Presentation on theme: "Thomas Jefferson & Louisiana Purchase Essential Question: What were the benefits and consequences of President Jefferson’s decision to buy New Orleans."— Presentation transcript:
Thomas Jefferson & Louisiana Purchase Essential Question: What were the benefits and consequences of President Jefferson’s decision to buy New Orleans and the resulting Louisiana Purchase?
In 1800, France and Spain were negotiating for ownership of Louisiana territory, a vast region between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains.
Louisiana Purchase background: France & England at war Napoleon needs $ Port of New Orleans closed to Americans –Jefferson realizes importance of New Orleans to America Jefferson sends Robert Livingston & James Monroe to buy territory from Napoleon U.S. buys about for $15 million from Napoleon
Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte of France, who had gained control of the Port of New Orleans and the Louisiana territory, and who was desperate for money, sold the entire Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles) to the United States for $15 million- about three cents per acre.
Louisiana Purchase doubles size of United States
Louisiana Purchase Positive: Doubles area of United States New Orleans port city now open to United States Mississippi river connects interior to Gulf Mexico Negatives: Land not really France’s to sell –Leads to years of Native American wars Issue of slavery –Issue of REPRESENTATION (3/5 compromise) North v South tension
Meriwether Lewis William Clark
Jefferson chose Captain Meriwether Lewis to lead an exploration into the Louisiana territory. Lewis in turn recruited his friend Lieutenant William Clark to oversee a volunteer force called the Corps of Discovery.
The Corps of Discovery came to be known as the Lewis and Clark expedition.
The goal of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to establish good relations with the Native Americans and try to find a northwest passage across the United States.
In 1805 Lewis and Clark were joined by the 17-year-old Shoshone wife of a French trapper named Sacajawea who proved an invaluable ambassador to other Native American tribes.
Lewis and Clark expedition: crossed the U.S. from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean and brought back a wealth of scientific and geographic information. The expedition also revealed that a northwest water passage did not exist.
Impact of Western exploration from Accurate maps Growth of the fur trade Mistaken view of the Great Plains
Map of Lewis and Clark's Track, Across the Western Portion of North America, published 1814
James Madison & The War of 1812 Essential QUESTION: How did President Madison’s actions, related to protecting American ships and settlers, affect the United States during this period of American History?
James Madison & War of 1812: some background James Madison: “Father of Constitution” Author of Federalist Papers But helps Jefferson start Democratic – Republican Party Sec. of State to Jefferson War of 1812: US shipping was being harassed, and cargo was seized. Impressment: English navy taking U.S. sailors and making them fight for them on their ships England at war with Napoleon England also backing Indians in North America
What was Madison’s role leading up to The War of 1812? Non-Intercourse Act –Forbade trade with France and Britain; however President could reopen trade when either France or Britain lifted restrictions War Hawks –Southern congressmen favored war, even though it hurt the east
What are some major events leading to The War of 1812? Economic Diplomacy Fails –Embargo Act of 1807 halted all trade with Europe –Embargo is a government ban on trade with other countries –Embargo was unpopular in port cities, especially in the North
What were some of the benefits of going to war with Britain? To allow reopening of trade National Pride To stop the impressment of sailors CANADA!!!
What were some drawbacks to going to war? Not everyone in the US wanted to go to war Military was small –Standing Army was small –Militia comprised most of our forces, and they did not like to fight outside of their state borders –Navy was quite small only 22 ships Britain was a great Superpower and could crush us like a bug and we could lose territory that was gained in the Treaty of Paris or the Louisiana Purchase
Declaration of War June of 1812 Madison asked Congress for declaration of war Vote was split along regional lines War started with Invasion of Canada
Key Battles US Burns York (now Toronto) –US figured the Canadians would welcome the Americans and quickly join the US to expel Britain from North America…this did not happen Perry Defeated the British on Lake Erie –This gave the US control of Lake Erie Britain Blockades the Eastern Seaboard –This prevented shipping from leaving, and made the war more unpopular in the Northeast
The Roof is on Fire… In August 1814, British Forces Sailed into Chesapeake Bay and capture Washington D.C. They burn the White House and the Capitol Madison and Congress Barely escape
Oh Say Can You See… Unlike D.C., Baltimore was Ready for the British The City militia inflicted heavy casualties on the British After bombarding Fort McHenry on September 13, 1814 The British abandon the attack Francis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment and penned a poem which becomes the National Anthem.
Treaty of Ghent Treaty was Negotiated in Europe and was signed on Dec. 24, 1814 ending the war of 1812 The War ended in a stalemate, where no party gained or lost any territory. The issue of impressment was not addressed, but faded on its own.
Battle of New Orleans Fought after the treaty was signed (but not ratified) Why was New Orleans important? Pirates and Frontiersman fought alongside US troops Made Andrew Jackson a National hero and household name Ensured treaty ratification
If The War of 1812 ended in a tie, why was it important? Gave the United States a National Identity (Rise of Nationalism) America gains respect of other nations Creates a hero in Andrew Jackson and the Western Frontiersmen –Inspires more westward movement Republican Party gains footing and starts pushing their agenda –Federalists opposed the war that actually ended up benefiting America and increasing nationalism –Looks good for Republicans