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By: Jacob Pasley Dedicated to: Dr. Burke

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1 By: Jacob Pasley Dedicated to: Dr. Burke
Prokaryotes Play a crucial role in the biosphere (27-5) Prokaryotes have both beneficial and harmful effects on humans (27-6) By: Jacob Pasley Dedicated to: Dr. Burke

2 Prokaryotes Intro Singled cell organism Lack membrane bound nucleus
Two major classification domains: the bacteria and archaea Founds in all types of habitats Many create large colonies Reproduce through Asexual reproduction; typically by binary fission Involves horizontal gene transfer transfer of genes that is not typical reproduction Four main structures or shapes Cocci- spherical Bacilli- rod shaped Spirochaete- spiral-shaped Vibrio- comma shaped

3 Decomposers Organism(s) that break down other organisms; they are heterotrophic Heterotrophic- use organic substrates to get energy, carbon, and nutrients for processes and Breaks down cells Convert tissues into metabolically useful chemical products No need for internal digestion; thus no technical “stomach” Use dead organisms and non living organic compounds as a food source

4 Types of Decomposers Bacterial/Bacteria Fungi
Can break down mostly any type of organic matter 1 gram of soil contains 40 million bacterial cells More bacterial than plants or animals combined; large biomass Vital in recycling nutrients Used in nutrient cycle(s) Fungi Most grow in branching network(s) of hyphae Can penetrate large pieces of organic matter unlike bacteria Primary decomposers in the woods Releases enzymes that breakdowns decaying material Hyphae is used to breakdown matter and absorb corresponding nutrients When two fungi’s hyphae grow close to each other they fuse to form other fungi as well

5 Types of Decomposers (2)
Worms (contains slugs and snails) Can be considered decomposers and also scavengers A worm can remove the skin or various tissues to sped up decay Can expose the elements or to other decomposers Filers soil; filters out nutrients Video

6 Overall Importance of Decomposers
Decomposers help plants receive the nutrients necessary for vital life processes Dead waster would pile up and matter would not decay Assists with Nitrogen Fixation where atmospheric nitrogen is filtered into organic compounds (assisted, in part, by decomposers) Adds usable nitrogen

7 Types of Symbiosis Three types of Symbiosis Mutualism- both benefit
Commensalism- one benefits with little effect on the host Parasitism- one benefits at the coast of the host Means a relationship between 2 or more organisms

8 Symbiosis Video

9 Pathogens (Can) produce disease It means “Infectious Host”
Known as a microorganism (can include a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus) One of three P’s (predators, pathogens, and parasitoids) Beneficial in the sense that they can serve as biological controls and suppress various (arthropod) pest populations

10 Pathogenic Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes cause ½ of human disease This includes (famously) Lyme Disease Types Prior- infectious pathogens that do not include nucleic acids and abnormally folded proteins Viral Bacterial- often killed by antibiotics, though resistance is an issue Fungal- usually saprophytes; common cause of disease in crops and plants Other Parasites- such as protists and helminths However, can be used in healthcare in vaccinations as well Makes the immunity stay virulent against disease

11 Mutualistic Bacteria Mutualistic relationships exist between humans and bacteria. the human intestine and digestive systems contains up to 1,000 different species of bacteria 10 times more abundant than the total number of cells in the human body Benefits: bacteria can help digest (break down) food that the intestine can not efficiently digest Bacteria in the human digestive system (and other digestive systems) also contain genes associated with nutrients, vitamins, and carbohydrates (and synthesis processes)

12 Mutualistic Bacteria (2)
Gut (intestinal bacteria) sends signals that allows humans to produce antimicrobial compounds Probiotic- dietary supplement that contains live bacteria (ACTIVA) Most bacteria are beneficial Examples Lactobacillus reuteri- protects human(s) from the effect(s) of microbes, lowers cholesterol, and assists with the immune system Bacterial Flora- present in the human gut/ digestive system

13 Pathogenic Bacteria Examples
Cause bacterial infection Very few are pathogenic (infectious) Examples Tuberculosis- caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Kills 2 million people each year Pneumonia- caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas

14 Endotoxins A toxin that is present in the bacteria when a cell disintegrates Detailed by Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer In the cell, released only after the cell wall disintegrates Associated with lipopolysaccharide(s) and Gram-negative bacteria Some studies show endotoxins in the digestive system can cause obesity

15 Exotoxins Can cause damage to the host cell by destroying it or disrupting cellular metabolism May be released during the lysis of the cell Lysis- breaking down of the cell Can be destroyed by heating So toxic that it can kill the host before the immune system can respond A toxin that is released into the environment ***Note: both endotoxins and exotoxins are ways of enducing disease

16 Prokaryotes in Research
Have led to important advances in DNA research and technology Bioremediation The use of these organisms to remove pollutants from the environment Used for Mining Synthesis of vitamins Production of antibiotics, hormones, and other products ***Note: just and overview: video will provide further insight

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