2One of the Major Diseases in Apples Apple Scab- Venturia inaequalis
3Apple Scab- Venturia inaequalis Pest MonitoringMonitoring the weatherAn apple scab forecasting model.Visual monitoring in autumnassessment of scab on fruitfor the following year prediction.
4Apple Scab- Monitoring, Forecasting Model Apple scab outbreaks can be predicted based on temperature and moisture conditions. The table below, derived from research by Mills and La Plante, gives hours needed at various temperatures under constantly wet conditions for primary spores (ascospores) to cause infection in spring.An electronic apple scab forecasting unit
5A Chart for Predicting the Occurrence of Apple Scab(Mills, N.Z) Hours of wetness required for infection during springDays untillesions appearHeavy infectionModerateinfectionLight infectionAveragetemperature (°C)-60403012291914102113158189261725.6
6Apple Scab - Implementation PreventionVarieties incorporating scab resistanceSanitationPruning and tree trainingLeaf raking and ureaControlFungicides - cover spraying
7Apple Scab – Prevention, Resistant Varieties Most currently available resistant varieties have a single gene that governs apple scab resistance. Apple scab fungus easily overcomes the resistance (similar to fungicide resistance). Failure of resistant varieties has already occurred at some locations in Europe and the U.S.
8Apple Scab Control- Fungicides Two Groups of Fungicides;ProtectantCurativeResistanceAmong all groups resistance had appeared in different degrees.
9Apple Scab Control- Fungicides Protectant Fungicides AdvantagesDisadvantagesDiseases are very slow to develop resistance to protectants.Effective against a range of diseases.On average, less expensive than curatives. •Superficial and can be washed off if rain falls within the ‘‑rain fast’ period.Kill many fungi, including beneficial micro-organisms
11Apple Scab Control- Fungicides Curative Fungicides AdvantagesDisadvantagesLess harmful than protectant fungicides to non-target fungi, including beneficial species.Provide longer crop protection during prolonged wet weather.Fungal pathogens will become resistant following repeated application.
13Fungicide Resistance Management The fungicides:Nova, Nustar, Inspire, Sovran, Flint, Pristine, Vangard and Scala are at risk for resistance.Note, Nova, Nustar and Inspire belong to the same class (sterol inhibitors).Sovran, Flint and Pristine belong to the same class (strobilurins)Vangard and Scala belong to the same class (anilinopyrimidine).
16One of the Major Diseases in Banana Panama Disease,Caused by Fusarium oxysporum
17Fusarium oxysporumStrains of F. oxysporum have been studied for more than 100 years.The host rangeof these fungi is extremely broad, and includes animals, ranging from arthropods to humans, as well as plants.Collectively, plant pathogenic F. oxysporum strains have a broad host range, but usually,only individual isolates cause disease on a narrow range of plant species.
18Panama Disease, Fusarium Wilt The pathogen is resistant to fungicide and cannot be controlled chemically.Panama disease is undoubtedly one of the most destructive plant diseases in modern timesIt can spread with soil and water movement, and with movement of infected planting material.
19SymptomsIt is a soil pathogen which infects the root system and goes on to colonise the plant through the vascular system – hyphae of the fungus can even reach the leaves.
20Panama disease is considered to be one of the most destructive diseases of banana. It can spread with soil and water movement, and with movement of infected planting material. It is a soil pathogen which infects the root system and goes on to colonise the plant through the vascular system – hyphae of the fungus can even reach the leaves. The disease cannot be controlled or cured other than by soil treatments, which unfortunately have such a detrimental effects on the environment that they are prohibited almost everywhere.
21Panama disease World Spread the disease was first reported in Australia in 1876.In the 1950s, Panama disease wiped out the Gros Michel banana, the dominant cultivar of bananas, inflicting enormous costs and forcing producers to switch to other, disease-resistant cultivars.Panama disease is now found in all banana-producing regions except islands in the South Pacific, the Mediterranean, Melanesia, and Somalia.
23Resistant VarietiesThe export banana industry was only saved by the introduction of the cultivar ‘Cavendish’ (AAA genome), which was resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. CubenseOutbreaks of the disease on ‘Cavendish’ in Australia, the Canary Islands, South Africa (Ploetz, 1990) and Southern Asia (O’Donnell et al., 1998) are threatening the continued use of this cultivar.Cavendish lacks genetic diversity, which makes it vulnerable to diseases.
24Since the 1990s a new strain of the Fusarium fungus – the so-called Tropical Race (TR) 4 – has occurred and spread, destroying ten thousands of hectares of plantations of Cavendish bananas.Farmers in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Australia are threatened in their business and livelihoods.
25Using IPM methods for the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 = FOC
26Managed ApplicationOne control method is to improve soil conditions because F. oxysporum spreads faster through soils that have high moisture and bad drainage
27IntercroppingIntercropping and rotating banana with Chinese chive can control Panama disease and increase cropland biodiversity.Antifungal volatiles released from Chinese chive help control Panama disease in bananaZhang H. et al. J.Chem. Ecol 2013 ole of plant volatiles.
28Biological Control Agents Pseudomonas fluorescensBacillus subtilisTrichoderma
29Pseudomonas fluorescens Pseudomonas fluorescens is one of the major fungal biocontrol agents found in the soil, water and the rhizosphere of various crop systems.It is an obligate aeroal, but certain strains are capable of using nitrate instead of oxygen. P. fluorescens strains which present biocontrol properties, protect the roots of some plant species against parasitic fungi such as Fusarium or Pythium, as well as some phytophagous nematodes.
30P. fluorescensTheories how the plant growth-promoting properties of P. fluorescens are achieved:1.The bacteria might induce systemic resistance in the host plant, so it can better resist attack by a true pathogen.2.The bacteria might outcompete other (pathogenic) soil microbes, giving a competitive advantage at scavenging for iron.3. The bacteria might produce compounds antagonistic to other soil microbes, such as phenazin, antibiotics type.
31Pseudomonas fluorescens Induced Enzymological Changes in Banana Roots T. Saravanan et al. 2004, Plant Pathology JournalPseudomonas fluorescens isolated from banana rhizosphere reduced the vascular discolouration associated with Fusarium wilt disease and induced the accumulation of resistance associated enzymes in roots.P. fluorescens treatment and challenge inoculation with the pathogen stimulated more enzymes accumulation in roots.Peroxidase (PO) is a multipurpose enzyme that catalyses the condensation of phenolics into lignin and play specific role in the hypersensitive containment of the pathogen.
33Bacillus subtilis A member of the genus Bacillus. B. subtilis has the ability to form a protective endosphore, allowing the organism to tolerate extreme environmental conditions.Although this species is commonly found in soil, more evidence suggests that B. subtilis is a normal gut commensal in humans.
34TrichodermaTrichoderma is a genus of fungi that is present in all soils, where they are the most prevalent cultivable fungi.Many species in this genus can be characterized as opportunistic avirulent plant symbionts.Several Trichoderma species have the ability to form mutualistic endophytic relationships with several plant species. The genomes of several Trichoderma species have been sequenced and are publicly availableTrichoderma colony in nature
35Induced Resistance /(SAR= Systemic Acquired Resistance ), in Banana Plants – with Pathogenic Strain of Fusarium oxysporum (Janki Thakker 2013 ISRN Biotechnology ) The present study strongly supports the view of preparation of plant vaccines for combating devastating disease like Fusarium wilt of banana.Dead pathogen preparation was not only successful in mounting defense response but also in protecting plants upon subsequent infections. Therefore, it could be potential candidate for plant vaccine preparation to combat panama disease.