3 Bacterial Skin Infections Folliculitis Inflammation and infection of the hair follicle, can occur anywhere on skin“pimples”Almost always caused by S. Aureus which is always on the skin.Also called pustules.
4 Bacterial Skin Infections Folliculitis Sty = Infection at the base of the eyelidTreatment: warm moist compresses, daily cleansing
5 Bacterial Skin Infections Folliculitis Abscess: localized collection of pus in any tissue of the bodyEncapsulates- prevents the spread of bacteria into the blood, but prevents circulating antibiotics from reaching the abscessMust be lanced and drained.
6 Bacterial Skin Infection Scalded Skin Syndrome Caused by S. AureusBegins with a slight reddened area around the mouth24-48 hrs later see easily ruptured vesicles over the whole bodySkin PeelsHeals in 7 –10 daysCan lead to septicemia: infection of the blood = death.
7 Bacterial Skin Infection Boils and Carbuncles Inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands.Carbuncles are composite boils caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
8 Bacterial Skin Infection Scarlet Fever Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (also causes strep throat)Produces a red toxin that causes the scarlet rash.
9 Bacterial Skin Infection Impetigo Highly ContagiousPyoderma (pus producing skin infection)Transmitted by hands, toys, furniture, DAYCARESymptoms include pustules that rupture, producing a yellow crust over the lesionsTmt: washing, antibiotic ointment
10 Bacterial Skin Infection Acne Affects 80% of teens and adults.Primarily caused by male sex hormones which increase the size of the sebaceous glands.Microorganisms feed on the sebum
11 Bacterial Skin Infection Acne Cystic AcnePlugged ducts become inflamed and rupture.Bacteria will infect area and cause scarring.
12 Bacterial Skin Infection Acne BlackheadsMild form of acneHair follicles become plugged with sebum and keratin.
13 Bacterial Skin Infection Acne Treatment:Frequent cleansing of skin.Topical ointmentTetracyline (controls the bacterial infection)Accutane (inhibits sebum production)
14 MRSAMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: resistant to antibiotics commonly used to treat Staph infectionsAppearing in healthy people who share personal items such as athletes and students2005- MRSA deaths higher than those due to AIDSMRSA- humans have helped build resistance by: over-prescribing antibiotics, also in livestock (meat supply and groundwater)
15 Symptoms: small, red bumps, can cause deep abscesses or become blood borne (rash over body, chills, headache, joint pain)TMT: Vancomycin (expensive), some bacteria are developing a resistance to this
16 Prevention:do not share personal itemsfrequent hand washing or hand sanitizer (, alcohol works as sanitizer)do not overuse antibiotics
18 Viral Skin Disease Rubella Rubella = German Measles (3-day measles)Symptom: rash on trunk of body occurring days after infection, fever, chills, joint painVaccine since 1969
19 Viral skin Infection Rubeola Rubeola = MeaslesOne of most serious childhood diseasesImmunization since 1963, Koplik’s spots in mouthFever, runny nose, rash
20 Viral Skin Infection Chicken Pox Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus.Highly contagious: million + in US10-21 days after exposure, small irregular rose-colored lesions developCan be fatal: virus invades and damages cells that line the small blood vessels = clots. Also leads to pneumoniaVaccine since 1995
21 Viral Skin Infection Shingles Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus.Latent virus acquired during prior case of chicken pox.Virus hides in nerve cellsPain and prickling or the skin, mild itching to severe pain.Fever, headache, malaise
22 Viral Skin Infections Warts Warts = PapillomasCaused by HPVHuman Papilloma VirusInfection lasts a lifetime.Common warts: on hands and fingers, transmitted by fomites (inanimate objects) and scratchingDisappear spontaneously
23 Plantar warts: sole of feet, grows inward, cauliflower-like appearance, pain with walking -surgical removal
24 Genital warts: one of most common STDs, highly contagious, causes a higher incidence of cervical cancer
25 Viral Skin Infections Herpes Simplex HSV-1: Cold sores / fever blisters.Virus localizes in in a cutaneous nerve.Blisters itch and sting.
26 Herpes Simplex Type 2-genital herpes-can be sexually transmitted but not always, can get it from the lipsHSV-1 and HSV-2 cannot be separated clinically
27 Fungal InfectionsTinea: term used to identify a number of highly contagious fungal infections of skinAthletes FootRingwormCandidaMadura Foot
28 Fungal Infections Athletes Foot Tinea pedisDry, scaly lesions that result from fluid filled lesions on sweaty feet.skin cracks and a secondary skin infection results in soggy areas between toes.
37 Basal Cell Carcinoma Least malignant Most common Skin Cancer common in fair-skinned blondesCells of Stratum BasaleLesions occur on sun exposed area of faceShiny, dome shaped nodules develop a central ulcerFull cure in 99% cases
38 Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arises from cells in stratum spinosumScalp, ears, dorsum of hands, lower lipLess common, grows more rapidly, metastasizes to lymph if not removedSun inducedCure rate good if tx early.
39 Malignant Melanoma Cancer of melanocytes Only 5 % of skin cancer, but rising, more common in menDevelops wherever there is pigmentAppears spreading brown / black patchMetastasizes rapidly to surrounding blood vessels and lymph.Survival = 80%
40 ABCD Rule for Recognizing Melanoma A Asymmetry: 2 sides of mole do not matchB Border irregularity: borders not smooth butindented.C Color: pigmented spot contains areas ofdifferent color.D Diameter: spot larger than 6 mm