should abandon all missions and presidios in Texas except those at La Bahía and San Antonio. San Antonio should then replace Los Adaes as the capital of Texas. The Spanish in East Texas should be moved to San Antonio to strengthen the defenses of the missions and settlement there. The French were no longer a threat to East Texas… The Spanish should befriend the Comanche and use their help in fighting the Apache. The government approved Rubi’s recommendations

6 Effects in East Texas… Spanish officials began to withdrawal from East Texas (and Los Adaes) in Residents were forced from their homes and land (many against their will) and sent to San Antonio. The 3 month journey killed many. San Antonio became the new capital in the early 1770’s and the newcomers were very unhappy. Farmland was already taken, etc. Antonio Gil Ybarbo led a group who moved back to East Texas and founded present day Nacogdoches on the site of the old mission. This town prospered and turned into a major trading post, trading with Louisiana and the Tejas Indians.

7 Changes in the Indian Policies
Because the mission system failed in keeping peaceful relations with the Plains Indians, the Spanish decided to try befriending the tribes by trading with them and exchanging gifts (If you can’t beat em…join em ) In 1785, a peace treaty was signed between the Comanche Indians and the Spanish. THE TREATY The Comanche Indians agreed to stop attacking Spanish settlements in return for annual gifts The Spanish agreed to provide them with beads, clothes, mirrors and shoes. They even provided guns.

8 What about the Apaches? After the treaty with the Comanche Indians, the raids by the Apache Indians continued. In 1790, several Native American tribes (including the Comanches) joined forces with the Spanish Army and was victorious during a war with the Apaches. This loss negatively effected the Apache’s strength in Texas for several years.

9 What did you learn…. What led to the Rubi inspection tour?
Answer the following questions about the powerpoint: What led to the Rubi inspection tour? Spain wanted to inspect the settlements because of the recent changes to the empire 2. How did Spanish relations with the Indians change in the late 1700’s? Used trade and gifts to make allies; signed a peace treaty with the Comanche; defeated Apache during war 3. How did the Treaty of Paris effect Texas? France had to cede all the land that bordered Texas and was no longer a threat.

10 Disputes with the United States

11 The Growing US Threat… 1775 the US Revolutionary War begins as the American Patriots begin fighting for independence against Britain. Spain joined in fighting against Great Britain Bernardo de Galvez was the governor of Spanish Louisiana at the time, and demanded resources from Texas In 1783, the United States won its independence and became a republic. The republic began to grow quickly becoming a threat to Spanish power.

12 The Threat Continues… U.S. Settlers began moving west towards the Mississippi River and some even moved into Spanish Territory in Louisiana. Spanish officials in Louisiana allowed U.S. immigration to help the population (was sparse at the time) BUT Texas officials went as far as setting up troops on the borders to keep “Americans” out.

13 The Louisiana Purchase
In 1800 a land deal known as the Louisiana Purchase took place. This deal forced Spain to sell Louisiana back to the French… who in turn sold it to the U.S. in This doubled the size of the U.S. Video Question: How much did the U.S. pay for the land during this land deal? $15 Million


15 Border Disputes in Texas
The U.S. now bordered New Spain and alarmed the Spanish. Disputes on the ACTUAL borders began to surface. The U.S. claimed that Texas was part of Louisiana and of course Spain disagreed. The disputed land was designated as “neutral ground”. In 1819, Spain and the U.S. signed the Adams-Onis Treaty that set up a defined border.

16 What did you learn…. Answer the following questions about the powerpoint: What events increased Spain’s fears of the United States? - Expansion of U.S. Settlements and the Louisiana Purchase. 2. How did these events affect Texas? The U.S. now bordered New Spain and led to border disputes and who official had land control of Texas.

17 Unrest and Revolution

18 Colonists Grow Unhappy with Spain
As the small colonies grew into towns, the settlers worked together to solve their own problems. The settlers couldn’t wait for Spain to direct them. The settlers felt that the king lived too far away to truly understand their needs.

19 In the last decades of the 1700’s Spain became involved in huge problems in Europe.
Conflicts with England and France took up most of Spain’s time and money.

20 Spain didn't have enough money to spend on the new towns in current-day Texas.

21 How was Spain going to get money to fight the conflicts with England and France?
Spain placed HEAVY TAXES on the settlers in Texas. Spain forced the settlers in Texas to donate money to pay for European wars.

22 Would you be upset like the Spanish Texas settlers?
How would you like to work hard all week and have to give the Spanish King and Queen take most of your income/money in taxes? What you had left, they tried to make you “donate” to Spain to pay for their European Wars. Would you be upset like the Spanish Texas settlers?

23 By 1800, the settlers were feeling dissatisfied.
Colonists were unhappy with the Spanish rulers. Colonists wanted to make their own rules.

24 The Enlightenment Movement
People tried to apply reason and science to all aspects of society, including government. This movement challenged the idea that kings had a God-given right to rule. A government should support the people’s nature rights and interests. (If a government does not do this, it should be replaced.)

25 Father Hidalgo Calls for Independence
Father Hidalgo believed strongly in the ideals of the Enlightenment. Father Hidalgo worked among Mexican farming families for years just north of Mexico City. He saw how these families struggled and how Spain’s crown neglected to help them.

