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© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 1. Light H 2 O and minerals H2OH2O Sugar O2O2 CO 2 O2O2 2.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 1. Light H 2 O and minerals H2OH2O Sugar O2O2 CO 2 O2O2 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 1

2 Light H 2 O and minerals H2OH2O Sugar O2O2 CO 2 O2O2 2

3 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Shoot apical meristem Buds 34 21 42 29 16 11 19 27 32 24 40 28 15 10 23 31 18 13 26 22 12 17 25 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14 1 mm 3

4 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Apoplastic route Cell wall Symplastic route Transmembrane route Cytosol Key Plasmodesma Plasma membrane Apoplast Symplast 4

5 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. CYTOPLASM EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Proton pump Hydrogen ion Sucrose (neutral solute) Potassium ion Ion channel Nitrate (d) Ion channels (c) H  and cotransport of ions (b) H  and cotransport of neutral solutes (a) H  and membrane potential H  /sucrose cotransporter H  /NO 3 − cotransporter S NO 3 − KK KK KK KK KK KK KK HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH S S S S S HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH 5

6 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Plasmolyzed cell at osmotic equilibrium with its surroundings Turgid cell at osmotic equilibrium with its surroundings 0.4 M sucrose solution: (a) Initial conditions: cellular   environmental  −0.9 MPa   0 MPa   Initial flaccid cell: 0 MPa   0000  PSPS Pure water: (b) Initial conditions: cellular   environmental  −0.7 MPa   −0.7  PSPS −0.9  PSPS 0 −0.9 MPa   −0.9  PSPS 0 0 0.7  PSPS −0.7 6

7 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Turgid Wilted 7

8 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Technique Control: Solution containing all minerals Experimental: Solution without potassium 8

9 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 9

10 Nitrogen-deficient Potassium-deficient Phosphate-deficient Healthy 10

11 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Soil particle KK Root hair Cell wall Mg 2  KK HH HH KK Ca 2  H 2 O  CO 2 H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 −  11

12 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. ATMOSPHERE SOIL Nitrogen-fixing bacteria N2N2 N2N2 N2N2 NH 3 (ammonia) H  (from soil) Ammonifying bacteria Amino acids NH 4  (ammonium) NO 2 − (nitrite) Nitrifying bacteria NO 3 − (nitrate) Nitrifying bacteria Denitrifying bacteria Microbial decomposition Nitrate and nitrogenous organic compounds exported in xylem to shoot system NH 4  Root Proteins from humus (dead organic material) 12

13 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Roots Nodules 13

14 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Epidermis Cortex Epidermal cell Endodermis Mantle (fungal sheath) Mantle (fungal sheath) Fungal hyphae between cortical cells (LM) 50  m 1.5 mm (Colorized SEM) Epidermis Cortex Fungal vesicle Endodermis Cortical cell Casparian strip Plasma membrane Arbuscules (LM) 10  m Root hair Fungal hyphae (a) Ectomycorrhizae (b) Arbuscular mycorrhizae (endomycorrhizae) 14

15 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Experiment Results Invaded Uninvaded Sterilized invaded Sterilized uninvaded Soil type Invaded Uninvaded Soil type White ash Sugar maple Seedlings Red maple Mycorrhizal colonization (%) Increase in plant biomass (%) 300 200 100 0 30 20 10 0 40 15

16 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Staghorn fern, an epiphyte 16

17 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Parasitic plants Mistletoe, a photosynthetic parasite Dodder, a nonphoto- synthetic parasite (orange) Indian pipe, a nonphoto- synthetic parasite of mycorrhizae 17

18 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Carnivorous plants Pitcher plants Venus flytraps Sundew 18

19 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Apoplastic route Symplastic route Transmembrane route The endodermis: controlled entry to the vascular cylinder (stele) Apoplastic route Symplastic route Root hair Plasma membrane Epidermis Casparian strip Vascular cylinder (stele) Vessels (xylem) Cortex Endodermis Pathway along apoplast Transport in the xylem Casparian strip Pathway through symplast Endodermal cell 112245334554 19

20 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Xylem Microfibrils in cell wall of mesophyll cell Microfibril (cross section) Air-water interface Water film Cuticle Mesophyll Cuticle Stoma Air space Upper epidermis Lower epidermis 20

21 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Cohesion by hydrogen bonding Water molecule Cohesion and adhesion in the xylem Water uptake from soil Water Soil particle Root hair Cell wall Transpiration Xylem cells Water molecule Adhesion by hydrogen bonding Xylem sap Mesophyll cells Stoma Atmosphere Outside air  Water potential gradient Leaf  (air spaces) Trunk xylem  Leaf  (cell walls) Trunk xylem  Soil  −7.0 MPa −100.0 MPa   −1.0 MPa  −0.8 MPa  −0.6 MPa  −0.3 MPa  21

22 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Guard cells turgid/Stoma open KK Guard cells flaccid/Stoma closed H2OH2O Radially oriented cellulose microfibrils Cell wall Vacuole (a) Changes in guard cell shape and stomatal opening and closing (surface view) Guard cell (b) Role of potassium ions (K  ) in stomatal opening and closing H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O 22

23 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Old man cactus (Cephalocereus senilis) Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens) Oleander (Nerium oleander) Thick cuticle Upper epidermal tissue Stoma Lower epidermal tissue Crypt Trichomes (“hairs”) 100  m 23

24 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Apoplast Symplast Cell walls (apoplast) Plasmodesmata Mesophyll cell Plasma membrane Companion (transfer) cell Sieve-tube element Mesophyll cell Bundle- sheath cell Phloem parenchyma cell (a) Sucrose manufactured in mesophyll cells can travel via the symplast (blue arrows) to sieve-tube elements. (b) A chemiosmotic mechanism is responsible for the active transport of sucrose. High H  concentration Low H  concentration Proton pump Cotransporter Sucrose S S HH HH HH 24

25 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Loading of sugar H2OH2O Vessel (xylem) Source cell (leaf) Sieve tube (phloem) H2OH2O Sucrose Uptake of water Unloading of sugar Recycling of water Sink cell (storage root) H2OH2O Sucrose Bulk flow by negative pressure Bulk flow by positive pressure 1 1 2 2 3 4 3 4 25


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