Presentation on theme: "Invasive Diseases. Also known as Contagious Disease Communicable Disease Transmissible Disease Caused by a pathogen that causes disease Not."— Presentation transcript:
Plants People Animals Bacteria Other Single Celled-organisms
Transmitted by -Chewing Animals such as Insects -Sucking Insects such as Aphids -Fungi -Single-celled Organisms -People Through Tools or Hands -Generation to Generation Through Seeds and Pollen -Nematodes
Don’t infect humans or animals Reduce Yield Deform fruits and vegetables Plum Pox Virus in peaches Tomato Mosaic Virus in cucumbers
Once plants are infected with viruses little can be done. There is not effective treatment. The best control is prevention. Scientists are working on creating vaccines but they are in the early stages of research.
insect control removing weeds that may harbor viruses or their insect vectors grow from seeds for plants that transmit viruses through seed, use indexed seed discard all virus infected plants disinfect tools used for vegetative propagation
Transmitted Biting and/or Blood-sucking Insects Coughing Sneezing Fecal-oral Route Direct Blood to Blood Direct Body Fluids Sexual transmission
Some Viruses can infect a number of species Other Viruses are Species Specific Viruses can mutate new “strain” of a virus expand host populations alter transmission method Viruses need live tissue
Vaccines are used to create immunity to viruses Antivirals can now be used to treat some viruses Tamiflu Relenza Antibiotics DO NOT work on viruses!
Foot and Mouth Disease Hemorrhagic Fever Influenza (flu) Avian Influenza Herpes Viruses West Nile Virus Encephalitis Yellow Fever Influenza Virus
Distemper Rabies Measles Polio Chickenpox Smallpox Girl with Smallpox in Bangladesh in 1973
Live in every environment on earth Soil Fresh water Salt water Acidic hot springs On all surfaces In very inhospitable places Live in and on the human body Live in and on plants and animals
Very important in nutrient cycles Nitrogen fixation Decomposition Some bacteria beneficial Probiotics Fermented foods Cheese Yogurt Pickles Sourdough bread
Some bacteria live symbiotically Some bacteria harmful pathogens Most bacteria do not affect humans, plants or other animals Most bacteria have not been classified or studied
Exist virtually everywhere including in the air So transmission is possible by every means Bacterial can live for years in very inhospitable environments Spores in soil
Bacteria do not only cause disease in plants and animals Bacteria cause food spoilage Bacteria cause food-borne illnesses Food preservation and pasteurization techniques are used to prevent both
Live in or on a host and cause harm Nourishment Protection May be as small as a single cell Protozoa 1 to 2 micometers May be a large worm Helminths Just visible to naked eye to 2 meters long
May have a single permanent host Or many intermediary hosts In animals, often excreted in feces Infest animals and plants Humans Mammals Birds Insects
Transmitted from human to human Transmitted from animal to animal Transmitted from human to animal Transmitted from animal to human Transmitted from human to bird to mammal and back to human May be transmitted by insect vectors
Transmitted from fecal contamination Transmitted from direct blood contamination Transmitted by vectors
Found in food or water Cause foodborne illness Cause waterborne illness Can range from mild discomfort to debilitating illness or even death Transmitted primarily through fecal contamination
Proper hand washing with soap Drink either municipal treated water or boil water Cook foods thoroughly Do not swallow or breath in water when swimming Consume only pasteurized beverages Use gloves when handling uncooked meat, cat litter, gardening.
Transmitted by insect vectors Tse Tse Fly Malarial mosquito Transmitted in contaminated water Transmitted in contaminated food Contamination with cysts from infested fecal material
Proper hand washing with soap Boil water before drinking Cook foods thoroughly Prevent fly contamination of food Drink only pasteurized beverages Strict sanitation when working with lab animals
Drug treatments are available Depending upon infestation, a sequential use of several drugs may be used. Chlorine does not kill protozoans so heating water to 122°F is necessary
Prions are a caused by a yet to be determined transmission agent cause abnormal folding of proteins in the brain which leads to brain damage
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