Presentation on theme: "Thomas Jefferson & Louisiana Purchase"— Presentation transcript:
1Thomas Jefferson & Louisiana Purchase Essential Question: What were the benefits and consequences of President Jefferson’s decision to buy New Orleans and the resulting Louisiana Purchase?
2In 1800, France and Spain were negotiating for ownership of Louisiana territory, a vast region between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains.
3Louisiana Purchase background: France & England at war Napoleon needs $Port of New Orleans closed to AmericansJefferson realizes importance of New Orleans to AmericaJefferson sends Robert Livingston & James Monroe to buy territory from NapoleonU.S. buys about for $15 million from Napoleon
4Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte of France, who had gained control of the Port of New Orleans and the Louisiana territory, and who was desperate for money, sold the entire Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles) to the United States for $15 million- about three cents per acre.
6Louisiana Purchase Positive: Doubles area of United States New Orleans port city now open to United StatesMississippi river connects interior to Gulf MexicoNegatives:Land not really France’s to sellLeads to years of Native American warsIssue of slaveryIssue of REPRESENTATION (3/5 compromise) North v South tension
9Jefferson chose Captain Meriwether Lewis to lead an exploration into the Louisiana territory. Lewis in turn recruited his friend Lieutenant William Clark to oversee a volunteer force called the Corps of Discovery.
10The Corps of Discovery came to be known as the Lewis and Clark expedition.
15Lewis and Clark expedition: crossed the U. S Lewis and Clark expedition: crossed the U.S. from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean and brought back a wealth of scientific and geographic information. The expedition also revealed that a northwest water passage did not exist.
21Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, published 1814
22James Madison & The War of 1812 Essential QUESTION: How did President Madison’s actions, related to protecting American ships and settlers, affect the United States during this period of American History?
23James Madison & War of 1812: some background US shipping was being harassed, and cargo was seized.Impressment: English navy taking U.S. sailors and making them fight for them on their shipsEngland at war with NapoleonEngland also backing Indians in North AmericaJames Madison:“Father of Constitution”Author of Federalist PapersBut helps Jefferson start Democratic – Republican PartySec. of State to Jefferson
24What was Madison’s role leading up to The War of 1812? Non-Intercourse ActForbade trade with France and Britain; however President could reopen trade when either France or Britain lifted restrictionsWar HawksSouthern congressmen favored war, even though it hurt the east
25What are some major events leading to The War of 1812? Economic Diplomacy FailsEmbargo Act of 1807 halted all trade with EuropeEmbargo is a government ban on trade with other countriesEmbargo was unpopular in port cities, especially in the North
26What were some of the benefits of going to war with Britain? To allow reopening of tradeNational PrideTo stop the impressment of sailorsCANADA!!!
27What were some drawbacks to going to war? Not everyone in the US wanted to go to warMilitary was smallStanding Army was smallMilitia comprised most of our forces, and they did not like to fight outside of their state bordersNavy was quite small only 22 shipsBritain was a great Superpower and could crush us like a bug and we could lose territory that was gained in the Treaty of Paris or the Louisiana Purchase
28Declaration of WarJune of 1812 Madison asked Congress for declaration of warVote was split along regional linesWar started with Invasion of Canada
29Key Battles US Burns York (now Toronto) US figured the Canadians would welcome the Americans and quickly join the US to expel Britain from North America…this did not happenPerry Defeated the British on Lake ErieThis gave the US control of Lake ErieBritain Blockades the Eastern SeaboardThis prevented shipping from leaving, and made the war more unpopular in the Northeast
30The Roof is on Fire…In August 1814, British Forces Sailed into Chesapeake Bay and capture Washington D.C.They burn the White House and the CapitolMadison and Congress Barely escape
31Oh Say Can You See… Unlike D.C., Baltimore was Ready for the British The City militia inflicted heavy casualties on the BritishAfter bombarding Fort McHenry on September 13, 1814 The British abandon the attackFrancis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment and penned a poem which becomes the National Anthem.
32Treaty of GhentTreaty was Negotiated in Europe and was signed on Dec. 24, 1814 ending the war of 1812The War ended in a stalemate, where no party gained or lost any territory.The issue of impressment was not addressed, but faded on its own.
33Battle of New OrleansFought after the treaty was signed (but not ratified)Why was New Orleans important?Pirates and Frontiersman fought alongside US troopsMade Andrew Jackson a National hero and household nameEnsured treaty ratification
34If The War of 1812 ended in a tie, why was it important? Gave the United States a National Identity (Rise of Nationalism)America gains respect of other nationsCreates a hero in Andrew Jackson and the Western FrontiersmenInspires more westward movementRepublican Party gains footing and starts pushing their agendaFederalists opposed the war that actually ended up benefiting America and increasing nationalismLooks good for Republicans