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Bellwork: Copy the question and the answer! 8. Scientific research has led to a better understanding of how viral diseases replicate, and therefore to.

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Presentation on theme: "Bellwork: Copy the question and the answer! 8. Scientific research has led to a better understanding of how viral diseases replicate, and therefore to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bellwork: Copy the question and the answer! 8. Scientific research has led to a better understanding of how viral diseases replicate, and therefore to the discovery of new vaccines that help prevent the spread of viral diseases. How have these scientific advances most directly affected society? A. There is a greater need for doctors and nurses. B. There are no longer diseases caused by viruses. C. The spread of many former diseases is now controlled. D. Antibiotics are more widely used to control the spread of viruses.

2 Science Fact of the Day: Some species of earthworm can have as many as 10 hearts.

3 A. The sequence of the appearance of different groups B. The common ancestry of various groups C. The geographical regions where groups lived D. The future appearance of the groups 1. One of the ways that scientists can trace the ancestry of animals is through the fossil record. What can scientists NOT tell from their studies of the fossil record? Bellwork: Write the bolded part of the question and write your answer. order

4

5 Kingdoms

6 Domains Broadest, most inclusive taxonBroadest, most inclusive taxon Include:Include: 1.Archaea (unicellular prokaryotes) 2.Bacteria (unicellular prokaryotes) 3.Eukarya (eukaryotes) copyright cmassengale6

7 Eukaryotes Prokaryotes

8 ARCHAEA Kingdom - ARCHAEBACTERIA Probably the 1 st cells to evolve Live in HARSH environments Found in: –Sewage Treatment Plants (Methanogens) –Thermal or Volcanic Vents (Thermophiles) –Hot Springs or Geysers that are acid –Very salty water (Dead Sea; Great Salt Lake) - Halophiles copyright cmassengale8

9 9 ARCHAEAN

10 BACTERIA Kingdom - EUBACTERIA Some may cause DISEASE Found in ALL HABITATS except harsh ones Important decomposers for environment Commercially important in making cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, etc. copyright cmassengale10

11 copyright cmassengale11 Live in the intestines of animals

12 Eukarya… is Divided into Kingdoms Protista (protozoans, algae…)Protista (protozoans, algae…) Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …)Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) Plantae (multicellular plants)Plantae (multicellular plants) Animalia (multicellular animals)Animalia (multicellular animals) copyright cmassengale12

13 3 Domains Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota 6 Kingdoms Archaebacteria Eubacteria Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista

14 Biological Kingdoms An introduction to the six kingdoms of living things

15 Some words to know… Unicellular: made of one cell Multicellular: made of two or more cells Autotroph: able to produce its own food Heterotroph: obtains nutrients from its environment or other organisms

16 What do you think this is?

17 Domain Bacteria

18 Organisms in the Eubacteria kingdom are unicellular prokaryotes. Prokaryotes do not have a membrane bound nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Eubacteria are found in all habitats. The cell walls of Eubacteria contain the chemical peptidoglycan. Some eubacteria remain independent as single cells and other group into colonies. Eubacteria reproduce asexually through cell division. Some eubacteria are autotrophic, making their own food, and others are heterotrophic, taking in nutrients from their environment. Eubacteria can cause various diseases, from strep throat to Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but they can also be very helpful. Lactobacillus is used to help make foods like cheese and yogurt, and is also present in the human digestive system. Decomposing organic matter and cycling nitrogen are also important functions of eubacteria.

19 Cell Phones: The Bacteria Collector

20 Domain Archaea

21 Organisms in the Archaebacteria kingdom are unicellular prokaryotes. They have no membrane bound nucleus or organelles in their single celled bodies. Archaebacteria are similar in size and shape to eubacteria. The cell walls of archaebacteria are different from both eubacteria and eukaryotes because they do not contain the chemical peptidoglycan. Like eubacteria, archaebacteria reproduce asexually through cell division. They can also be autotrophic, making their own food, or heterotrophic, obtaining food from their environment, just like eubacteria. Some archaebacteria are extremeophiles, living in extreme environments such as in hot springs, extremely acidic environments, polar seas, and even in extremely salty water.

