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Invasive Diseases.  Also known as  Contagious Disease  Communicable Disease  Transmissible Disease  Caused by a pathogen that causes disease  Not.

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Presentation on theme: "Invasive Diseases.  Also known as  Contagious Disease  Communicable Disease  Transmissible Disease  Caused by a pathogen that causes disease  Not."— Presentation transcript:

1 Invasive Diseases

2  Also known as  Contagious Disease  Communicable Disease  Transmissible Disease  Caused by a pathogen that causes disease  Not all infections cause disease that can be transmitted

3  Pathogens can be:  Viruses  Bacteria  Parasites  Fungi  Protozoa  Prions

4  Plants  People  Animals  Bacteria  Other Single Celled-organisms

5  Transmitted by -Chewing Animals such as Insects -Sucking Insects such as Aphids -Fungi -Single-celled Organisms -People Through Tools or Hands -Generation to Generation Through Seeds and Pollen -Nematodes

6  Don’t infect humans or animals  Reduce Yield  Deform fruits and vegetables Plum Pox Virus in peaches Tomato Mosaic Virus in cucumbers

7 Pepper mild mottled virus Tobacco Mosaic virus Tobacco Mosaic Virus in Orchids

8 Potatoes infected with Y virus Tobacco Mosaic virus in tomatoes Healthy Eggplant (left) compared to damaged eggplant infected with Tomato Bushy Stunt virus

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10  Once plants are infected with viruses little can be done.  There is not effective treatment.  The best control is prevention.  Scientists are working on creating vaccines but they are in the early stages of research.

11  insect control  removing weeds that may harbor viruses or their insect vectors  grow from seeds  for plants that transmit viruses through seed, use indexed seed  discard all virus infected plants  disinfect tools used for vegetative propagation

12  Transmitted  Biting and/or Blood-sucking Insects  Coughing  Sneezing  Fecal-oral Route  Direct Blood to Blood  Direct Body Fluids  Sexual transmission

13  Some Viruses can infect a number of species  Other Viruses are Species Specific  Viruses can mutate  new “strain” of a virus  expand host populations  alter transmission method  Viruses need live tissue

14  Vaccines are used to create immunity to viruses  Antivirals can now be used to treat some viruses  Tamiflu  Relenza  Antibiotics DO NOT work on viruses!

15  Foot and Mouth Disease  Hemorrhagic Fever  Influenza (flu)  Avian Influenza  Herpes Viruses  West Nile Virus  Encephalitis  Yellow Fever Influenza Virus

16  Distemper  Rabies  Measles  Polio  Chickenpox  Smallpox Girl with Smallpox in Bangladesh in 1973

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18  Single-celled microorganisms  Rods, spheres, spirals  Reproduce by Binary fission

19  Live in every environment on earth  Soil  Fresh water  Salt water  Acidic hot springs  On all surfaces  In very inhospitable places  Live in and on the human body  Live in and on plants and animals

20  Very important in nutrient cycles  Nitrogen fixation  Decomposition  Some bacteria beneficial  Probiotics  Fermented foods Cheese Yogurt Pickles Sourdough bread

21  Some bacteria live symbiotically  Some bacteria harmful  pathogens  Most bacteria do not affect humans, plants or other animals  Most bacteria have not been classified or studied

22  Cholera  Tuberculosis  Anthrax  Leprosy  Syphilis  Bubonic plague  Bacterial pneumonia  Tetanus Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)

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24  Exist virtually everywhere including in the air  So transmission is possible by every means  Bacterial can live for years in very inhospitable environments  Spores in soil

25  Bacteria do not only cause disease in plants and animals  Bacteria cause food spoilage  Bacteria cause food-borne illnesses  Food preservation and pasteurization techniques are used to prevent both

26  Live in or on a host and cause harm  Nourishment  Protection  May be as small as a single cell  Protozoa  1 to 2 micometers  May be a large worm  Helminths  Just visible to naked eye to 2 meters long

27  May have a single permanent host  Or many intermediary hosts  In animals, often excreted in feces  Infest animals and plants  Humans  Mammals  Birds  Insects

28  Transmitted from human to human  Transmitted from animal to animal  Transmitted from human to animal  Transmitted from animal to human  Transmitted from human to bird to mammal and back to human  May be transmitted by insect vectors

29  Transmitted from fecal contamination  Transmitted from direct blood contamination  Transmitted by vectors

30  Found in food or water  Cause foodborne illness  Cause waterborne illness  Can range from mild discomfort to debilitating illness or even death  Transmitted primarily through fecal contamination

31  Trichomoniasis  Malaria  Giardia  Cryptosporidium  Cyclospora  Toxoplasmosis  Trichinosis  Tapeworms

32  Proper hand washing with soap  Drink either municipal treated water or boil water  Cook foods thoroughly  Do not swallow or breath in water when swimming  Consume only pasteurized beverages  Use gloves when handling uncooked meat, cat litter, gardening.

33  Athlete’s Foot/Jock Itch  Yeast Infections (Candida)  Thrush  Ringworm  Diaper Rash  Fungal Sinusitis  Nail Fungus  Histoplasmosis

34  Powdery Mildew  Fusarium Wilt  Root rots  Phytopthora infestans – late blight  Cause of the Irish Potato Famine  Still the most pathogen of potato crops Powdery Mildew

35  Transmitted by contact with fungal spores  Transmitted by air  Treated with antifungal agents in humans and animals  Treated with fungicides in plants

36  Malaria, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasmosis  African Sleeping Sickness  Amebic Dysentery

37  Transmitted by insect vectors  Tse Tse Fly  Malarial mosquito  Transmitted in contaminated water  Transmitted in contaminated food  Contamination with cysts from infested fecal material

38  Proper hand washing with soap  Boil water before drinking  Cook foods thoroughly  Prevent fly contamination of food  Drink only pasteurized beverages  Strict sanitation when working with lab animals

39  Drug treatments are available  Depending upon infestation, a sequential use of several drugs may be used.  Chlorine does not kill protozoans so heating water to 122°F is necessary

40  Prions are a caused by a yet to be determined transmission agent  cause abnormal folding of proteins in the brain which leads to brain damage

41  Mad Cow Disease – BSE  Scrapie  Chronic Wasting Disease  Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease  Kuru

42  The disease is always fatal. No known treatment is available.  Brain and spinal tissue is removed from slaughtered animals prior to butchering to prevent any possible contamination by prions.

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