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1. 2  To identify plant diseases common to horticulture and agronomic crops. To reveal the impact plant diseases can have on fruits, plants and agricultural.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2  To identify plant diseases common to horticulture and agronomic crops. To reveal the impact plant diseases can have on fruits, plants and agricultural."— Presentation transcript:

1 1

2 2  To identify plant diseases common to horticulture and agronomic crops. To reveal the impact plant diseases can have on fruits, plants and agricultural crops. To analyze methods of plant disease control.

3 Table of Contents 3 Introduction to Diseases Bacterial Diseases o A-B A-B o C-Z C-Z

4 4

5 5 Is any condition interfering with normal growth and development Is caused by living or non-living agents Can affect any area on a plant

6 6 Are referred to as plant pathogens o anything causing harm to plants Include microorganisms, such as: o fungi o bacteria Fun Fact : Another term for living agent is biotic agent.

7 7 Spread from plant-to-plant via wind, insects, rain, soil and machinery Can be transmitted by seeds Can be waterborne Are most common and easiest to treat Treatment can include: o sanitation o reduce watering o increase air flow

8 8 Usually start with spotted or discolored leaves and stems o dry, brown margins and dead tissue or necrotic lesions Are controlled with dusts or sprays Are nearly impossible to eliminate if not treated immediately, especially soil-borne disease

9 9 Are a form of mold Are commonly found in damp, moist, shaded places Affect leaves, stems, buds, flowers and fruits o leaves will turn pink, blue or purple and drop prematurely Are usually white, gray, green or black

10 10 Includes four stages: o spore production o spore o spore germination o hyphal growth

11 11

12 12 Are easier to prevent rather than cure Enter plants through wounds or natural openings, such as the stomata Easily occur under the following conditions: o high humidity o poor air circulation o irregular watering o poor soil drainage o fluctuating temperatures

13 13 Spread by: o infected seeds o animals and birds o irrigation water and rain o machinery Have symptoms such as: o leaf spots o blights o wilting

14 14

15 15 Include: o environmental stress on plants, such as: air pollution drought hail wind o cultural care o toxic chemicals o viruses Fun Fact : Non-living agents are also referred to as abiotic agents.

16 16 Are microscopic, infectious agents consisting of a protein coat surrounding nucleic acid Multiply in cells of living hosts Are recognized by the following symptoms: o leaf curling o leaf discoloration o ring spots on leaves o stunted growth

17 17 Can be prevented by: o planting disease-resistant varieties o controlling pests carrying viruses o removing and destroying infected plants o controlling weeds o handling foliage when dry Can be spread by: o infected insects, plants and microorganisms

18 18 Are specific pesticides for fungal diseases in plants Are used to: o control fungi in crop stands o increase productivity of crops o increase storage life of plants and produce

19 19 Should be applied as soon as symptoms occur or with coated seeds Can be applied in the following forms: o dust o gas o granule o liquid

20 20 Are applied on: o bulbs o foliage o harvested produce o roots o seeds o soil

21 21

22 22 1. Which area of a plant can be affected by disease? A. All areas B. Only the stem C. Only roots D. Only leaves 2. What is another term used when referring to a living agent? A. Living specimen B. Bacterial agent C. Fungal agent D. Biotic agent

23 23 3. All but which of the following are treatment methods for fungal diseases? A. Increasing air flow B. Increasing water C. Reducing water D. Sanitation 4. Which of the following can NOT spread bacterial diseases? A. Wind B. Infected seeds C. Birds D. Machinery

24 24 5. What type of disease is the easiest to treat? A. Bacterial B. Fungal C. Viruses D. All are equally treatable

25 25

26 26 Scientific Name: Pseudomonas lachrymans Characteristics: o infects cucumbers, melons and squash o usually appears on fruit in middle stage of development

27 27 o causes small, saturated areas to develop on stems and fruit areas appear tan, but turn gray and white as disease progresses o forms holes in leaf as dead tissue falls off o causes lesions between water-saturated veins

28 28 Environmental conditions: o humidity o strong wind o splashing water o infected irrigation water

29 29 Prevention methods: o choose plant varieties suitable for climate o practice crop rotation o destroy infected plants o avoid overhead watering systems o provide proper amounts of fertilizer

30 30 Treatment methods: o fungicides which contain: copper hydroxide-based, such as Champion ®, Kocide ® 101 and Bordeaux ® mixture

31 31 Scientific Name: Xanthomonas campestris Characteristics: o affects a variety of crops, such as: lima beans soybeans snap beans o forms saturated spots on leaves spots turn pale-green or yellow then dark-brown

32 32 o causes leaves to die and fall o causes stems to wilt as disease progresses Environmental conditions: o high humidity o wet weather

33 33 Prevention methods: o use crop rotation o provide space for air circulation o use seeds from non-infected plants o avoid handling plants when wet

34 34 Treatment methods: o fungicides which contain: copper hydroxide, as found in Champ ® or Kocide ® 200

