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Pulse Disease Concerns in Montana Dr. Mary Burrows Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 406-994-7766.

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Presentation on theme: "Pulse Disease Concerns in Montana Dr. Mary Burrows Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 406-994-7766."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pulse Disease Concerns in Montana Dr. Mary Burrows Montana State University, Bozeman, MT

2 Top 4 tips for a healthy pulse crop 1.Start with high-germ, good quality seed of an adapted variety –Ascochyta blight, bacterial blight, Anthracnose, and viruses can come in on seed 2. Use a fungicide seed treatment –Damping off, root rots 3. Good crop rotation practices –Root rots and foliar diseases 4. Scout crop on a regular basis - Foliar diseases and abiotic issues

3 Ascochyta blight Three different species on Pea Ascochyta pisi, A. pinoides (Mycosphaerella pinoides), Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (formerly A. pinodella) Different species on Lentils and Chickpeas Lentil = Ascochyta lentis Chickpea = Ascochyta rabiei Spread by water splashing and wind 60 – 75 F, humidity and rain

4 Montana Ascochyta seed testing Action threshold = 0% chickpea, 0.7% pea, 2% lentil Where ‘action’ means seed treatment for ascochyta or not planting that seed Action threshold is based on relative resistance of the crop to the disease

5 Ascochyta blight symptoms: chickpea Leaf symptoms Pycnidia (fungal spore structures) Fungicide No fungicide Photo: Chengci Chen, Karnes Neill, MSU

6 Ascochyta blight symptoms: Pea, Lentil Photo: S. Markell, NDSU

7 Bacterial blight of Pea Psedomonas syringae pv. pisi Seedborne inoculum (persists 3 years) –Also residue- and soil-borne Local splash dispersal is the most important for spread Yield loss strongly correlated with leaf area loss No adapted cultivars with resistance

8 Bacterial blight of pea Angular lesions Watersoaking and ooze

9 Use a fungicide seed treatment Help manage root rots –For a few weeks Aid emergence and stand establishment Why is this important? –Disease likely occurs early, shows up later Protect against seed-borne diseases –Use Mertect/LSP against Ascochyta in chickpea; Dynasty (azoxystrobin) good for pea, lentil Ascochyta Photo: S. Markell, NDSU

10 Seed treatment trials Uniform pea seed treatment trials (ND, MT, WA) 6 locations, 2008; 2 locations, 2010 Low disease severity in general Agronomics were dependent on site and year –In Montana: Cruiser increased yield if there was pea weevil pressure No one seed treatment stood out as better than the rest Chickpea seed treatments, 2007 –Very wet site at Sidney, mefanoxam (metalaxyl) increased stands and yield in kabuli chickpeas - Pythium

11 Seed Treatment Will seed treatments always pay? NO Questions to ask: –How long have you been planting pulse crops? –What’s you’re rotation? –Do you have stand establishment problems? –Have you seen problems in your fields?

12 Seed Treatments Make sure your product has Fusarium and Rhizoc control (True Fungi) in addition to Pythium (metalaxyl/mefanoxam) Examples: ApronMaxx, Trilex AL, Acquire + Acronis 2009 ND field crop fungicide guide Product labels Use Mertect/LSP if you have Ascochyta in the seed; Dynasty will also work but only for pea and lentil (chickpea Ascochyta is resistant to strobilurins)

13 Good crop rotation practices 3-4 year rotation between legume crops is recommended for disease management Should reduce root pathogen population: particularly the Fusarium species that attack pea Will also reduce inoculum for foliar pathogens

14 Warm moist soil Distinct chocolate brown to dark red lesions Often seen in association with Fusarium Fusarium Rhizoctonia  Can be stress related  Common in drought years  Dry rot with indistinct brown lesions- occasional general browning  Few secondary roots

15 Photo: S. Mills, MSU Lentil with root rotHealthy lentil

16 Fusarium wilt of pea Resistant varieties Seed treatment Rotation Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. pisi

17 Scout crop on a regular basis Foliar diseases –Ascochyta blight –Powdery mildew Abiotic issues

18 Foliar Fungicides Serious disease = serious yield reductions –Fungicides can help prevent loss Fungicides will not always pay: beware the development of fungicide resistance! Scout for diseases Consider climate –Humid with rain in the forecast Early bloom is optimum time to spray Late-season fungicides will not penetrate thick powdery mildew (peas) – neither will dessicants

19 Fungicide Resistance in Chickpeas Fungicides Available before 2005 –Chlorothalonil – Protectant (Bravo) –2002: Azoxystrobin – QoI class (Quadris) –2003: Pyraclostrobin – QoI class (Headline) Initially, QoI’s very effective, so effective that… Growers were spraying multiple applications Resistance to Headline/Quadris identified in 2005 Widespread resistance in 2006

20 Ascochyta resistance to Headline/Quadris (strobilurins) Percent of Isolates From K. Wise

21 2007 Chickpea Fungicide Trial- Minot Yield lb/A From K. McKay

22 Ascochyta Blight in Chickpeas Ascochyta in chickpeas does not cause disease in lentils or peas Ascochyta population in chickpeas is resistant to strobilurin fungicides –Headline and Quadris ineffective Still the case Rotate chemicals –Bravo, Proline, Endura, Proline

23 Preventing/Managing Fungicide Resistance Rotate FRAC groups! Not product Follow the label –Use appropriate timing Don’t wait until epidemic is full force –Use appropriate rate –Use appropriate technique (nozzles, water, etc.) Tank mixes

24 Thank you Sam Markell, Rubella Goswami, NDSU Chengci Chen, Karnes Neill, Joyce Eckoff, Rachel Leisso, Ken Baker, MSU Northern Pulse Growers Association USDA-Cool Season Food Legume Program

25 ID#Treatment Name Stand Count (30 DAP, plants/ft 2 ) Root Rot Incidence Root Rot severity Yield (bu/A) 1 Untreated ab9 ab 12.9 a 2 Tops a7 ab 12.8 a 3 Trilex Concentrate a3 b 14.3 ab 4 Trilex Concentrate + Tops ab5 b 13.7 ab 5 Trilex Concentrate + Gaucho b5 b 15.1 b 6 Apron MAXX ab5 b 12.5 a 7 Cruiser MAXX ab5 b 15.7 b 8 Mertec ab4 b 13.9 ab 9 Acquire + Acronis ab9 ab 12.4 a 10 Tachigaren ab7 ab 12.7 a LSD(P=0.05)NS CV Moccasin, MT, 2008

26 ID#Treatment Name Stand Count (30 DAP, plants/ft 2 ) Root Rot Incidence (%) Root Rot Severity (% root) Yield (bu/A) 1 Untreated ab9 ab 12.3 ab 2 Tops a7 ab 10.4 a 3 Trilex Concentrate a3 b 11.1 ab 4 Trilex Concentrate + Tops ab5 b 13.9 bcd 5 Trilex Concentrate + Gaucho b5 b 12.7 ab 6 Apron MAXX ab5 b 15.9 cde 7 Cruiser MAXX ab5 b 14.1 bcd 8 Mertect ab4 b 16.6 de 9 Acquire + Acronis ab9 ab 18.1 e 10 Tachigaren ab7 ab 13.2 abc LSD(P=0.05)NS CV Sidney, MT, 2008

27 Moccassin, 2010

28 Over 80% isolates from ND Survey were Fusarium species In MT, small chickpea survey in 2007: Fusarium, Pythium causing damping off of seed Rhizoctonia can also be important Do all the Fusarium species cause disease, equally? What is causing our root rots?

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30 Distribution of fungal isolates in field peas in 2008

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