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Presentation on theme: "PHARMACOLOGIC MANAGEMENT OF VIRAL AND FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST Ngoc-Yen Nguyen, PharmD February, 2014."— Presentation transcript:


2 Objectives  Review risks for viral and fungal infections in the immunocompromised host  Identify pharmacologic treatments for viral and fungal infections  Apply appropriate therapeutic agents to specific patient scenarios


4 Risk Factors for Invasive Fungal Infection

5 Types of invasive fungal infections  Yeasts Candida spp. Fourth most common nosocomial bloodstream infection in the U.S. Most common invasive fungal infection in critically-ill nonneutropenic patients Portals of entry Gastrointestinal tract Intravascular catheters Types of Candida spp. Candida albicans- most common Candida non-albicans  Candida glabrata – most common non-albicans Candida spp. associated with bloodstream infection  Candida krusei – more frequent cause of fungemia in patients with hematologic malignancy Cryptococcus neoformans Only pathogenic species in the genus Cryptococcus Source – contaminated soil with pigeon droppings Portal of entry – Inhalation of yeasts

6 Types of invasive fungal infections  Aspergillus spp.  Ubiquitous environmental mold with airborne spores  Most common cause of invasive mycotic infections in the severely immunocompromised population  Common species: A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus  Frequent sites of infection Lungs Central nervous system Sinuses  Other difficult to treat organisms  Fusarium spp. Second most frequent cause of invasive mycotic infections in the severely immunocompromised population Found in the soil known to cause localized skin infections in immunocompetent persons Common species: F. solani; F. oxysporum; F. moniliforme  Mucor spp. Found in soil, plants, and decaying fruits Common species: M. amphibiorum; M. circinelloides; M. indicus

7 Incidences of Invasive Fungal Infections

8 Diagnosis  Blood culture  Biopsy  Fungitell assay  detects (1-3)-  -D-glucan in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection, (1,3)- ß-D- glucan is sloughed from the cell walls during the life cycle of most pathogenic fungi  assay detects the following pathogens: Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Coccidioides immitis, Fusarium spp., Histoplasma capsulatum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pneumocystis jiroveci.  does not detect Cryptococcus, Zygomycetes, such as Mucor, and Rhizopus, nor Blastomyces dermatitidis  Aspergillus Galactomannan EIA  assay uses EBA-2 monoclonal antibodies to detect Aspergillus galactomannan, in the diagnosis of invasive Aspergillosis  concomitant use of mold-active, anti fungal therapy in some patients with invasive Aspergillosis may result in reduced sensitivity of this assay  positive galactomannan test has result in patients receiving pip/tazo


10 Antifungal classes  Polyene  Triazoles  Echinocandins  Flucytosine

11 Polyenes  MOA: binds to the ergosterol component of the fungal cell membrane and cause the fungus to leak electrolytes and die  Mainstay of therapy for certain invasive systemic fungal infections  Use is limited by the risks for nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia – but SE may be improved with newer dosage forms  Agents  Amphotericin B deoxycholate (conventional)  Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion  Amphotericin B lipid complex  Amphotericin B liposomal  Controlled comparative trials of original form to the newer formulations are lacking  Note different dosing with different products  Premedication may help prevent/decrease infusion related rxns with combination of acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, +/- hydrocortisone and +/- meperidine

12 The Triazoles  MOA: inhibition of cytochrome P-450-dependent ergosterol synthesis and inhibition of cell membrane formation. These agents are metabolized by the CyP450 system and may affect/may be affected by drugs that are dependent on this system  Agents  Fluconazole  Itraconazole  Voriconazole  Posaconazole

13 Fluconazole  Place in therapy: Most often used as prophylaxis or treatment agent against C. albicans  Most frequently seen adverse effect is elevation of LFTs (particularly hepatic transaminases)  80% of drug is renally eliminated – thus dosage adjustments may be needed in renal insufficiency  Substrate and inhibitor of CYP450 - beware of drug interactions  Dosage forms: oral and intravenous

