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Diseases of the Skin Diane Hannon Anatomy and Physiology.

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1 Diseases of the Skin Diane Hannon Anatomy and Physiology

2 Bacterial Skin Infections 1.Folliculitis: Pimple, Sty, Abscess 2.Scalded Skin Syndrome 3.Scarlet Fever 4.Impetigo 5.Acne 6.Boils and Carbuncles

3 Bacterial Skin Infections Folliculitis Inflammation and infection of the hair follicle, can occur anywhere on skin “pimples”  Almost always caused by S. Aureus which is always on the skin.  Also called pustules.

4 Bacterial Skin Infections Folliculitis Sty = Infection at the base of the eyelid Treatment: warm moist compresses, daily cleansing

5 Bacterial Skin Infections Folliculitis Abscess: localized collection of pus in any tissue of the body Encapsulates- prevents the spread of bacteria into the blood, but prevents circulating antibiotics from reaching the abscess Must be lanced and drained.

6 Bacterial Skin Infection Scalded Skin Syndrome Caused by S. Aureus Begins with a slight reddened area around the mouth hrs later see easily ruptured vesicles over the whole body Skin Peels Heals in 7 –10 days Can lead to septicemia: infection of the blood = death.

7 Bacterial Skin Infection Boils and Carbuncles Inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Carbuncles are composite boils caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

8 Bacterial Skin Infection Scarlet Fever Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (also causes strep throat) Produces a red toxin that causes the scarlet rash.

9 Bacterial Skin Infection Impetigo Highly Contagious Pyoderma (pus producing skin infection) Transmitted by hands, toys, furniture, DAYCARE Symptoms include pustules that rupture, producing a yellow crust over the lesions Tmt: washing, antibiotic ointment

10 Bacterial Skin Infection Acne Affects 80% of teens and adults. Primarily caused by male sex hormones which increase the size of the sebaceous glands. Microorganisms feed on the sebum

11 Bacterial Skin Infection Acne Cystic Acne Plugged ducts become inflamed and rupture. Bacteria will infect area and cause scarring.

12 Bacterial Skin Infection Acne Blackheads Mild form of acne Hair follicles become plugged with sebum and keratin.

13 Bacterial Skin Infection Acne Treatment: Frequent cleansing of skin. Topical ointment Tetracyline (controls the bacterial infection) Accutane (inhibits sebum production)

14 MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: resistant to antibiotics commonly used to treat Staph infections Appearing in healthy people who share personal items such as athletes and students MRSA deaths higher than those due to AIDS MRSA- humans have helped build resistance by: over-prescribing antibiotics, also in livestock (meat supply and groundwater)

15 Symptoms: small, red bumps, can cause deep abscesses or become blood borne (rash over body, chills, headache, joint pain) TMT: Vancomycin (expensive), some bacteria are developing a resistance to this

16 Prevention: do not share personal items frequent hand washing or hand sanitizer (, alcohol works as sanitizer) do not overuse antibiotics

17 Viral Skin Disease 1.Rubella 2.Rubeola 3.Chicken Pox and Shingles 4.Warts 5.Herpes Simplex

18 Viral Skin Disease Rubella Rubella = German Measles (3-day measles) Symptom: rash on trunk of body occurring days after infection, fever, chills, joint pain Vaccine since 1969

19 Viral skin Infection Rubeola Rubeola = Measles One of most serious childhood diseases Immunization since 1963, Koplik ’ s spots in mouth Fever, runny nose, rash

20 Viral Skin Infection Chicken Pox Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus. Highly contagious: 3 million + in US days after exposure, small irregular rose- colored lesions develop Can be fatal: virus invades and damages cells that line the small blood vessels = clots. Also leads to pneumonia Vaccine since 1995

21 Viral Skin Infection Shingles Caused by Varicella Zoster Virus. Latent virus acquired during prior case of chicken pox. Virus hides in nerve cells Pain and prickling or the skin, mild itching to severe pain. Fever, headache, malaise

22 Viral Skin Infections Warts Warts = Papillomas Caused by HPV Human Papilloma Virus Infection lasts a lifetime. Common warts: on hands and fingers, transmitted by fomites (inanimate objects) and scratching Disappear spontaneously

23 Plantar warts: sole of feet, grows inward, cauliflower-like appearance, pain with walking -surgical removal

24 Genital warts: one of most common STDs, highly contagious, causes a higher incidence of cervical cancer

25 Viral Skin Infections Herpes Simplex HSV-1: Cold sores / fever blisters. Virus localizes in in a cutaneous nerve. Blisters itch and sting.

26 Herpes Simplex Type 2 -genital herpes -can be sexually transmitted but not always, can get it from the lips HSV-1 and HSV-2 cannot be separated clinically

27 Fungal Infections Tinea: term used to identify a number of highly contagious fungal infections of skin Athletes Foot Ringworm Candida Madura Foot

28 Fungal Infections Athletes Foot Tinea pedis Dry, scaly lesions that result from fluid filled lesions on sweaty feet. skin cracks and a secondary skin infection results in soggy areas between toes.

29 Fungal Skin Infections Ringworm Highly Contagious Infects: –Body: Tinea corporis –Groin: Tinea cruris –Nails: Tinea unguium –Scalp: Tinea capitis –Beard: Tinea barbae

30 Jock itch

31 Tinea unguium

32 Tinea capitis


34 Fungal Infections Candidiasis Candida = yeast infection Thrush: milky patches of inflammation on oral mucous membranes Infants, diabetics, prolonged antibiotic users

35 Fungal Infections Madura Foot Occurs mainly in the tropics, enters body through breaks in skin. Causes massive enlargement of the foot Amputation may be necessary.

36 Cancers Basal Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Malignant Melanoma

37 Basal Cell Carcinoma Least malignant Most common Skin Cancer common in fair- skinned blondes Cells of Stratum Basale Lesions occur on sun exposed area of face Shiny, dome shaped nodules develop a central ulcer Full cure in 99% cases

38 Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arises from cells in stratum spinosum Scalp, ears, dorsum of hands, lower lip Less common, grows more rapidly, metastasizes to lymph if not removed Sun induced Cure rate good if tx early.

39 Malignant Melanoma Cancer of melanocytes Only 5 % of skin cancer, but rising, more common in men Develops wherever there is pigment Appears spreading brown / black patch Metastasizes rapidly to surrounding blood vessels and lymph. Survival = 80%

40 ABCD Rule for Recognizing Melanoma A Asymmetry: 2 sides of mole do not match B Border irregularity: borders not smooth but indented. C Color: pigmented spot contains areas of different color. D Diameter: spot larger than 6 mm

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