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The Protists Chapter 19.1 page

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Presentation on theme: "The Protists Chapter 19.1 page"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Protists Chapter 19.1 page 502 - 525

2 The Fungi Chapter 20 Page 528 - 547

3 (503) What is a protist? Kingdom Protista: 1) Most diverse kingdom
2) Unicellular and Many multi-cellular 3) Microscopic 4) Some make own food,_______________ some don’t, __________________ What then, do all protists have in common? They are all ____________ autotrophs heterotrophs eukaryotes membrane bound organelles Nucleus

4 Groups of Protista 5) A ______________ is a unicellular animal like organism. Moist environments Very diverse group All feed on other organism (dead or alive) They are therefore _______________. 6) Four Diverse Groups Amoebas (have pseudopodia) Flagellates (have flagella) Ciliates (have cilia) Sporozoans (parasites) protozoan heterotrophs

5 Amoeba 7) Moves by sending out extensions of the plasma membrane to move and feed 8) These extensions are called ___________. 9) Do not have a cell wall 10) To feed, the pseudopodia surrounds the food pseudopodia Video: amoeba

6 12) Found in moist environments
Amoeba 11) Amoebas can remove excessive water with little pumps called ___________ ________ 12) Found in moist environments 13) Amoebas found in the sea are part of the ______ 14) Plankton is assortment of organisms that float in oceans and form base of the ocean’s food chain. 15) Radiolarians are an important part of plankton too. 16) Most amoebas reproduce by ________________ Contractile vacuoles plankton Asexual reproduction

7 18) Flagella allow for the protist to move about.
Flagellates 17) Get their name because they are protists with one or more ____________. 18) Flagella allow for the protist to move about. 19) Some flagellates are parasites, causing diseases like sleeping sickness. 20) Some protozoa are found in the guts of termites and will digest cellulose as food. flagella Video- dinoflagellates

8 Zoomastigina – African sleeping sickness (506)
Flagellates: Zoomastigina – African sleeping sickness (506) 21) From bite of tsetse fly (506) 22) Cause chills and rashes, infect nerve cells 23) Lose consciousness and laps into deep & fatal coma Chapter 19

9 Ciliate What are ciliates?
Paramecium What are ciliates? 24) Contain _________, hair-like projections to move from place to place 25) Paramecia are one of the largest unicellular organisms. 26) Use cilia, oral groove, gullet and food vacuole for digestion. 27) Another ciliate: Stentor cilia Stentor


11 Ciliate

12 28) Paramecia reproduce asexually and sexually by _____________
28) Paramecia reproduce asexually and sexually by _____________. In this process paramecia join and exchange genetic material. 29) Also paramecia divide through asexual reproduction, by dividing into two identical daughter cells Asexual reproduction. conjugation

13 Sporozoans 30) Most of the Protist are in the group Sporozoans, which produce __________. 31) Spores are a reproductive cell with a hard outer coat that produces a new organism without fertilization. 32)All are __________ 33) This is the life cycle of malaria, a disease caused by a Sporozoan through the life cycle of a Mosquito. spores parasites

14 Reinforcement and Study Guide 19.1
Answers page 83. Protists True Animal-like, plantlike, and fungus-like Animal-like Pseudopodia Contractile vacuole Asexual reproduction Flagellates Cilia Conjugation Sporozoans Plasmodium mosquito

15 Algae: Plantlike Protists Chapter 19.2 page 510 – 525 Diatoms (below)

16 Algae: Plantlike Protist 19.2 What are algae?
34) Protists that photosynthesize are algae. 35) Algae use chlorophyll to trap energy from sun. 36) Up to 4 kinds of chlorophyll w/ various pigments. (variety of colors in algae) 37) Can be unicellular or multicellular. 38)_Photosynthesizing algae are called ________________ Diversity of Algae 39) Six phyla of algae 40) Three of phyla (euglenoids, diatoms & dinoflagellates) are unicellular phytoplankton

17 Euglenoids (511) What are euglenoids? 41) Have both plant and animal characteristics. 42) Contain chlorophyll & photosynthesize but don’t have cellulose or cell wall 43) Can take in food similar to protozoans 44) Have one or more flagella to move toward food or light videos


19 Diatoms: The golden algae
45) Unicellular photosynthesizing organisms 46) Make up a large part of phytoplankton in fresh and salt water ecosystems 47) Shells made of silica (sand) with two parts 48) Contain chlorophyll and carotenoid (golden-yellow pigment) 49) Oil in diatoms helps diatoms float on surface, Will be closer to sunlight