35 35 Scientific Name: Xylella fastidiosa Characteristics: o commonly affects trees, such as: o elm o maple o walnut o dries leaves out o turns margins brown o affects outer leaves severely

36 36 Prevention methods: o deep root systems o prune regularly o water regularly soil should be deeply watered fertilize trees of low vigor

37 37 Treatment methods: o no available treatment follow prevention methods

38 38 Scientific Name: Erwinia carotovora Characteristics: o affects many vegetable plants, such as: carrots corn onions potatoes

39 39 o affects potatoes in the following ways: tissue becomes saturated and wet rotten tubers acquire odor in later stages of disease

40 40 o affects onions in the following ways: symptoms occur inside onion during storage infected bulbs are soft and pale- brown contaminated onions produce a foul odor infected onions have a soft neck o causes taproots of carrots to decay and become soft

41 41 o affects corn in the following ways: uppermost leaf tips dry out decay starts at top of plant and moves down stalks turn brown, become water- soaked and eventually fall over produces an odor

42 42 Environmental conditions: o warm weather o humidity o high level of soil moisture o insect wounds

43 43 Prevention methods: o use crop rotation o handle gently o mix compost with soil to increase beneficial bacteria populations Treatment methods: o seed treatments which contain: thiophanate-methyl or thiophanate- methyl, with the addition of mancozeb, such as Tops ® MZ ®

44 44 Scientific Name: Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Characteristics: o irregular spots on tomato plants and pepper leaves o younger leaves more susceptible o weakens plants o causes decay o common in midwestern and eastern United States

45 45 Environmental conditions: o very warm, wet conditions

46 46 Prevention methods: o use disease-free seeds o remove weeds o fertilize o use crop rotation o provide space for air circulation o use drip irrigation and soaker hoses to maintain dry foliage o cover soil with mulch o remove infected plants

47 47 Treatment methods: o fungicides which contain: mancozeb and copper, such as Yates™

48 48 Scientific Name: Ralstonia solanacearum Characteristics: o leaves turn brown as disease spreads o streaking in vascular tissue o causes cucumber and squash leaves to droop o effects young plants first o results in plant death o bacteria clogs vascular system

49 49 Environmental conditions: o infected insects feed on leaves Prevention methods: o plant wilt-resistant varieties o sustain proper plant health o remove infected plants

50 50 Treatment methods: o no available treatment follow prevention methods

51 51 Scientific Name: Pectobacterium carotovorum var. atrosepticum Characteristics: o forms dark spots on base of stems and roots in cabbage plants o plants turn yellow, wilt and die o spread by rain, wind and human activity

52 52 Environmental conditions: o cool, moist weather

53 53 Prevention methods: o provide space for air circulation o remove weeds o remove infected plants o use crop rotation o prevent injury to crop o choose resistant cultivars

54 54 Treatment methods: o fungicides which contain: iprodione, such as Rovral ®

55 55

56 56 Scientific Name: Agrobacterium tumefaciens Characteristics: o occurs on roots and stems of many plants most destructive in fruit trees and shrubs commonly seen in roses

57 o forms galls at crown and lateral roots galls are one-quarter inches to one foot in diameter young are tan and have a soft surface mature are black and have a very hard surface o stunts plant growth o turns leaves yellow or brown 57

58 58 Environmental conditions: o cool, humid weather

59 59 Prevention methods: o avoid plant injury o avoid contaminated tools o inspect plants carefully and regularly o destroy infected plants o plant gall-resistant varieties

60 60 Treatment methods: o products which contain: meta-cresol, such as Gallex ®

61 61 Scientific Name: Erwinia amylovora Characteristics: o destroys trees and shrubs o common among fruit trees o identified by tan liquid seeping out of branches and twigs liquid darkens with air exposure, called “bacterial ooze”

62 62 o causes infected flowers to wilt and turn black or brown dead, blackened leaves will cling to branches during spring o forms orange-red streaks on bark o dries out and kills wood

63 63 Environmental conditions: o wet, humid weather

64 64 Prevention methods: o avoid heavy pruning o monitor trees regularly o remove infected plants o plant resistant varieties o provide adequate fertilization

65 65 Treatment methods: o fungicides which contain: copper products, such as Bordeaux ®

66 66 Characteristics: o known as cecidia o abnormal tissue growths o formed by microorganisms and insects insects cause galls when laying eggs or feeding o form on buds, leaves, flowers, twigs, bark and roots o unattractive, but causes no harm

67 67 o appear in two forms: open or closed open are formed by insects with piercing mouthparts closed are formed by insects with mandibles Environmental conditions: o cool, humid weather

68 68 Prevention methods: o use insecticides to control insect populations

69 69 Treatment methods: o no available treatment follow prevention methods

70 70 Scientific Name: Streptomyces scabies Characteristics: o appears on skin of potato tubers turns dark brown or black o forms large circular scabs on potatoes, called “scab lesions” o usually noticed after harvest or late in growing season o reduces marketability of potatoes o transmitted by wind and water