26 (liberation – the act of becoming free)
Father Hidalgo knew that as long as the king was in charge, conditions for these Mexican families would never change. Father Hidalgo called for the liberation of the Mexican people from Spain. (liberation – the act of becoming free)

27 conspiring – to join in a secret agreement
When the king and queen of Spain heard that Father Hidalgo was conspiring to overthrow the Spanish government, they decided to ARREST HIM. Hidalgo heard about this beforehand and knew he had three choices: stay in Dolores (small town north of Mexico City) hide out and hope not to get caught begin a revolution conspiring – to join in a secret agreement

28 What will Father Hidalgo do?

29 Grito de Dolores Cry of Dolores
call_ind.html On September 16, 1810, Father Hidalgo gave a speech titled “Grito de Dolores”. (Remember Dolores was the city he was in, just north of Mexico City.) In the speech, Hidalgo called for Mexican citizens to rise up and fight for independence.

30 Father Hidalgo is killed.
On his was to meet up with his supporters, Hidalgo was seized by Spanish authorities and executed. Although Father Hidalgo did not live to see Mexican independence from Spain, he had a great effect on the future of Mexico and Texas.

31 Hidalgo’s Supporters Rebel Against Spain
A group of rebels led by Juan Bautista de las Casas overthrew the Spanish government in San Antonio. They named Las Casas governor and then took control of La Bahia and Nacogdoches. On January 22, 1811, Las Casas declared the Mexican state of Texas independent of Spain.

32 Mexican Unrest Continues
Even though the rebellions led by Hidalgo and Las Casas failed, people began opening their eyes to the possibility of freedom from Spanish control. They believed that with the right army, the colonists could “win” their independence.

33 be continued.

34 Jose Bernardo Gutierrez
Left Nuevo Santander and fled to Louisiana to raise an army. Gutierrez and his army commander, Augustus Magee, marched back to Texas and briefly took control from Spain. They were defeated shortly thereafter.

35 Meanwhile in Spain A group of liberals staged a successful revolt in 1820. This revolt forced the king of Spain to make changes. The conservatives in Spain started to think twice about all of its choices. Many conservatives joined with Father Hidalgo’s followers to defeat Spanish forces.

36 August 24, 1821 A treaty was signed, making Mexico independent from Spain. Texas then became the new Republic of Mexico.

37 Spanish Influence Lives On
Spaniards explored Texas, built towns, established missions, and developed missions for hundreds of years. Spanish culture, language, customs, beliefs, etc. heavily impacted life in Texas. Even though Spain lost political control of Texas, Spanish influence has remained strong throughout history.


39 missions and presidios.
Mexican colonists, including those in Texas, seek independence from Spain. Spain establishes missions and presidios. More colonists come to Texas, establishing towns and ranches.

40 Spanish Rule Ends in Mexico

41 Mexico Wins Independence
After the death of Father Hidalgo and Father Pavon (two leaders of Mexican Independence), the revolution seemed at an end. In 1820 political changes in Spain weakened the government and breathed new life into the revolt. Agustin de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero led an army that defeated Spain and Mexico won it’s independence.

42 Now What… This war of independence took a great toll on both Mexico and Texas. Indian attacks on settlements increased and little man-power remained for defense. The loss of livestock and crops due to the war destroyed the economy. By 1821 only about ½ of the population of tejanos remained (near 30,000 Indians still remained however). About 1,500 tejanos lived in San Antonio and around 1,000 lived in La Bahia (renamed Goliad in 1829) Nacogdoches was deserted.

43 Causes and Effects of Mexican Independence
Wide economic and social divisions between the rich and poor in New Spain Political corruption in Spain Examples of other revolutions, including the American Revolution and those occurring in Latin America Father Hidlago’s Grito de Dolores Effects Creation of Mexico as an independent republic Economic ruin and loss of life in Mexico, including Texas. Political instability in Mexico Attempts to increase the Texas population with immigrants from Europe and the United States

44 Tejano Ranchers Several ranches began to pop up and thrive around the Rio Grande Valley and Laredo. Livestock included cattle, horses and sheep. Martin de Leon was a famous tejano rancher to helped to establish the cattle industry in Texas Ranching also became a huge economy booster around the San Antonio area as well setting up trade with Louisiana and trading posts in Mexico Many of the wealthiest tejanos lived and worked on ranches in Texas.

45 Mexican Policies in Texas
Now that Mexico was an independent republic, they had to decide which Spanish policies to continue in Texas. THE MISSION SYSTEM: Spain has begun to secularize the remaining mission beginning in 1793 (moving from religious to civil control) San Antonio de Valero was the first to be secularized and housed a military unit called San Jose y Santiago del Alamo de Parras. All Texas missions were secularized by 1831 and most of the Native Americans began to settle among the Spanish

46 More Mexican Policies in Texas
Mexico was concerned about the low population in Texas. Too much land and too few Tejanos… defense?? Few Mexicans wanted to live in the unsettled Texas frontier Right before the independence of Mexico, Spain had offered open immigration to the U.S. Would Mexico honor this offer??…

47 What did you learn… Answer the following based on the powerpoint…
Under Spain, and then Mexico, what happened to the Mission System in Texas? It was secularized beginning in 1793 under Spain and finishing in 1831 under Mexico 2. How did the Mexican Independence affect Texas? It made Texas part of the independent nation of Mexico; ruined the economy and drained the resources; greatly decreased the Tejano population; worsened Indian relations in Texas

48 To Review…

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