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Ch. 22 Fungi By: Brianna Shields April 27, 2006 By: Brianna Shields April 27, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 22 Fungi By: Brianna Shields April 27, 2006 By: Brianna Shields April 27, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 22 Fungi By: Brianna Shields April 27, 2006 By: Brianna Shields April 27, 2006

2 DO NOW  1. To what domain do Eubacteria belong?  2. To what kingdom does algae belong?  3. To what “special group” or phylum witihin the animal kingdom do Sea Stars or Starfish belong?  1. To what domain do Eubacteria belong?  2. To what kingdom does algae belong?  3. To what “special group” or phylum witihin the animal kingdom do Sea Stars or Starfish belong?

3 GOAL  List the characteristics of the kingdom Fungi  Describe the structure of a typical fungus body  Identify how fungi obtain nutrients  Relate the way fungi obtain nutrients to their role in ecosystems  Distinguish the ways that fungi reproduce  Describe the characteristics used to classify fungi  List two commercial uses for fungi  Describe three phyla of fungi  Distinguish between life cycles of zygomycetes, ascomycetes and basidiomycetes  Describe the mushroom Amanita muscaria  Distinguish two symbiotic relationships that involve fungi  Summarize the ecological importance of mycorrhizae  Describe lichens  List the characteristics of the kingdom Fungi  Describe the structure of a typical fungus body  Identify how fungi obtain nutrients  Relate the way fungi obtain nutrients to their role in ecosystems  Distinguish the ways that fungi reproduce  Describe the characteristics used to classify fungi  List two commercial uses for fungi  Describe three phyla of fungi  Distinguish between life cycles of zygomycetes, ascomycetes and basidiomycetes  Describe the mushroom Amanita muscaria  Distinguish two symbiotic relationships that involve fungi  Summarize the ecological importance of mycorrhizae  Describe lichens

4 Fungi  Fungi  Immobile  Cell Wall- made of chitin  Heterotrophic- break down dead organisms  Obtain nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes  Resource recyclers  Some parasitic  Immobile  Cell Wall- made of chitin  Heterotrophic- break down dead organisms  Obtain nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes  Resource recyclers  Some parasitic

5 Fungi Bodies made of long, filamentous hyphae woven together –While growing, form tangled mass called mycelium Mitosis occurs inside nucleus (nuclear envelope never disintegrates)

6 Fungi  Where is Fungi found?  Where is fungi found?  Athlete ’ s foot  Yeast infections  Histoplasma capsulatum grows in bird and bat feces- spores inhaled by humans  Ringworm  Make bread and fruit undesirable  Attack paper, cardboard, cloth, paint, leather  Yeasts used in baking, brewing, winemaking  Flavor and aroma of cheese  Antibiotics such as penicillin  Where is fungi found?  Athlete ’ s foot  Yeast infections  Histoplasma capsulatum grows in bird and bat feces- spores inhaled by humans  Ringworm  Make bread and fruit undesirable  Attack paper, cardboard, cloth, paint, leather  Yeasts used in baking, brewing, winemaking  Flavor and aroma of cheese  Antibiotics such as penicillin

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8 Fungi Reproduction –Spores released from tips of hyphae –Air current carry spores great distances to new habitats Spores formed by mitosis asexually Sexual reprod- hyphae from two mating types fuse to produce spores

9 Assessment  Distinguish the characteristics of fungi from those of plants  Compare the characteristics of the mycelium with those of the reproductive structures  Summarize the way fungi obtain nutrients  Describe the role fungi play in the environment  Summarize the different ways that fungi can reproduce  Distinguish the characteristics of fungi from those of plants  Compare the characteristics of the mycelium with those of the reproductive structures  Summarize the way fungi obtain nutrients  Describe the role fungi play in the environment  Summarize the different ways that fungi can reproduce

10 Fungi  Fungal Reproducti on  Deuteromycetes  Asexual  Antibiotic penicillin  Cheese flavors  Aspergillus- ferments soy sauce, produces citric acid  Fungal skin diseases- athlete ’ s foot, ring worm  Deuteromycetes  Asexual  Antibiotic penicillin  Cheese flavors  Aspergillus- ferments soy sauce, produces citric acid  Fungal skin diseases- athlete ’ s foot, ring worm

