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Health Skills I Student Lecture Packet. Health Skills I Unit 101 Infection Control.

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Presentation on theme: "Health Skills I Student Lecture Packet. Health Skills I Unit 101 Infection Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Skills I Student Lecture Packet

2 Health Skills I Unit 101 Infection Control

3 Objectives Identify the nature of microorganisms, how organisms grow, their transmission, body defenses of the human host, and related terminology

4 Unit Microorganisms Anton Van Leeuwenhoek – first observed microorganism under a microscope in 1693

5 Microorganisms are Everywhere! inside and outside our bodies in food, air, and water some are useful – fermentation of food small percentage cause disease organisms can be spread healthcare workers need to understand how to break cycle

6 Exciting Moments in Microbiology Ignatz Semmelweiss 1860 reduced the transmission of puerperal fever by handwashing

7 More Exciting Moments in Microbiology LOUIS PASTEUR 1861 proposed the “Germ Theory”

8 Definitions Microorganism – microscopic living things that individually are too small to be seen with the naked eye, only seen under microscope example: germs & microbes Pathogen – microorganisms capable of causing disease

9 Definitions Communicable disease – a pathogenic organism passed from one host to another Host – one infected with a pathogenic microorganism Susceptible host – one unable to fight off infection due to low resistance

10 Definitions Colonized – presence of microorganisms in or on a patient, without clinical signs and symptoms Infection – colonization invasion of body tissues by disease producing pathogenic microorganisms Re-infection – infected a second time by same pathogen

11 Definitions Cross infection – spread to another person by air currents or health worker Co-infection – infected with more than one organism Secondary infection – an infection acquired following a primary illness Nosocomial – infection acquired within a healthcare facility.

12 Pathogenic Organisms Virus acellular – cannot survive independently parasite – can only survive on living tissue – cannot be treated by antibiotics, may use antiviral drugs – vaccinations can prevent a number of viral infections

13 Pathogenic Organisms Virus Examples: – polio, influenza, common cold, HIV, Hepatitis B, mumps, herpes Bacteriophage (virus that infects bacteria)

14 Pathogenic Organisms Bacteria simple unicellular organism – three shapes coccus, bacillus, spirillium Clostridium tetani – bacterium that causes tetanus

15 Pathogenic Organisms Bacteria can be treated by antibiotics – examples: strep throat, abscesses, gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Lyme disease vaccinations can prevent some bacterial infections – example: pneumonia

16 Pathogenic Organisms Fungi molds and yeast – multicellular or unicellular organisms, more complex than bacteria

17 Pathogenic Organisms Fungi Examples: – athletes foot, ringworm, vaginal yeast infection, thrush Pilobolus, a fungus

18 Pathogenic Organisms Protozoa largest single celled organism relatively few cause disease in humans many parasites passed by insects transmitted by food

19 Pathogenic Organisms Protozoa Examples: – malaria, dysentery, sleeping sickness Amoeba, a protozoan

20 Pathogenic Organisms Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) C. difficile is: – a pathogenic species of anaerobic bacteria causing pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea, after receiving antibiotic therapy. This is frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea

21 Definitions Anaerobic – a microorganism that grows and lives in the complete or almost complete absence of oxygen Pseudomembranous colitis – diarrhea caused by overuse of antibiotics transmitted by healthcare workers not washing hands properly

22 Pathogenic Organisms C. difficile – common hazard of antibiotic use – most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea – may cause bleeding & bowel perforation – can exist months on environmental surfaces & flourishes on hands of healthcare workers – At risk patients: chemotherapy, antibiotic therapy & gastrointestinal procedures

23 C. difficile Standards of care for patient w/ diagnosis of C. difficile – good handwashing before & after patient care procedures – use of Standard Precaution barriers for Contact Isolation guidelines (gown, gloves, private room) – the antibiotic related to the cause of C. difficile will be discontinued by physician and further care will begin

24 Pathogenic Organisms Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) VRE is: – a bacteria that normally lives in the digestive tract that has developed a resistance to the antibiotic vancomycin and most other antibiotics

25 Definitions Vancomycin – antibiotic used to treat strep and staph infections Enterococcus – any Streptococcus that inhabits the intestinal tract

26 Pathogenic Organisms VRE – caused by overuse of antibiotics – VRE infections frequently found in: urinary tract, at surgical sites, and in the bloodstream – spreads through: direct contact with a VRE infected patient direct contact with surfaces & equipment contaminated with VRE hands of a healthcare worker contaminated with VRE – lives weeks on surfaces

27 VRE At risk patients for VRE: – immunosuppressed conditions – history of vancomycin therapy – indwelling urinary or central venous catheters – elderly – abdominal surgery patients – wounds/burn victims

