3(503) What is a protist? Kingdom Protista: 1) Most diverse kingdom 2) Unicellular and Many multi-cellular3) Microscopic4) Some make own food,_______________ some don’t, __________________What then, do all protists have in common?They are all ____________autotrophsheterotrophseukaryotesmembrane bound organellesNucleus
4Groups of Protista5) A ______________ is a unicellular animal like organism.Moist environmentsVery diverse groupAll feed on other organism (dead or alive)They are therefore _______________.6) Four Diverse GroupsAmoebas (have pseudopodia)Flagellates (have flagella)Ciliates (have cilia)Sporozoans (parasites)protozoanheterotrophs
5Amoeba7) Moves by sending out extensions of the plasma membrane to move and feed8) These extensions are called ___________.9) Do not have a cell wall10) To feed, the pseudopodia surrounds the foodpseudopodiaVideo: amoeba
612) Found in moist environments Amoeba11) Amoebas can remove excessive water with little pumps called ___________ ________12) Found in moist environments13) Amoebas found in the sea are part of the ______14) Plankton is assortment of organisms that float in oceans and form base of the ocean’s food chain.15) Radiolarians are an important part of plankton too.16) Most amoebas reproduce by ________________Contractile vacuolesplanktonAsexualreproduction
718) Flagella allow for the protist to move about. Flagellates17) Get their name because they are protists with one or more ____________.18) Flagella allow for the protist to move about.19) Some flagellates are parasites, causing diseases like sleeping sickness.20) Some protozoa are found in the guts of termites and will digest cellulose as food.flagellaVideo- dinoflagellates
8Zoomastigina – African sleeping sickness (506) Flagellates:Zoomastigina – African sleeping sickness (506)21) From bite of tsetse fly (506)22) Cause chills and rashes, infect nerve cells23) Lose consciousness and laps into deep & fatal comaChapter 19
9Ciliate What are ciliates? ParameciumWhat are ciliates?24) Contain _________, hair-like projections to move from place to place25) Paramecia are one of the largest unicellular organisms.26) Use cilia, oral groove, gullet and food vacuole for digestion.27) Another ciliate: StentorciliaStentor
1228) Paramecia reproduce asexually and sexually by _____________ 28) Paramecia reproduce asexually and sexually by _____________. In this process paramecia join and exchange genetic material.29) Also paramecia divide through asexual reproduction, by dividing into two identical daughter cellsAsexual reproduction.conjugation
13Sporozoans30) Most of the Protist are in the group Sporozoans, which produce __________.31) Spores are a reproductive cell with a hard outer coat that produces a new organism without fertilization.32)All are __________33) This is the life cycle of malaria,a disease caused by a Sporozoanthrough the life cycle of a Mosquito.sporesparasites
14Reinforcement and Study Guide 19.1 Answers page 83. ProtistsTrueAnimal-like, plantlike, and fungus-likeAnimal-likePseudopodiaContractile vacuoleAsexual reproductionFlagellatesCiliaConjugationSporozoansPlasmodiummosquito
16Algae: Plantlike Protist 19.2 What are algae? 34) Protists that photosynthesize are algae. 35) Algae use chlorophyll to trap energy from sun. 36) Up to 4 kinds of chlorophyll w/ various pigments. (variety of colors in algae) 37) Can be unicellular or multicellular. 38)_Photosynthesizing algae are called ________________ Diversity of Algae 39) Six phyla of algae 40) Three of phyla (euglenoids, diatoms & dinoflagellates) are unicellularphytoplankton
17Euglenoids (511)What are euglenoids? 41) Have both plant and animal characteristics. 42) Contain chlorophyll & photosynthesize but don’t have cellulose or cell wall 43) Can take in food similar to protozoans 44) Have one or more flagella to move toward food or lightvideos