14 Itraconazole  Has broad spectrum of activity including Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Candida, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Sporotrichosis speciesi  Substrate and inhibitor of CPY3A4 – high risk for significant drug interactions  Side effects  Increased LFTs  Case of new or exacerbation of heart failure has been reported  Use with caution in renal impairment due to wide variations in plasma concentrations  Available as oral capsule, tablet, and solution  Capsule and oral solution formulations are not bioequivalent  Capsule and tablet absorption is best if taken with food  Solution should be taken on an empty stomach

15 Voriconazole  Place in therapy  Drug of choice for invasive aspergillosis  Used in treatment of infections caused by Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium spp in patients intolerant of, or refractory to other therapy  More active than fluconazole against Candida sp and has more activity than amphotericin B, except C. glabrata  Dosing considerations  Optimal doses in children is not well established – may require higher dosages than adults to achieve comparable serum levels; may need to monitor drug level  Decrease dose by 50% in patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction per Child- Pugh Score  For CrCl < 50 ml/minute, consider changing IV to oral, as the accumulation of IV formulation vehicle(SBECD) occurs  Side effects  Visual changes reported in 30% of patients in clinical trials  Increase in liver function enzymes (AST, ALT, Alk Phos)  Substrate and inhibitor of CYP450 - beware of drug interactions  Dosage forms: oral and intravenous

16 Posaconazole  Place in therapy  Prophylaxis of invasive Aspergillus and Candida infections in severely- immunocompromised patients  Treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis (including patients refractory to itraconazole and/or fluconazole)  Excellent activity against both yeast and mould infections, specifically against zygomycosis in which voriconazole has no efficacy  PK studies in pediatric is limited  Inhibitor of CYP3A4 – beware of drug interaction  Dosage forms:  Available as an oral suspension only  Bioavailability increased approximately 3-4 times when administered with a meal or an oral liquid nutritional supplement.

17 Echinochandins  MOA: block the synthesis of 1-3  -D-glucan, a critical component of the fungal cell wall  Available as intravenous preparations only AgentsFDA indicationsPK considerationsDrug interactions CaspofunginInvasive candidiasis; salvage therapy for aspergillosis; neutropenic fever; oroesophageal candidiasis Undergo hepatic metabolism May require dose adjustment in moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction Dose adjustment not needed in renal impairment Reduces tacrolimus AUC by 20% Rifampin, phenytoin, nevirapine, etc.  caspo trough by 30% MicafunginInvasive candidiasis; prophylaxis in HSCT; oroesophageal candidiasis Undergo hepatic metabolism Dose adjustment not needed in renal impairment May  blood concentration of drugs metabolized by CYP450 AnidulafunginInvasive candidiasis; oroesophageal candidiasis Undergo slow nonhepatic, chemical degradation Dose adjustment not needed in renal impairment

18 Flucytosine Converted within the fungal cell to 5-fluorouracil, which inhibits thymidylate synthetase, thus inhibits DNA synthesis Adjunctive treatment IFI caused by susceptible strains of Candida or Cryptococcus, often synergistically with amphotericin B Widely distributed including to the CSF Adverse effects Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe enterocolitis Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, bone marrow aplasia– possibly irreversible Renal and hepatic toxicities Dosage form: capsule




22 What is a virus?  Very small infectious agent  Some are smaller than ribosome  Approx 10x smaller than bacteria  Consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)  Surrounded by a protein coat, which is often surrounded by another protective envelope  Lack membranes, a cytoplasm, & any means to produce energy  Rely on host cell to replicate, mutate and maintain genetic continuity

23 Portal of entry

24 Stages of virus replication Attachment and penetration Transcription of the viral genome Translation & modification of viral proteins Assembly of virion particles Release of new viruses Uncoating and releasing of viral genome into cell