28 VRE Standards of Care for VRE diagnosed patients: – good handwashing before & after care – use Standard Precaution barriers and contact Isolation Precautions – the antibiotic will be discontinued by a physician with plan for further care

29 Pathogenic Organisms (MRSA) Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) is: – bacteria that populates the skin, mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract, the intestines and genitourinary tracts that has become resistant to the antibiotics methicillin and penicillin

30 Pathogenic Organisms MRSA – endemic (expected “normal” incidence) within community & tertiary hospitals, skilled-nursing facilities & long-term care – most frequent sites of this bacteria is the nares, groin, axilla and gut – transmitted primarily on the hands of the healthcare workers

31 MRSA At risk patients for MRSA: – those on broad-spectrum antibiotics therapy – immunosuppressed patients – burn patients – central venous catheters – surgical wounds – prolonged hospital stays

32 MRSA Standard of care for patient w/MRSA diagnosis: – topical ointment to nostrils – if infected, vancomycin

33 Key Factors C. difficile, VRE, MRSA – handwashing & standard precautions – single room for infected/colonized patients – use antiseptic cleansers in high risk areas – daily cleansing of environmental surfaces that have had direct hand contact

34 Key Factors C. difficile, VRE, MRSA – dedicate equipment for exclusive use for infected patient(stethoscopes, BP cuffs, etc.) – keep equipment off bed & bed tables – provide protective gear to patient when leaving their room (mask, gown, etc.)

35 Infection Cycle Three Elements Required: – source of infecting microorganisms – susceptible host – mode of transmission source susceptible host mode of transmission

36 Infection Cycle Source – may include persons with acute disease – persons in the incubation period of disease – persons who are colonized by infectious agent – persons who are chronic carriers – can be inanimate objects

37 Infection Cycle Host – one infected with a pathologic microorganism – resistance varies – may develop immunity – may be an asymptomatic carrier – may develop clinical disease

38 Infection Cycle Transmission May be transmitted by more than one route Five main routes: – contact-direct or indirect – droplet – airborne – common vehicle – vectorborne

39 1. Contact Transmission *most frequent mode of noscomial infection Direct Contact – skin to skin Indirect Contact – contact with an inanimate object contaminated by the infected patient

40 2. Droplet Transmission – a form of contact transmission – droplets are propelled a short distance (3 feet) – droplets are deposited on hosts such as the mucous membranes of eye, nose or mouth droplets are generated by coughing, sneezing or talking

41 2. Droplet Transmission – droplets transmitted during medical procedures of bronchoscopy or suctioning that put healthcare workers at risk – private room ideal Can be placed w/other similar conditions 3’ apart if room availability is an issue – healthcare worker must wear mask when caring for a person with droplet isolation precautions – Example: Influenza

42 3. Airborne Transmission – spreads by way of airborne droplets or dust particles containing infectious agents (microorganisms) and inhaled by the new host – spread by air currents – special handling and ventilation required to prevent transmission – requires private room – Examples tuberculosis, rubeola, and varicella (chicken pox), herpes zosters viruses spread via airborne transmission

43 3. Airborne Transmission – spreads by way of airborne droplets or dust particles containing infectious agents – spread by air currents – special handling and ventilation required to prevent transmission – requires private room – Examples tuberculosis, rubeola, and varicella (chicken pox), herpes zosters viruses spread via airborne transmission

44 4. Common Vehicle Transmission – microorganisms transported by contaminated food, water, medication or equipment – Examples: Hepatitis A, salmonella, Typhoid Fever

45 5. Vectorborne Transmission – vectors transport disease mosquitoes, flies, ticks, rats and other vermin transmit disease – Examples: rabies, malaria, Rocky Mountain Fever Tick

46 How Microorganisms Grow in Humans Need: – food – oxygen aerobes-need oxygen anaerobes-do not need oxygen – temperature 98.6 F or 36 C or warmer – moisture – pH acidity or alkalinity

47 Natural Defenses of the Host Hairs – cilia Fluid – tears, ear wax, blood Skin Tissue – intact and healthy Proper Rest Proper Nutrition Natural Immunity – childbirth & disease process Phagocytosis – cells that can destroy bacteria Normal flora – bacteria present that do not normally cause disease – streptococci

48 Predisposing Factors for Disease Poor nutrition Fatigue Poor health habits Pre-existing illness Gender Genetics Climate/Weather Occupational Age – very young – very old Medical treatment – chemotherapy, radiation therapy, bone morrow transplants, immuno- suppressed conditions, indwelling catheters

49 Knowledge Assessment 1. Give the definition for microorganism. 2. List two examples of virus, bacteria, and fungi. 3. List the 3 required elements of the infection cycle. 4. Compare and contrast contact, droplet, and airborne transmission of microorganisms. 5. List five natural defenses of the body.


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