11 Fungi Fungal Reproducti on Zygomycetes –Common black bread mold –Thick walled zygosporangia (sexual structures) –Live in soil and on decaying matter –Stolons- Mycelia growing on surface of bread –Rhizoids- hyphae anchoring fungus to bread –Usually asexual (spores)

12 Fungi Fungal Reproducti on Ascomycetes –Caused chestnut blight in 1890 –Flavorful morels and truffles –Ascus- saclike structure where spores are formed Form within hyphae of a cup shaped fruiting body Asexual usually

13 Fungi Fungal Reproducti on Ascomycetes- Yeast –Yeast- Saccharomyces Cerevisae Bread Alcoholic beverages (beer) –Yeast- Candida albicans Thrush- disease with white lesions in mouth – Asexual- budding

14 Fungi  Fungal Reproducti on  Basidiomycetes  Mushrooms, Toadstools, puffballs, jelly fungi, shelf fungi  Basidium- club shaped reproductive structure that releases spores  Sexual reproduction (rarely asexual)  Some deadly, some harmless  Amanita species, such as death angel and destroying angel are toxic to humans  Basidiomycetes  Mushrooms, Toadstools, puffballs, jelly fungi, shelf fungi  Basidium- club shaped reproductive structure that releases spores  Sexual reproduction (rarely asexual)  Some deadly, some harmless  Amanita species, such as death angel and destroying angel are toxic to humans

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16 Assessment  Summarize how fungi are classified  Describe the distinctive characteristics of the three phyla of fungi  Describe the structure of the mushroom  Summarize how fungi are classified  Describe the distinctive characteristics of the three phyla of fungi  Describe the structure of the mushroom

17 Fungi Symbiotic relationship s with fungi Mycorrhizae –Mutualism between fungi and vascular plant roots –Hyphae transfer minerals from soil to plant roots –Plant supplies fungus with carbohydrates –Usually seen as tangled mass around plant roots –May have allowed early plant to live on land in infertile soils –Aid growth of oaks, pines, beeches and willows –Help produce edible mushrooms and truffles

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19 Fungi  Symbiotic relationship s with fungi  Lichens  Mutualism between a fungus and algae or cyanobacterium  Producer provide carbohydrates  Fungus protects photosynthesizer from environment, and helps absorb mineral nutrients  Algae hides amongst fungi ’ s hyphae  Colonize harsh habitats  Desert  Arctic  Bare soil  Tree trunks  Sunbaked rocks  Lichens  Mutualism between a fungus and algae or cyanobacterium  Producer provide carbohydrates  Fungus protects photosynthesizer from environment, and helps absorb mineral nutrients  Algae hides amongst fungi ’ s hyphae  Colonize harsh habitats  Desert  Arctic  Bare soil  Tree trunks  Sunbaked rocks

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21 Fungi  Symbiotic relationship s with fungi  Lichens  First colonists during primary succession (break down rocks into minerals and soil)  Can fix nitrogen  Survive drought and freezing by becoming dormant  One of oldest living organisms on Earth  Can grow very slowly  Susceptible to chemical changes in environment- good indicators of pollution  Lichens  First colonists during primary succession (break down rocks into minerals and soil)  Can fix nitrogen  Survive drought and freezing by becoming dormant  One of oldest living organisms on Earth  Can grow very slowly  Susceptible to chemical changes in environment- good indicators of pollution

22 Assessment  Describe two types of symbioses that involve fungi  Explain how mycorrhizae are thought to have helped plants to colonize land  Identify the organisms found in lichens  Summarize how lichens promote the process of biological succession  Homework: Review sheets from Chapters to prepare for the Ch Test  Describe two types of symbioses that involve fungi  Explain how mycorrhizae are thought to have helped plants to colonize land  Identify the organisms found in lichens  Summarize how lichens promote the process of biological succession  Homework: Review sheets from Chapters to prepare for the Ch Test


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