25 Pathogenesis of Selected Virus Infections DiseaseCommon Site of Implantation Route of SpreadTarget Organ(s)Site of Shedding AIDSInjection, trauma, intestine BloodImmune system, brain Blood, semen ChickenpoxRespiratory tractBlood, nerves (site of latency) Skin, lungsRepiratory tract, skin Hepatitis AAlimentary TractBloodLiverAlimentary tract Hepatitis BPenetration of skinBloodLiverBlood HSV1 AcuteRespiratory tractNerves, leukocytesMany (brain, liver, skin) Respiratory tract, epithelial surfaces RecurrentGanglionNerves (to site of latency) Skin, eyeSkin, eyes HSV2Genital tractNerves (to site of latency) Genital tract MeaslesRespiratory tractBloodSkin, lungs, brainRespiratory tract PoliomyelitisAlimentary TractBloodCNSAlimentary tract RabiesSubcutaneously (bite)NervesBrainSalivary glands RubellaRespiratory tractBloodSkin, lymph nodes, fetus Respiratory tract, excreted in newborn

26 Virus effect on cells  Lytic Infection  Causes destruction of host cell  E.g. HSV, poxviruses  Persistent Infection  Virions are released continuously  Host cell may not be lysed  causes little adverse effect  E.g. Lassa, retroviruses, rubella  Latent Infection  Delay between infection and appearance of symptoms  E.g. fever blisters due to HSV-1  Cellular Transformation  Changes normal cell into a tumor cell  E.g. HPV, EBV

27 DNA virusesRNA viruses TypeAssociated DiseaseTypeAssociated Disease PoxvirusesSmallpoxRubellaGerman measles PappillovirusesWarts, cervical cancer RhabdovirusesRabies AdenovirusesConjunctivitis, sore throat PicornavirusPoliomyelitis, meningitis, colds HepadnavirusesHepatitis BArenavirusesMeningitis, Lassa fever HerpesvirusesChickenpox, shingles, HSV, CMV, Karposi sarcoma, non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma Epstein Barr virus ArbovirusesYellow fever, arthropod-borne encephalitis OrthomyxovirusesInfluenza ParamyxovirusesMeasles, mumps, RSV RetrovirusesAIDS, T-cell leukemias Types of pathogenic viruses

28 Host factors  Presence of target receptors on host cells  Availability of enzymes essential for viral entry and replication  Specific immunity against certain viral epitopes  State of immunocompetence, i.e. ability of the immune system to control the viral replication effectively

29 Defenses against infections  Anatomic barriers  Nonspecific inhibitors  Phagocytic cells  Fever  Inflammation  Interferon  Humoral immunity  Cellular immunity Non-specific Specific

30 Diagnosis  Clinical symptoms  Blood tests and cultures  Blood may be tested for antibodies to viruses or for antigens  Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

31 Treatment  Antivirals interfere with replication of viruses  Target only limited cellular metabolic functions  Cause many toxic side effects  Development of resistance  Strengthening the immune response of patients  Interferons  Immunoglobulins  Vaccines

32 Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  Causes acute respiratory tract illness in all ages  Most children are infected by 2nd year of age  Seasonal outbreaks between October – May  Highly contagious  Previous infection does not protect against reinfection  Transmission  Direct contact with infected droplets  RSV can survive for several hours outside the body  Viral shedding ~ 3 – 8 days, up to 4 weeks  Incubation ranges from 2 – 8 days

33 RSV: High Risk Groups  Infants (< 12 months)  1 -2 % require hospitalization  Mean age of infants hospitalized: 3 months  Duration of illness: up to 12 days  10% remain ill after 4 weeks  Fatal in < 1%  Immunocompromised patients  Elderly  Solid organ transplant  Bone marrow transplant - Mortality of 70 to 100 %

34 RSV: Clinical Presentation  Usually self-limited process  Infants and young children usually present with LRTI  Bronchiolitis  Bronchospasm  Pneumonia  Acute respiratory failure  Wheezing  Apnea - 20% of hospitalized infants