19Diatoms: The golden algae 45) Unicellular photosynthesizing organisms46) Make up a large part of phytoplankton in fresh and salt water ecosystems47) Shells made of silica (sand) with two parts48) Contain chlorophyll and carotenoid (golden-yellow pigment)49) Oil in diatoms helpsdiatoms float on surface,Will be closer to sunlight
25Dinoflagellates (513) 50) Have two (2) flagella located in grooves. 51) Cell spins slowly as flagella beat.52) Makes up Phytoplankton in salt water.53)Cause _________ , that kill fish, and shellfish.(513)Red tide
29Algae____________ Red Algae (514) 54) The next three phyla of algae has to do with their color: red, brown, and green algae.55) Red algae are seaweeds. The body of the seaweed is called a ___________. Seaweeds lack roots, stems, and leaves.56) Red algae can survive deep water because light is absorbed in the green, violetand blue pigments. Red is thepart of light spectrum that canpenetrate deep water(below 100m)thallus
30Brown Algae (514)57) Brown algae are found in cool ocean water. 58) Many have ____________ that keep bodies floating near the surface. 59)The largest of the brown algae are _________ 60) Kelp forest are complete ecosystems.Bladderskelp
31Kelp (multicellular seaweed) (514) 61) Looks like plants but is not; no roots, stems or leaves62) Has hold fasts to attach to rock
33Green Algae63) Most live in fresh water 64) But live in a variety of water; salt water, snow, tree trunk, fur of animals.Volvox65) Unicellular or multicellular. Live in a group of cells that live together in close association called a _________.colony
37Green algae reproduction Plant like Protist 66) Reproduce sexually and asexually 67) Individual organism breaks into pieces and each piece forms a new organism. This type of reproduction is called ___________. 68) Life cycles that alternate between individuals that produce spores and individuals that produce gametes are called _____________ 69) Alternates between haploid and _________.fragmentationAlternation of generationdiploid(516)Forms sex cellsForms body cells
3970) Colonial Green Algae: 71) multicellular Chapter 20-4 Plantlike Protist:Red, Brown, & Green Algae70) Colonial Green Algae:71) multicellular72) Spirogyra: forms threadlike long colonies called filamentsSpirogyra – undergoing conjugation and showing filamentsInternal structureChapter 20
40Alternation of generations An organism’s life cycle alternates between ___________ reproduction and ___________ reproductionMeiosisasexualDiploidMature CellZoosporesZygoteSexual ReproductionAsexual ReproductionSexual+Haploid-Chapter 20
41Reinforcement and Study Guide 19.2 The characteristic common to all protists is that they are eukaryotic.Unicellular protists that are major producers of oxygen in aquatic ecosystems are phytoplankton.Unicellular and multicellular photosynthetic protists are algae.Most green, red and brown algae are multicellular.Photosynthetic pigments are used to classify algae.Algae are classified into six phyla.7. Phylum EuglenophytaContractile vacuoleNucleusChloroplastFlagellumEye spotPellicleMitochondria
42Reinforcement and Study Guide 19.2 When diatoms that have been reproducing sexually reach about on-fourth of their original size, they reproduce sexually.Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that all of the above; have two flagella, create red tides, have thick cellulose plates.Red algae are a kind of seaweed having pigments that absorb green, violet, and blue light waves, which allows the algae to photosynthesize in limited lightThe air bladders of green algae allows the algae to float to surface.A green algae that forms colonies is Volvox.Some algae have a life cycle that has a pattern called (20) alternation of generations. These algae alternate between a(n) (21) haploid form that is called the (22) gametophyte because it produces gametes, and a(n) (23) diploid form called the (24) sporophyte. When the haploid gametes fuse, they form a(n) (25) zygote form which the sporophyte develops. Certain cells in the sporophyte undergo (26) meiosis to form haploid (27) spores that develop into gametophytes.
