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Triple Science Network Biotechnology. What is Biotechnology? Biotechnology uses biological processes to develop technologies and products that help improve.

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Presentation on theme: "Triple Science Network Biotechnology. What is Biotechnology? Biotechnology uses biological processes to develop technologies and products that help improve."— Presentation transcript:

1 Triple Science Network Biotechnology

2 What is Biotechnology? Biotechnology uses biological processes to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet.

3 Biotechnology and Food Production Age old technologies:

4 Biotechnology and Food Production Newer technologies: Production of “vegetarian cheese” using genetically modified micro- organisms to produce chymosin (rennet). Purple tomatoes – genetically modified to contain an antioxidant thought to help prevent cancer. Use of the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens to produce herbicide resistant crops. Genetically modifying crops using the Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium to produce insect-resistance. Production of a high protein food source from fungi – Mycoprotein.

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6 GCSE Biology unit 3 Mycoprotein

7 Which pairs of pictures go together and why? What is the connection between all 4 pictures?

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9 Fusarium venenatum is a type of fungus with a high protein content. It is grown in a fermentor to produce a food source – mycoprotein – also known as Quorn. Fusarium sporotrichoides is a type of fungal pathogen which was used to produce a biological weapon. The Soviets were accused of using this weapon, dubbed “yellow rain”, to cause over 6,000 deaths in Laos, Kampuchea, and Afghanistan between 1975 and 1981.

10 What’s in a name? Recap of Scientific Classification K Kingdom P Phylum C Class O Order F Family G Genus SSpecies Fungi Ascomycota Sordariomycetes Hypocreales Nectriaceae Fusarium F. venenetumF. sporotrichoides Food source! Biological weapon!

11 Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely found in soil and in association with plants. Most species are harmless. Some species produce mycotoxins in cereal crops that can affect human and animal health if they enter the food chain.

12 We only need to know about Fusarium venenatum and its role in producing mycoprotein! Alternative starter activity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYGrymywG5c

13 Research activity 1)What is mycoprotein? 2)What are the health benefits of eating mycoprotein? 3)What other benefits of mycoprotein are there? 4)How is mycoprotein produced? Teaching activities: Good discussion topic!

14 ___ Aerobic conditions The fermenter is sterilised and filled with a water and glucose solution. Then a batch of the fungi Fusarium is introduced Nutrients such as potassium and magnesium are added Temperature, pH, nutrient and O2 levels are continuously monitored The fungi and the nutrients combine to form mycoprotein solids which are removed continuously from the fermenter

15 Air lift or 'loop' fermenter Fermenter is 40 m high continuously runs for five to six weeks at a time. The fermenter then goes through a sterilization process for two weeks

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17 200’ high and 25’ in diameter. The photo above shows the fermenter being transported on vehicles with tank treads in 1978. The fermenter being raised into position at the ICI factory in Billingham. The largest fermenter in the world!

18 1,500m3 fermenter Animal Feed (Pruteen) Dismantled in 1988

19 Drug manufacture – Biologics, including monoclonal antibodies.

20 Fermenter at KSRC

21 Mycoprotein flow chart activity

22 Mycoprotein is made in 40 metre high fermenters Each fermenter is filled with a water and glucose solution. Next, a batch of Fusarium venenatum, the fungi that is the base for Mycoprotein, is introduced. Each fermenter is continuously run for five to six weeks at a time. The fermenter then goes through a sterilization process of two weeks. Once the organism starts to grow, a continuous feed of nutrients such as potassium, magnesium and phosphate are added to the solution. The pH balance, temperature, nutrient concentration and oxygen are all constantly adjusted to reach the optimum growth rate. The fungi uses the nutrients to grow and forms Mycoprotein solids, which are removed continuously from the fermenter after an average ‘residence time’ of five to six hours. 1 st 7 statements cover growth in the fermenter

23 Mycoprotein is made in 40 metre high fermenters Each fermenter is filled with a water and glucose solution. Next, a batch of Fusarium venenatum, the fungi that is the base for Mycoprotein, is introduced. Each fermenter is continuously run for five to six weeks at a time. The fermenter then goes through a sterilization process of two weeks. Once the organism starts to grow, a continuous feed of nutrients such as potassium, magnesium and phosphate are added to the solution. The pH balance, temperature, nutrient concentration and oxygen are all constantly adjusted to reach the optimum growth rate. The fungi uses the nutrients to grow and forms Mycoprotein solids, which are removed continuously from the fermenter after an average ‘residence time’ of five to six hours. 1 st 7 statements cover growth in the fermenter

24 After it is removed from the fermenter, the Mycoprotein is heated to 65°C. This breaks down most of the fungal nucleic acid, the level of which would otherwise exceed health and safety limits. Water is then removed in centrifuges, and the Mycoprotein left resembles a pasty dough and has a mushroom-like smell. Next, the Mycoprotein is mixed with a little free range egg and seasoning, to help bind the mix. It is then steam cooked for about 30 minutes and then chilled, before it is minced or chopped into pieces. The product is then frozen. This is a very important part of the process, as the ice crystals help to push the fibres together, creating bundles that give Mycoprotein its meat-like texture. The pieces and mince are then sold under the Quorn™ brand and in a wide range of other products. The next 6 statements cover processing after removal from the fermenter

25 After it is removed from the fermenter, the Mycoprotein is heated to 65°C. This breaks down most of the fungal nucleic acid, the level of which would otherwise exceed health and safety limits. Water is then removed in centrifuges, and the Mycoprotein left resembles a pasty dough and has a mushroom-like smell. →→ Next, the Mycoprotein is mixed with a little free range egg and seasoning, to help bind the mix. It is then steam cooked for about 30 minutes and then chilled, before it is minced or chopped into pieces. The product is then frozen. This is a very important part of the process, as the ice crystals help to push the fibres together, creating bundles that give Mycoprotein its meat-like texture. The pieces and mince are then sold under the Quorn™ brand and in a wide range of other products. →→ The next 6 statements cover processing after removal from the fermenter

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27 Producing mycoprotein using aseptic techniques http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AhdwpXzCrYc

28 Don’t do it this way with students!

29 Fusarium solani grown as a slope culture in a universal bottle

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34 Further practical work Provide students with samples of Quorn products so they can see the finished product. They can handle this, look at it under microscope etc. Food testing: students can carry out tests for fat and protein on the Quorn products to show these nutrients are present in mycoprotein.

35 Using the data above, explain why Quorn could be described as a healthier alternative to meat.

36 http://inasialearning.docebosaas.com/lms/ Free trial of Multimedia Science School

37 Thank you for attending Was this webinar useful? Please complete the poll. Any questions? Either type them into the chat box now, or email me: Sarah.Luckhurst@kent.gov.uk All resources will be published on our website: kentscienceresourcecentre.co.uk


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