35 RSV: Clinical Presentation  Older children and adults usually have upper respiratory tract symptoms  Cough  Rhinorrhea  Conjunctivitis  High risk groups may develop LRTI  RSV pneumonia can lead to respiratory failure

36 RSV: Prevention   exposure and  the risk of acquiring RSV  Avoidance of exposure to tobacco smoke  Restricting participation in child care setting during RSV season for high- risk infants  Handwashing in all settings  Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab  Humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F glycoprotein  Indicated for use in selected infants and children younger than 24 months with BPD preterm birth (≤35 weeks) hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease  Dose scheduled monthly x 5 doses lower risk of hospitalization fewer hospital days requiring oxygen fewer total hospital days

37 RSV: Treatment  Supportive therapy  Racemic epinephrine  Bronchodilators  Oxygen  Ribavirin IH  Routine use is not recommended  Must be given within 48 hours of onset of symptoms  Randomized controlled trials yielded mix results  Uncontrolled studies on combination with IVIG improved survival,  ventilator days, &  incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans  AAP recommends that use of ribavirin be based on clinical circumstances CHD Lung disease BMT (Early use resulted in  morbidity and mortality) Need for mechanical ventilation  Contraindication — pregnant women  Adverse effects — headache, conjunctivitis, dizziness, pharyngitis, lacrimation, bronchospasm and/or chest pain

38 Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  Double stranded DNA virus with an envelope  Infects > 40 million Americans between 15 and 75 yrs old  Subtypes  HSV-1: resides in trigeminal ganglion  HSV-2: resides in sacral ganglia  Life cycle Entry into the body  replicates  kills surface cells  enters and remains dormant in the cell end-plates at skin surface (connected to internal nerve cells and eventually lead to a ganglion)

39 HSV: Clinical presentation  Primary Infection  Transmitted from human-to-human contact  Manifests as tiny, clear, fluid filled blisters  Recurrent Infection (occurs in 25 -30%)  Triggers: sunlight, fever, stress, immunosuppression  Frequency of occurrence varies  Lesions appear at same site  Diseases caused by HSV  Mucocutaneous  Herpes keratitis  CNS  Neonatal herpes  Disseminated infection

40 Neonatal Herpes  Occurs in 1/3000 to 1/20,000 births  HSV-2 accounts for 80% of cases  Usually transmitted during delivery  15% transmission S from another neonate or family  Symptoms & signs appears in 1 st and 2 nd week  Local or disseminated disease  Skin vesicles in 55% of cases  CNS disease in those with no skin vesicles  More serious forms of disease will follow within 10 days if localized disease is left untreated

41 Neonatal Herpes: Prognosis  Localized infection:  Mortality: 50%  30% develop neurologic impairment, which may not manifest until 2 to 3 yr of age.  Desseminated infection:  Mortality: 85%  Most survivors are neurologically impaired 92% if untreated 86% if treated

42 Immunocompromised Host  Incidence of reactivation  60 – 80% in solid organ tranplants  > 80% after bone marrow transplant  Can be local or disseminated  Lesions at multiple sites  Lesions may take 3 -5 weeks to heal  Longer viral shedding period

43 HSV: Treatment  Acyclovir  First line agent for HSV infection  MOA Binds to HSV DNA polymerase, incorporated into viral DNA, and prevents further elongation of the chain Converted to the active monophosphate form by herpesvirus thymidine kinase Resistance is observed in virus strains that are deficient in thymidine kinase  Adverse effects Nephrotoxicity - most significant Maintaining good hydration helps  incidence

44 HSV: Treatment (cont.)  Acyclovir (cont.)  Oral acyclovir - 10 – 20% bioavailable  Valacyclovir - 50% bioavailable; pediatric dosing not well studied  Ganciclovir  Structurally similar to acyclovir  active against HSV  Cross-resistance occurs with acyclovir  Foscarnet  Second line agent, when acyclovir resistance is suspected  Does not require thymidine kinase for drug activation