22 Mix-Freeze-Group & Bacterial Examples

23 Happy Hump Day! Bellwork: Take out your Kingdom notes and get ready to fill in the next paragraph. Tonight’s Homework: “Protists” by Bozeman Science Complete the worksheet you picked up on the way in. You WILL have another homework quiz tomorrow in class.

24 Today’s WHAT: I will analyze the characteristics of fungi. I will categorize organisms. Today’s HOW: I will read a paragraph and fill in my Kingdom chart. I will dissect a mushroom and answer lab questions.

25 Domain Eukaryota Kingdom fungi

26 Fungi are a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes such organisms as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. Many fungi are multicellular, but some are unicellular, such as yeast. Some differences between fungi and other eukaryotes are at the cellular level. Fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike plant cell walls which contain cellulose. Another difference between plant cells and fungal cells is that fungal cells lack chloroplasts, so most fungi are heterotrophs. They take in nutrients by absorbing them from their environment. Fungi reproduction is complex. Many fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually at different stages in their life cycles. Fungal reproduction often involves the production and dispersal of spores. Fungi can be both harmful and helpful. Some fungi grow in or on plants or animals causing disease, such as Dutch Elm Disease or Ringworm. Other fungi, such as the mold that the antibiotic penicillin is made from, can help organisms by killing bacteria.

27 The Faces of Fungi…

28

29

30 Mycorrhizae

31 Fill in the chart using the information from your notes. After that, “enhance” your chart using the following colors: Prokaryote vs Eukaryote: Color eukaryotic boxes blue Color prokaryotic boxes yellow. Unicellular vs Multicellular: Color unicellular boxes purple Color multicellular boxes orange Color the both boxes half purple and half orange. Autotroph or Heterotroph: Color heterotrophic boxes red Color autotrophic boxes green Color the both boxes half red and half green. Cell Wall: Color the yes boxes grey Color the no boxes light blue Color the both boxes half grey and half light blue.

32 Mushroom Dissection Your Task: To dissect your mushroom and examine the parts of this type of fungus You will need to complete the lab report. You are turning it in! Remember our Lab CHAMPs. Be safe, respectful, and work hard!

33 Bellwork Get out your Kingdom Packet and your homework from yesterday. Look over your homework because we will be taking a Homework Quiz at the beginning of class

34 Domain Eukaryota

35 Protists are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. They do not have much in common except that they are relatively simple eukaryotes. They are either unicellular or multicellular without reaching the specialized tissue level of organization. Protists include organisms such as algae, amoebae, protozoans, euglena, and slime molds. Protists live in almost any environment that contains liquid water. Some protists, such as algae, are photosynthetic, so they are autotrophs. Other protists are heterotrophs, obtaining nutrients from their environment. Amoebae engulf, or take into their membrane, other cells. This process is called phagocytosis. Most protists reproduce asexually, through a form of cell division. Other protists engage in a form of sexual reproduction. Some protists are responsible for diseases such as malaria in humans and potato blight in potato plants. Research scientists are experimenting with ways to use protists to wipe out fire ants and other pests.

36 Bellwork: Read the question. Write 3 key pieces of information from the question. Then, summarize each of the statements in the box. A. I and IV B. III only C. II and IV D. I, II and IV 17. Scientists conduct an experiment on natural selection and place animals on a large island. They have modified the animals so that there is no variety (variation) between and among the species on this island. This could be a problem for many reasons, especially if the island had a varied ecosystem. What reason(s) listed below could cause problems for identical animals in a varied ecosystem? One disease kills all Cannot adapt to new place No problems No one suited, all die

37 HAPPY MONDAY!!! Bellwork: match the following to its correct Kingdom. (They are on the board) 1. I’m a unicellular organism that does not contain a nucleus. I also love living in extreme environments. 2. I can be both heterotrophic and autotrophic AND I do contain a nucleus. 3. Examples of organisms in my kingdom are flowers, cactus, trees, and grass. NOT MUSHROOMS! 4. I’m a very small organism that has a cell wall made up of peptigoglycan. 5. I lack cholorplast, so I don’t have green leaves. But my cell wall is made up of chitin. 6. In my kingdom, there are many different types of fish.

