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Protists and Fungi Chapter 21 & 22. Most diverse organisms Eukaryotic Mostly Unicellular Some multicellular Mostly Microscopic Asexual & Sexual Reproduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Protists and Fungi Chapter 21 & 22. Most diverse organisms Eukaryotic Mostly Unicellular Some multicellular Mostly Microscopic Asexual & Sexual Reproduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protists and Fungi Chapter 21 & 22

2 Most diverse organisms Eukaryotic Mostly Unicellular Some multicellular Mostly Microscopic Asexual & Sexual Reproduction Heterotrophic (must eat) or autotrophic (produce own food) Animal like - protozoans Plant like – algae – produce a large amount of worlds oxygen Kingdom Protista – Chapter 21

3 Structures Ectoplasm – thick cytoplasm Pellicle – hard outer covering Macronucleus and micronucleus Contractile vacuole for osmoregulation Trichocyst – for protection Gullet – food entry Eyespot – sensitive to light Chloroplast - photosynthesis

4 Besides a chloroplast, what protozoan structure would be necessary for a photosynthetic protist (also called algae)? eyespot

5 Protozoan Diversity Most species live in water Grouped by method of movement – Pseudopods – false feet; cytoplasmic extensions (amoebas) – Flagella – whip-like tail (Flagellates) – Cilia – small hairs (Ciliates) Reproduction methods – look over pgs. 462 & 463 – Asexual & Sexual

6 What common function do pseudopodia, cilia, and flagella share in protozoa? movement

7 How do multicellular algae differ from plants? they do not have roots, stems, or leaves

8 Amoebas - pseudopods

9 Paramecium - cilia

10 Trypanosomes - flagellates

11 Plasmodium spore formers

12 Algae: Green, Red & Brown Photosynthetic

13 Diatoms unicellular, photosynthetic unique double shells made of silica, move by gliding


15 Stentor

16 Vorticella- cilia

17 amoeba

18 euglena

19 paramecium

20 Protozoan Diseases Amoebic dysentery – Warm climates, poor sanitation – Live in and destroy intestines – Extreme diarrhea filled with pus and blood, liver and brain lesions

21 Plasmodium vivax – Malaria – In the saliva of the female anopheles mosquito – Shaking, chills, fever, jaundice (yellow skin), liver destruction, vomiting, seizures, blood in urine Based on: Scientific American, June 1978 Adult Female Mosquito Feeds on blood for protein to make eggs

22 Distribution of Malaria Based on: U.S. News & World Report, January 1997

23 Risk of Malaria: 1946, 1966 & 1994

24 Historic Efforts to Defeat Malaria Drained wetlands to reduce habitat for mosquito reproduction – But we lost important wetlands Control of mosquitoes using pesticides – But mosquitoes developed resistance Drugs (chloroquine) to protect humans against infection by Plasmodium – But Plasmodium developed resistance

25 Leishmania – Carried by sand flies, rodent reservoirs – Tropical disease – Severe skin lesions

26 Trypanosoma brucei – African Sleeping Sickness – Tse-tse fly, wild animal reservoirs – Necrosis (tissue death) of lymph tissue, nervous disorder

27 Overview of Kingdom Protista –Diversity – Most Diverse of all organisms –Live in moist or aquatic environments either free-living or parasitic –Mostly unicellular, but some like kelp are multicellular –Some are photosynthetic others heterotrophic –Asexual and Sexual Reproduction –Grouped by methods of locomotion –Can be fungi-like, plant-like or animal-like (protozoans) –1 st eukaryotic cells – these characteristics, which are found in many eukaryotes, first evolved in protist –Include: Algae, Amoebas, Diatoms, Dinoflagellates, Euglenas, Paramecium, Sporozoans

28 Fungus – Chapter 22 Eukaryotic Spores External digestion Live in or on the host Warm moist climates Functions: decomposition, food production, drug and antibiotic synthesis Oral or topical anti-fungals inhibit chitin formation Mostly a problem for immunocompromised

29 Fungal Structures Thallas – body Cell wall – made up of chitin Hyphae – separated by septa Mycelium - mass of hyphae Fragmentation – breaking off part


31 Fungal Digestion Use hyphae Release digestive enzymes Food is dissolved outside of fungi Absorbed by mycelium

32 Fungal Diseases Candida – Yeast infections – Normal flora, hospital pathogen – Head, hands, genitals and mouth (thrush) – White patches, itching, irritation, slimy layer, bread smell

33 They have a cell wall, which some antibiotics destroy. Why would antibiotics sometimes work on fungal infections?

34 Aspergillosis – Causes allergic reaction in body – Coughing up blood, weezing, weight loss – Affects immunocompromised – Fungal balls in the lungs, surgical removal – Dead leaves, compost piles

35 Tinea – Cutaneous mycosis – Ringworm, athletes foot – Red ring like rash, itching, peeling – Topical cream for most cases

36 Overview of Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic & Heterotrophic Contain chitin Obtain nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes and absorbing the decomposed nutrients from their environment Important resource recycler Most reproduce by releasing spores that are produced asexually and sexually Exhibit nuclear mitosis – nuclear envelop remains through mitosis Mostly multicellular,a few unicellular (yeast) Filamentous bodies Classified by reproductive structures Some are harmful Mutualistic relationships: Mycorrhiza – fungi & plant roots Lichens- fungus & photosynthetic partner Include: Mushrooms, Molds, Yeast

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