45 Cytomegalovirus (CMV)  Member of herpesvirus family  Infects 50-80% of adults by 40 years old  Primary infection  Usually causes few symptoms  Few long-term health consequences  Some develop a mononucleosis-like syndrome with prolonged fever and a mild hepatitis  Once infected, virus usually remain dormant for life  Recurrence rarely occurs in a healthy person

46 CMV (cont.)  Transmission  Person-to-person contact In households In day care centers  Via saliva, urine, body fluid, breastmilk, transplanted organs, blood transfusions  Prevention  Handwashing  Pregnant women to avoid direct contact with young children

47 CMV: High-risk groups  Unborn baby during pregnancy  Highest risk occurs in women with primary infection during pregnancy 1/3 of infants will be infected 10 -15% of infected infants will have symptoms  Symptoms range from enlargement of liver and spleen to fatal illness  80 to 90% will have hearing loss, vision impairment, and varying degrees of mental retardation  5 to 10% of asymptomatic infants will have varying degrees of hearing and mental or coordination problems

48 CMV: High-risk groups (cont.)  People who work with children  CMV is commonly transmitted among young children and to child care providers  Prevent transmission by practice handwashing and reduce personal contact  Immunocompromised person  Transplant patients, patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, & HIV patients  Pneumonia, retinitis, & GI illness are common presentations  Avoid CMV + blood products

49 CMV: Treatment  Ganciclovir  Used primarily for CMV; active against herpes viruses  MOA: An inhibitor and substrate for CMV DNA polymerase  inhibits DNA synthesis and prevents DNA elongation Requires thymidine kinase in CMV-infected cell to phosphorylate drug to triphosphate (active) form  ganciclovir phosphorylation  indicator of CMV resistance  Can be used in combination with foscarnet for synergistic activity   dose when combining therapy to  toxicity  Adverse effects Myelosuppression Nephrotoxicity - much less than acyclovir or foscarnet Handling of this agent requires chemotherapy precautions

50 CMV: Treatment  Foscarnet  Used for prophylaxis and treatment of CMV infection  Second line agent for HSV refractory to acyclovir  MOA: Inhibits viral RNA and DNA polymerases  inhibits pyrophosphate exchange  prevents elongation of DNA chain Does not require activation by thymidine kinase; active against HSV strains that are deficient in thymidine kinase  Spectrum of activity HSV-1; HSV-2 Cytomegalovirus Varicella zoster virus Epstein-Barr virus Influenza virus (A Victoria and B Hong Kong strains)

51 CMV: Treatment  Foscarnet (cont.)  Renally eliminated – adjust dose for impaired renal function  Consider combination tx with ganciclovir to  toxicities  Adverse effects  Nephrotoxicity  Electrolyte abnormalities Hypokalemia Hypocalcemia Hyperphosphatemia OR hypophosphatemia Hypomagnesemia  Neurotoxicity (seizures with rapid infusion)

52 CMV: Treatment  CMV-IVIG  A preparation of IgG of pooled healthy blood donors with a high titer of CMV antibodies  Provides a passive source of antibodies against CMV Prophylaxis in solid organ transplant Use in combination with antivirals for treatment of CMV pneumonia  Dosing and length of therapy not well studied

53 Adenovirus  Non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus  Consists of 51 distinct pathogenic types  Some serotypes are endemic to specific parts of the world  Some are usually acquired during childhood  Some cause sporadic outbreaks  Transmission  Direct contact with respiratory droplet  Fecal-oral  Waterborne

54 Adenovirus  Clinical manifestations  Respiratory illness (most common )  Gastroenteritis  Conjunctivitis  Hemorrhagic cystitis  Hepatitis  High risk groups Immunocompromised patients (viral reactivation) Occurs in 5 -29% of BMT patients Deaths occur in 30 -50% Acute respiratory disease can be precipitated by overcrowding and stress