38 Domain Eukaryota Kingdom

39 Animals are a group of multicellular eukaryotic organisms. The word animal comes from the Latin word animalis meaning “having breath.” Animals are different from other eukaryotes in a number of ways. First, animal cells lack the rigid cell wall that plants, fungi, and algae have. Second, animals are heterotrophic, meaning that they must ingest other organisms in order to survive. Heterotrophs are the consumers in the food chain. Third, all animals are motile, or able to move, at least during one stage of their life cycle. Nearly all animals undergo some form of sexual reproduction, where specialized sex cells form and fuse together to form zygotes, which develop into individuals. Some animals are also capable of asexual reproduction, through budding or forms of cloning.

40 The Kingdom Animalia is divided into approximately 40 Phyla including Phylum Chordata, which includes all the vertebrate animals, or animals with a backbone and spinal column. Humans, as well as fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and other mammals, belong to the Phylum Chordata. Other phyla include Phylum Arthropoda, to which crabs, spiders, and insects belong; and Phylum Nematoda, which are the roundworms.

41 Domain Eukaryota

42 Kingdom Plantae Organisms from the Kingdom Plantae are multicellular eukaryotic organisms. Plants have characteristics that make them different from other eukaryotic organisms. One of the main differences is that they are autotrophic, meaning they are able to make their own food using simple inorganic substances. They do this through a process known as photosynthesis, in which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen. Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of a plant cell. Plants are multicellular and, unlike animals, their cells have rigid cell walls made from cellulose. Some species of plants reproduce sexually and some reproduce asexually. In asexual reproduction, such as budding, an exact copy of the parent is produced. Plant sexual reproduction can be assisted by animals, as is the case with flowers and honeybees. As the bees go from flower to flower collecting nectar, they carry pollen, plant sex cells, with them and pollinate other plants. Pollination is the first step in plant sexual reproduction.

43 The Kingdom Plantae is divided into 11 Phyla. Phylum Coniferophyta are cone producing plants. Most of the Conifers are evergreens like pines and firs. Phylum Anthophyta are flowering, seed producing plants. They are a very diverse group and include organisms such as strawberry plants, palm trees, and water lilies. Phylum Bryophyta are mosses- small, soft plants that don’t have flowers or seeds. They absorb water and nutrients through their leaves. Plants are a very diverse group!

44 Fill in the chart using the information from your notes. “Enhance” your chart using the following colors: Prokaryote vs Eukaryote: Color eukaryotic boxes blue Color prokaryotic boxes yellow. Unicellular vs Multicellular: Color unicellular boxes purple Color multicellular boxes orange Color the both boxes half purple and half orange. Autotroph or Heterotroph: Color heterotrophic boxes red Color autotrophic boxes green Color the both boxes half red and half green. Cell Wall: Color the yes boxes grey Color the no boxes light blue Color the both boxes half grey and half light blue.

45 Bellwork 1.Which two organisms are most closely related? 2.Which two organisms are least closely related? 3.The branching points on a cladogram show a ________ __________. 4.The branching points on a cladogram are an example of ___________ evolution. 5.T/F The result of a branching point is speciation. You need to have your Kingdoms packet and homework out for me to check.

46 Let’s check how well you know your chart…

47 KingdomEubacteriaArchaebacteriaFungiProtistaPlantaeAnimalia Cell Type? (Prokaryote or Eukaryote) Prokaryote Eukaryote Unicellular or Multicelluar? Unicellular Both Multicellular Autotroph or Heterotroph? Both HeterotrophBothAutotrophHeterotroph Cell Wall? Yes, with peptidoglycan Yes, no peptidoglycan Yes, chitinBothYes, cellulose No, cell membrane Example Staphlococcus Live in extreme environment (halophile) Yeast, mold, mushroom Kelp, algae, euglena Moss, palm tree, water lilies Frog, worm, spider

48 The End


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