71 71 Environmental conditions: o soil with high organic matter o coarse, textured soils o warm, dry weather o wounded plants

72 72 Prevention methods: o use crop rotation o do not use compost mixes o keep soil cool and moist o plant disease-resistant varieties Treatment methods: o before planting, treat seed tubers with a seed fungicide which contain: captan or mancozeb

73 73

74 74 1. On which plant does angular leaf spot NOT occur? A. Cucumbers B. Squash C. Melons D. Corn 2. Under which environmental conditions does bacterial blight spread? A. High humidity B. Low humidity C. High temperatures D. High winds

75 75 3. Which prevention method is NOT used to prevent bacterial blight? A. Crop rotation B. Proper irrigation C. Use non-infected seeds D. Provide space for air circulation 4. Which of the following can be used to treat bacterial spot? A. Copper B. Sulfur C. Zinc D. Lime

76 76 5. Which region of the country is bacterial spot most prevalent in? A. Northwest B. Midwest C. Southwest C. South 6. Which environmental conditions are best for blackleg to occur? A. Cool, moist weather B. Warm, wet weather C. Cool, dry weather D. Warm, dry weather

77 77 7. Which part of the plant is affected by crown gall? A. Leaves B. Thorns C. Roots D. Fruit 8. Which plant is crown gall commonly seen in? A. Roses B. Bermuda grass C. Oak trees D. Pine trees

78 78 9. How does gall harm the plant? A. Wilts leaves B. Destroys fruit C. Removes fluids D. Causes no harm 10. Potato scab is usually noticed when? A. Before planting B. During planting C. During growth D. After harvest

79 79

80 80 1. Which type of diseases can be waterborne? A. Fungal B. Bacterial C. Viral D. Non-living 2. Environmental stress on a plant is what type of pest? A. Non-living B. Viral C. Fungal D. Bacterial

81 81 3. Which type of disease is commonly found in damp, moist and shaded areas? A. Bacterial B. Fungal C. Viruses D. Mildews 4. Which symptom is NOT caused by bacterial diseases? A. Blights B. Leaf spots C. Mildews D. Wilting

82 82 5. Under which environmental condition does angular leaf spot occur? A. Dry climates B. Strong wind C. Cold weather D. Standing water 6. Which tree is NOT commonly affected by bacterial leaf scorch? A. Elm B. Pecan C. Maple D. Walnut

83 83 7. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of bacterial soft rot? A. Foul odor B. Tissues become saturated C. Leaf tips dry out D. Bacteria clogs vascular system 8. How can bacterial wilt be treated? A. Fungicides B. Proper irrigation C. Crop rotation D. No treatment available

84 84 9. On which part of the plant does fireblight cause orange-red streaks? A. Leaves B. Fruit C. Bark D. Roots 10. How can galls be treated? A. Remove by hand B. Herbicides C. Fungicides D. No treatment available

85 85 Biggs, A. R. & Hickey, K. D. (1997). Apple Scab. Retrieved from b.html North Dakota State University. McMullen, M. & Stoltenow, C. (May 2002). Ergot. Retrieved from Cranshaw, W.S. (August 29 2011). Insect and Mite Galls. Retrieved from National Arborists. (2011). Apple Scab. Retrieved from

86 86 Vann, S. Ph.D.(2006) Plant Diseases. Retrieved from United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from Kansas Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from Broome, J. C. & Ingels, C. A. Produced by UC Statewide IPM Program, University of California. (January 2011). Peach Leaf Curl. Retrieved from

87 87 Grove, Gary, Ph.D., Washington State University Extension. Apple Scab. Retrieved from Rosenthal, S., Grau, C. & Hudelson, B. (December 28, 2005). Ergot. Retrieved from got.pdf Schuster, J. (2011). Cedar Apple Rust. Retrieved from Oklahoma State University. Entomology and Plant Pathology. Retrieved at

88 88 University of Illinois. Field Crop Diseases. Retrieved from Stack, R. W. & Lamey, H. A. (November 1995). Deciduous Tree Diseases. Retrieved from Lamey, H. A., Ash, C. L., & Stienstra, W. C. (July 1996). Lawn Diseases. Retrieved from y PAN Germany, OISAT. Retrieved from

89 89 McGrath, M.T. (2004). What are Fungicides. The Plant Health Instructor. Retrieved from :// x Iowa State University, Entomology Department. Retrieved from University of Kentucky, Department of Plant Pathology. Retrieved from html Byers, J. A. (2006). Gall-Making Insects. Retrieved from

90 90 © MMXIII CEV Multimedia, Ltd. Production Coordinators Kelly Harkey Baron Bartels Layton Norwood Assistant Brand Manager Olivia Mitchell Graphic Designer Melody Rowell Technical Writer Jessica Odom Production Manager Maggie Bigham V.P. of Brand Management Clayton Franklin Executive Producer Gordon W. Davis, Ph.D.

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