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Kingdom Fungi The characteristics of fungi The characteristics of fungi The evolution of the fungi The evolution of the fungi Fungal classification Fungal.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi The characteristics of fungi The characteristics of fungi The evolution of the fungi The evolution of the fungi Fungal classification Fungal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Fungi The characteristics of fungi The characteristics of fungi The evolution of the fungi The evolution of the fungi Fungal classification Fungal classification Fungal life styles Fungal life styles

2 Red algae Green algae Land plants Fungi Choanoflagellates Myxozoa Animals The ancestor of fungi is thought to have been a protist similar to the ancestor of animals

3 The Characteristics of Fungi Fungi are NOT plants Hyphae = tubular units of construction Mycelium = extensive, feeding web of hyphae Heterotrophic by absorption Reproduce by spores Ecologically pivotal roles

4 Hyphae Tubular Hard wall of chitin Crosswalls may form compartments (± cells) More than one nucleus Grow at tips

5 Hyphal growth Hyphae grow from their tips This wall is rigidOnly the tip wall is plastic and stretches

6 mycelium Mycelium = extensive, feeding web of hyphae Mycelia have a huge surface area are the ecologically active bodies of fungi Mycelium

7 Heterotrophic by Absorption Fungi get carbon from organic sources Hyphal tips release enzymes Enzymatic breakdown of substrate Products diffuse back into hyphae Product diffuses back into hypha and is used Nucleus hangs back and “directs”

8 Reproduce by spores Spores are reproductive cells *Sexual *Asexual Formed: *Directly on hyphae *Inside sporangia *Fruiting bodies Amanita fruiting body Pilobolus sporangia Penicillium hyphae

9 mycelium fruiting bodies both consist of hyphae

10 Multicellular and Unicellular fungi Figure µm3.73 µm

11 Simple Fungi Fig 31.5 Chytridium growing on spores

12 Fig 31.6 Rhizopus on strawberries Molds

13 Molds Many human importances *Food spoilage *Food products *Antibiotics, etc. Fig Antibiotic activity Noble Rot - Botrytis

14 Club Fungi

15 Yeasts Single celled fungi Adapted to liquids *Plant saps *Water films *Moist animal tissues Candida Saccharomyces

16 Schizosaccharomyces octospora – fermenter of Palm Wine 10 μm

17 Fungal Ecology ECOLOGICAL ROLES: 1.Saprobes 2.Parasites 3.Mutualists

18 Fungal Ecology 1. Saprobes *Decomposers *Mostly of plants, some animals

19 Fig 31.6 Rhizopus on strawberries

20 Fungi are absorptive heterotrophs that secrete digestive enzymes and are major decomposers of dead organic material.

21 Fungal Ecology 2. Parasites *Harm host *Mostly on plants, some animals

22 A rust growing on a currant leaf 0.5 cm Rusts & Smuts

23 Parasitic fungi cause major damage to crops such as wheat, corn, and barley. *Many have evolved resistance to fungicides.

24 Fungal Ecology 3. Mutualists *Mycorrhizas *Lichens *Others

25 Mycorrhizas “Fungus roots” Mutualism between: *Fungus (nutrient & water uptake for plant) *Plant (carbohydrate for fungus) Several kinds Extremely important ecological role of fungi!

26 Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) Root cells EMF Figure 29.9a

27 Mutualism: Relationships between fungi and hosts that are mutually beneficial Increasing the diversity of mycorrhizae in a given habitat increases plant species richness and productivity

28 Lichens “Mutualism” between *Fungus – protection against drying *Alga or cyanobacterium – provides food Form a thallus *Foliose *Fruticose *Crustose Fig 31.16

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30 Asexual reproduction occurs when “mini-lichens” are produced. Asci produced by fungus Fungal layer Algal layer Substrate Lichen internal structure

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32 Lichens as biomonitors Some species more sensitive Which species are present can indicate air quality


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