21 Diatom


23 Diatom

24 Diatom

25 Dinoflagellates (513) 50) Have two (2) flagella located in grooves.
51) Cell spins slowly as flagella beat. 52) Makes up Phytoplankton in salt water. 53)Cause _________ , that kill fish, and shellfish. (513) Red tide

26 Dinoflagellates

27 Red Tide!

28 Red Tide

29 Algae____________ Red Algae (514)
54) The next three phyla of algae has to do with their color: red, brown, and green algae. 55) Red algae are seaweeds. The body of the seaweed is called a ___________. Seaweeds lack roots, stems, and leaves. 56) Red algae can survive deep water because light is absorbed in the green, violet and blue pigments. Red is the part of light spectrum that can penetrate deep water (below 100m) thallus

30 Brown Algae (514) 57) Brown algae are found in cool ocean water. 58) Many have ____________ that keep bodies floating near the surface. 59)The largest of the brown algae are _________ 60) Kelp forest are complete ecosystems. Bladders kelp

31 Kelp (multicellular seaweed) (514)
61) Looks like plants but is not; no roots, stems or leaves 62) Has hold fasts to attach to rock

32 Brown Algae (Kelp) Chapter 20

33 Green Algae 63) Most live in fresh water 64) But live in a variety of water; salt water, snow, tree trunk, fur of animals. Volvox 65) Unicellular or multicellular. Live in a group of cells that live together in close association called a _________. colony

34 Volvox

35 Volvox


37 Green algae reproduction Plant like Protist
66) Reproduce sexually and asexually 67) Individual organism breaks into pieces and each piece forms a new organism. This type of reproduction is called ___________. 68) Life cycles that alternate between individuals that produce spores and individuals that produce gametes are called _____________ 69) Alternates between haploid and _________. fragmentation Alternation of generation diploid (516) Forms sex cells Forms body cells


39 70) Colonial Green Algae: 71) multicellular
Chapter 20-4 Plantlike Protist: Red, Brown, & Green Algae 70) Colonial Green Algae: 71) multicellular 72) Spirogyra: forms threadlike long colonies called filaments Spirogyra – undergoing conjugation and showing filaments Internal structure Chapter 20

40 Alternation of generations
An organism’s life cycle alternates between ___________ reproduction and ___________ reproduction Meiosis asexual Diploid Mature Cell Zoospores Zygote Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Sexual + Haploid - Chapter 20

41 Reinforcement and Study Guide 19.2
The characteristic common to all protists is that they are eukaryotic. Unicellular protists that are major producers of oxygen in aquatic ecosystems are phytoplankton. Unicellular and multicellular photosynthetic protists are algae. Most green, red and brown algae are multicellular. Photosynthetic pigments are used to classify algae. Algae are classified into six phyla. 7. Phylum Euglenophyta Contractile vacuole Nucleus Chloroplast Flagellum Eye spot Pellicle Mitochondria

42 Reinforcement and Study Guide 19.2
When diatoms that have been reproducing sexually reach about on-fourth of their original size, they reproduce sexually. Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that all of the above; have two flagella, create red tides, have thick cellulose plates. Red algae are a kind of seaweed having pigments that absorb green, violet, and blue light waves, which allows the algae to photosynthesize in limited light The air bladders of green algae allows the algae to float to surface. A green algae that forms colonies is Volvox. Some algae have a life cycle that has a pattern called (20) alternation of generations. These algae alternate between a(n) (21) haploid form that is called the (22) gametophyte because it produces gametes, and a(n) (23) diploid form called the (24) sporophyte. When the haploid gametes fuse, they form a(n) (25) zygote form which the sporophyte develops. Certain cells in the sporophyte undergo (26) meiosis to form haploid (27) spores that develop into gametophytes.