44What is a fungus? Chapter 20 Characteristics of Fungi:73) Are everywhere74) Grow best in moist, warm environmentsHave cell walls but not of ___________, like found in plants.Fungi have cell walls of ____________.cellulosechitin
45What is the structure of fungi? 76) Most are multicellular and have long threadlike filaments called _________77) Hyphae grow from __________.78) As hyphae grow they form an network of filaments called a _______________.Hyphaesporesmycelium
4679) A germinating fungal spore produces hyphae that branch to for mycelium. (530)SporeHyphaMycelium
47How do fungi get food? 80) Fungi can not make their own food, they are 81) Food is digested ___________ the fungus’s cells and then food is absorbed by digestive ___________82) Enzymes break down large food molecules into small food molecules83) Small food molecules move into the hyphae by Osmosis)heterotrophsoutsideenzymes
48Reproduction in Fungi84) Fungi undergo asexual reproduction by pieces of mycelium breaking off called: ______________85) Another asexual method in which a new individual pinches off from the parent is__________Fragmentationbudding
49Common Basidiomycotes Diversity is obvious Mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, bird’s nests fungi, rust, smut, and bracket fungi.
50Another Example of Mutualism: Mycorrhizae and Lichens 86) Mutualism: a symbiotic relationship that benefit both species 87) A fungus that has a symbiotic relationship: a plant and its roots is ______________ 88) Fine, threadlike hyphae grow around the plant’s roots without harming the plant. The hyphae maintain water around roots. The fungus receives organic nutrients from the plant.mycorrhizae
51Mutualism: Mycorrhizae and Lichens 89) A _________ is a symbiotic association between a fungus and _____________. 90) The fungus portion forms a dense web of _________, the algae grows inside the web. 91) The algae provides food for both organisms, the fungus protects the algae from changes in the environment. 92) Often first to colonize an area in __________ succession.lichenGreen algaehyphaeprimary
66Fungi page WorksheetMany fungi are decomposers, which break down organic substances into raw materials that can be used by other organisms.Fungi use extracellular digestion (outside) to obtain nutrients.Hyphae release digestive enzymes that break down molecules in their food source.Saprophytic are fungi are decomposers.Parasitic fungi grow haustoria into host cells and absorb the cell’s nutrients.Fungi reproduce asexually by fragmentation, budding, or producing spores.In fragmentation, pieces of hyphae grow into new mycelia.The process of a parent cell undergoing mitosis and producing a new individual that pinches off, matures, and separates from the parent is called budding.
67Fungi page Worksheet12. When environmental conditions are right, a spore may germinate and produce a threadlike hypha that will grow into a mycelium.Some hyphae grow away from the mycelium to produce a spore-containing structure called a sporangium.In most fungi, the structures that support sporangia are the only part of the fungus that can be seen.Fungi may produce spores by mitosis or meiosis.Many adaptations of fungi for survival involve spores.Sporangia protects spores and keep them from drying out until they are released.A single puffball may produce a cloud containing as many as 1 trillion spores.Producing a large number of spores increase a species’ chances of survival.Fungal spores can be dispersed by: water, wind, animals
68Fungi page Worksheet2__ Hyphae called rhizoids penetrate the food, anchor the mycelium, and absorb nutrients.1__ An asexual spore germinates on a food source and hyphae begin to grow.5__ Spores are released and another asexual cycle begins.3__ Hyphae called stolons grow across the surface of the food source and form a mycelium.4__ Special hyphae grow upward to form sporangia that are filled with asexual spores.Ascomycotes are also called (6) sac fungi because they produce sexual spores, called, (7) ascospores , in a saclike structure, called a(an) (8) ascus.During asexual reproduction, Ascomycotes produce spores called (9) conidia.
69Fungi page Worksheet(10.) Conidiophores , which are elongated hyphae.Morels and truffles are (11) multicellular Ascomycotes that are edible. Yeasts are (12) unicellular Ascomycotes. (13) Yeasts are used to make beer, wine, and bread. They are also used in genetic research. A(n) (14) vaccine for the disease hepatitis B is produced from rapidly growing (15) yeast cell, which contain spliced human genes.Penicillim is an example of a deuteromycotes.A mycorrhiza is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a(n) plant.Penicillim is an antibiotic produced by a deuteromycotes.Plants that have mycorrhizae associated with their roots grow largerDeuteromycotes make up a division of fungi that have no known sexual stage
70Fungi page Worksheet(25) A lichen is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a(n) alga or cyanobacterium.(26) Lichens are pioneer species in all parts of the world.(27) Scientists think that ascomycotes and basiciomycotesevolved from a common ancestor.