55 Adenovirus: Treatment  Treat symptoms and complications of infection  Cidofovir  FDA-approved indication: CMV retinitis in AIDS patients  MOA Inhibits viral DNA polymerase Does not depend on virus-specific thymidine kinase  Spectrum of activity Herpesvirus (HSV-1, HSV-2) Cytomegalovirus BK virus Adenovirus

56 Adenovirus: Treatment  Cidofovir (conti.)  Adverse effects Nephrotoxicity Renal tubular acidosis Granulocytopenia (not dose-related)  Need appropriate hydration and probenecid

57 DrugTarget VirusAdverse EffectsOther considerations AcyclovirHSV Nephrotoxicity (require dosing adjustment in renal dysfunction) 1 st line agent for HSV. Must be well hydrated. Valacyclovir more bioavailable than oral acyclovir. GanciclovirHSV, CMV Myelosuppression, nephrotoxicty (< acyclovir & foscarnet) 1 st line agent for CMV. May use in combination with foscarnet for synergistic activity. FoscarnetHSV,CMV Renal toxicity (require dosing adjustment in renal dysfunction) Electrolyte abnormalities (K, Ca, P, Mag) Does not require thymidine kinase for activation; thus, can be used in cases of acyclovir and ganciclovir. Must be well hydrated. Cidofovir HSV,CMV, adenovirus Nephrotoxicity (  SrCr, proteinuria, & renal tubular acidosis), granulocytopenia Is an option when ganciclovir and foscarnet fail. Must be administered with appropriate hydration and probenecid. RibavirinBroad coverage RSV, HSV, adenovirus FDA Pregnancy Category: Category X. IH form causes headaches & conjunctivitis. IV form causes hemolytic anemia, reticulocytosis, seizures and dizziness IV preparation available via compassionate use protocol - requires prior FDA and IRB approval. Antivirals

58 Conclusions  A mature, intact immune system is the best defense against fungal viral infections  Immunocompromised patients are most at risk for morbidity and mortality  Premature neonates  Elderly  Immunosuppressed patients (HIV, SCID, transplant)  Avoidance is perhaps the best prevention against infection  Early recognition and implementation of appropriate therapy are vital to improved outcome

59 References Andes D. Optimizing antifungal choice and administration. Current Medical Research & Opinion 2013; 29 (S4): 13–18 Boeckh M, Berrey M, et al. Phase 1 Evaluation of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus–Specific Monoclonal Antibody Palivizumab in Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants. JID 2001;184:350–4 Katragkou A and Roilides E. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 2011; 24: 225-229 Klimpel GR. Immune defenses. K riengkauykiat J, Ito J, Dadwal S. Epidemiology and treatment approaches in management of invasive fungal infections. Clinical Epidemiology 2011; 3: 175-191 Lujan-Zilbermann J, Benaim E, et al. Respiratory Virus Infections in Pediatric HSCT Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001; 33:962–8 Naesens L and Clercq E. Recent Developments in Herpesvirus Therapy. Herpes 2001; 8 (1): 12 -16 Razonable RR and Emery VC. Management of CMV Infection and Disease in Transplant Patients-A Consensus Article. Herpes 2004; 11 (3): 77 – 86. Perfect J. Fungal diagnosis: how do we do it and can we do better? Current Medical Research & Opinion 2013. 29 (S4): 3 – 11 Ruhnke M, et al. Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in hematology and oncology. Guidelines of Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology. Ann Hematol 2003. 82 (S2): 141 – 148 Steiner R. Treating Acute Bronchiolitis Associated with RSV. Am Fam Physician 2004; 69: 325-30 Wade J. Viral Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies. Hematology 2006; 1: 368 – 374 Zamora M, Davis RD, and Leonard L, for the CMV Advisory Board Expert Committee Management of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Lung Transplant Recipients: Evidence-Based Recommendations. Transplantation 2005; 80: 157–163 Accessed for RSV, CMV, and adenovirus. Jan Accessed Micromedex for all drug agents discussed. Jan 2014. Accessed LexiComp for all drug agents discussed. Jan 2014.


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