43 Fungi Chapter 20

44 What is a fungus? Chapter 20
Characteristics of Fungi: 73) Are everywhere 74) Grow best in moist, warm environments Have cell walls but not of ___________, like found in plants. Fungi have cell walls of ____________. cellulose chitin

45 What is the structure of fungi?
76) Most are multicellular and have long threadlike filaments called _________ 77) Hyphae grow from __________. 78) As hyphae grow they form an network of filaments called a _______________. Hyphae spores mycelium

46 79) A germinating fungal spore produces hyphae that branch to for mycelium.
(530) Spore Hypha Mycelium

47 How do fungi get food? 80) Fungi can not make their own food, they are
81) Food is digested ___________ the fungus’s cells and then food is absorbed by digestive ___________ 82) Enzymes break down large food molecules into small food molecules 83) Small food molecules move into the hyphae by Osmosis) heterotrophs outside enzymes

48 Reproduction in Fungi 84) Fungi undergo asexual reproduction by pieces of mycelium breaking off called: ______________ 85) Another asexual method in which a new individual pinches off from the parent is __________ Fragmentation budding

49 Common Basidiomycotes Diversity is obvious
Mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, bird’s nests fungi, rust, smut, and bracket fungi.

50 Another Example of Mutualism: Mycorrhizae and Lichens
86) Mutualism: a symbiotic relationship that benefit both species 87) A fungus that has a symbiotic relationship: a plant and its roots is ______________ 88) Fine, threadlike hyphae grow around the plant’s roots without harming the plant. The hyphae maintain water around roots. The fungus receives organic nutrients from the plant. mycorrhizae

51 Mutualism: Mycorrhizae and Lichens
89) A _________ is a symbiotic association between a fungus and _____________. 90) The fungus portion forms a dense web of _________, the algae grows inside the web. 91) The algae provides food for both organisms, the fungus protects the algae from changes in the environment. 92) Often first to colonize an area in __________ succession. lichen Green algae hyphae primary


53 21 – 2 Classification of Fungi
Chapter 21 – Fungi 21 – 2 Classification of Fungi Mushrooms Chapter 21



56 Jelly fungi

57 Bird’s Nest Fungus

58 Lichens








66 Fungi page Worksheet Many fungi are decomposers, which break down organic substances into raw materials that can be used by other organisms. Fungi use extracellular digestion (outside) to obtain nutrients. Hyphae release digestive enzymes that break down molecules in their food source. Saprophytic are fungi are decomposers. Parasitic fungi grow haustoria into host cells and absorb the cell’s nutrients. Fungi reproduce asexually by fragmentation, budding, or producing spores. In fragmentation, pieces of hyphae grow into new mycelia. The process of a parent cell undergoing mitosis and producing a new individual that pinches off, matures, and separates from the parent is called budding.

67 Fungi page Worksheet 12. When environmental conditions are right, a spore may germinate and produce a threadlike hypha that will grow into a mycelium. Some hyphae grow away from the mycelium to produce a spore-containing structure called a sporangium. In most fungi, the structures that support sporangia are the only part of the fungus that can be seen. Fungi may produce spores by mitosis or meiosis. Many adaptations of fungi for survival involve spores. Sporangia protects spores and keep them from drying out until they are released. A single puffball may produce a cloud containing as many as 1 trillion spores. Producing a large number of spores increase a species’ chances of survival. Fungal spores can be dispersed by: water, wind, animals

68 Fungi page Worksheet 2__ Hyphae called rhizoids penetrate the food, anchor the mycelium, and absorb nutrients. 1__ An asexual spore germinates on a food source and hyphae begin to grow. 5__ Spores are released and another asexual cycle begins. 3__ Hyphae called stolons grow across the surface of the food source and form a mycelium. 4__ Special hyphae grow upward to form sporangia that are filled with asexual spores. Ascomycotes are also called (6) sac fungi because they produce sexual spores, called, (7) ascospores , in a saclike structure, called a(an) (8) ascus. During asexual reproduction, Ascomycotes produce spores called (9) conidia.

69 Fungi page Worksheet (10.) Conidiophores , which are elongated hyphae. Morels and truffles are (11) multicellular Ascomycotes that are edible. Yeasts are (12) unicellular Ascomycotes. (13) Yeasts are used to make beer, wine, and bread. They are also used in genetic research. A(n) (14) vaccine for the disease hepatitis B is produced from rapidly growing (15) yeast cell, which contain spliced human genes. Penicillim is an example of a deuteromycotes. A mycorrhiza is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a(n) plant. Penicillim is an antibiotic produced by a deuteromycotes. Plants that have mycorrhizae associated with their roots grow larger Deuteromycotes make up a division of fungi that have no known sexual stage

70 Fungi page Worksheet (25) A lichen is a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and a(n) alga or cyanobacterium. (26) Lichens are pioneer species in all parts of the world. (27) Scientists think that ascomycotes and basiciomycotes evolved from a common ancestor.

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