Presentation on theme: "Introduction: They are in the air we breathe... In our food... On our skin..."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction: They are in the air we breathe... In our food... On our skin...
-on everything we touch.
What are microorganisms? (also called microbes)
plants animals Microbes are small living plants or animals most of which are not visible to the naked eye. diseaseinfection Some microbes cause disease or infection. “good” organisms Many microbes are “good” organisms that help keep balance in the environment and the body.
What microbes lack in size, they make up in number. On the average human, there are about 100 trillion microbes.
Good vs. Bad Microorganisms: Microorganisms that cause disease (germs) are referred to as pathogens. Yeah, I’m bad.
Microorganisms that are harmless or beneficial are called nonpathogens.
Most microbes are considered beneficial or harmless. 87% beneficial organisms 10% opportunists Pathogens 3%
The role of good microorganisms Marine & freshwater microbes form the basis of the food chain in oceans, lakes, and rivers.
Soil microbes help break down wastes.
Humans and other animals depend on bacteria in their intestines for digestion and synthesis of vitamins including: vitamin B (for metabolism) vitamin K (for blood clotting)
Microorganisms have many commercial applications They are used in synthesis of chemical products such as: acetone enzymes alcohol organic acids many drugs
They are used in the food industry for producing: vinegar pickles cheese green olives alcoholic beverages yogurt bread
Aerobic organisms: Anaerobic organisms: Most microorganisms prefer warm, dark environments
Main Classes of Pathogenic Organisms: 1)Bacteria simple one-celled organisms At home within “climate” of human body compose largest group of pathogens 2)Fungi: yeasts & molds Plant-like organisms that live on dead organic matter Grow best in dark, damp places
3) Viruses - smallest microbes acellular particles (not a complete cell) 4) Protozoa one-celled animals often found in decayed materials & contaminated water 5) Helminths parasitic worms caused by larval & egg infestations
Impetigo highly contagious bacterial infection
Extensive case of impetigo on underarm of baby.
Fetal Tetanus (note severe muscle contractions) Due to toxin production as a result of bacterial infection.
Diphtheria Note swelling in neck
Cellulitis An acute bacterial inflammation of connective tissue.
Lyme's Disease hallmark “bulls-eye” lesion
Tiny deer tick vector that transmits lymes disease.
Candidiasis: Oral Thrush
Oral Thrush: tongue
Candidiasis of Skin Typical red, slightly most lesions.
Leishmaniasis (protozoan systemic disease) Severe nodular, disfiguring lesions transmitted by sand fly
Dracunculiasis (Fiery Dragon Worm) Found just under skin of human host. Causes blisters at site of infestation.
Ulceration from worm.
A fiery dragon worm emerges from leg.
Elphantiasis affecting left leg and genitals
Intestinal helminthes cause infestations in intestinal tract and abdominal organs such as the liver and spleen. Always in pairs.
Helminthes which have infested the liver. hepatomegaly and ascites
Intestinal Roundworms Mass of 800 worms removed from child’s ileum during autopsy
Loa Loa eye worm infestation in conjunctiva
Loa loa being extracted from under conjunctivia.
Hydatid cyst formed by tiny tapeworm that migrated to brain.
That’s all folks.
1. Hepatitis B 2. Hepatitis C 3. AIDS
virus that is spread through blood, serum and other body secretions. It affects the liver.
virus that is spread through blood. It affects the liver and can lead to destruction of the liver and eventually death. There is a 3 series vaccination that can help protect for getting the virus.
a virus that suppresses the immune system. People with AIDS cannot fight off infection that would not affect a healthy person. It is transmitted through blood and body secretions.
It is very important as a health care worker to take every precaution against contracted these viruses. Good hand washing, always wear gloves and other protective equipment, and use caution when drawing blood or giving injections, are just a few safety precautions
Summary Microbes are microscopic organisms About 100 trillion microbes live on the average human “Bad” microbes are pathogens About 3% of microorganisms are pathogenic Main classes of pathogenic microbes include: bacteria, fungi, viruses, protoza, & helminths
Causative agent: pathogen such as a bacteria or virus Reservoir: place for the causative agent (virus) to live. Such as the human body Fomites: objects that are contaminated with infectious material that contains pathogens (Examples: door knobs, bed pans, linens and specimen containers)
means the infection or the disease originates within the body (Examples: tumors, metabolic disorders, and congenital abnormalities
means the infection or disease originated from outside the body (Examples: radiation, chemical agents, trauma, and temperature extremes
Infection that is acquired by an individual in a health care facility such as a hospital or nursing facility. These infections are usually passed to the patient by the health care worker (Examples: staph infection, and pseudomonas)
Type of infection that occurs when the body’s defenses are weak. These diseases usually do not occur in healthy people (Examples: kaposi’s sarcoma, rare type of cancer or different types of pneumonia in people who have AIDS
Antisepsis: Prevent or inhibit growth of pathogenic organisms but are not effective against spores and viruses. Examples: Alcohol and betadine
Disinfection: process that destroys or kills pathogenic organisms. Not always effective against spores and viruses. Example: Chemical disinfectants
Sterilization: process that destroys all microorganisms, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic, including spores and viruses. Autoclave: is the most common piece of equipment used for sterilization