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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fungi Chapter 22 Table of Contents Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Section 2 Fungal Diversity Section 3 Fungal Partnerships

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Objectives List the characteristics of the kingdom Fungi. Describe the structure of a typical fungus body. Identify how fungi obtain nutrients. Relate the way fungi obtain nutrients to their role in ecosystems. Distinguish the ways that fungi reproduce. Chapter 22

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Kingdom Fungi Fungi have four major unique features: 1. Fungi are heterotrophic. 2. Fungi have filamentous bodies. 3. Fungal cells contain chitin, the tough polysaccharide found in the hard outer covering of insects. 4. Fungi exhibit nuclear mitosis. Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 22

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Fungi Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structures and Nutrients Structures All fungi except yeasts have bodies composed of slender filaments called hyphae. When hyphae grow, they branch and form a tangled mass called mycelium. Each hypha is a long string of cells divided by partial walls. Some species do not have walls between cells. Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 22

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Penicillium Mold Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 22

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Hyphae in Fungi Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 22

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Body Structure of Fungi Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structures and Nutrients, continued Nutrients All fungi obtain nutrients by secreting digestive enzymes that break down organic matter in their environment. Many fungi decompose nonliving organic matter, such as leaves, branches, dead animals, and waste. Other fungi, such as the fungus that causes ringworm, are parasites that absorb nutrients from living hosts. Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 22

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reproduction Fungi reproduce by releasing spores formed sexually or asexually in reproductive structures at the tips of hyphae. Fungal spores are so small and light that they remain suspended in the air for long periods of time; the wind can carry them great distances. Fungal spores are haploid. Most spores are formed by mitosis during asexual reproduction. Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 22

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Sexual Reproduction Section 1 Characteristics of Fungi Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Fungal Diversity Objectives Describe the characteristics used to classify fungi. List two commercial uses for fungi. Describe three phyla of fungi. Distinguish between the life cycles of zygomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes. Describe the mushroom Amanita muscaria. Chapter 22

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reproductive Structures Based on the types of structures produced during sexual reproduction, fungi can be classified in three phyla. Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reproductive Structures, continued Asexual Reproduction A fourth group, the deuteromycetes, is composed of fungi in which no sexual stage has been seen. Traditionally, this group has been called a phylum. Through the use of molecular techniques, scientists have reclassified most of these asexually reproducing organisms into the phylum Ascomycota. Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Fungi Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Zygomycetes Members of the phylum Zygomycota are named for the thick-walled sexual structures called zygosporangia that characterize these members. Zygomycetes usually live in the soil and feed on decaying plant and animal matter. The mycelia that grow along the surface of the decaying matter are called stolons. The hyphae that anchor the fungus to the decaying matter are called rhizoids. Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Life Cycle of Zygomycetes Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Asexual Reproduction in Zygomycetes Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Sexual Reproduction in Zygomycetes Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ascomycetes The ascomycetes are named for their characteristic sexual reproductive structure. The microscopic ascus is a saclike structure in which haploid spores are formed. Yeast is the common name given to unicellular ascomycetes. Most yeasts reproduce asexually by fission or budding. In budding, a small cell forms from a large cell and pinches itself off from the large cell. Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Life Cycle of Ascomycetes Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Asexual Reproduction in Ascomycetes Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Sexual Reproduction in Ascomycetes Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Basidiomycetes The kind of fungi with which you are probably most familiar—mushrooms—are members of the phylum Basidiomycota. The basidium is the club-shaped sexual reproductive structure for which the basidiomycetes are named. Asexual reproduction is rare among the basidiomycetes, except in some rusts and smuts. Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structure of a Mushroom Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Parts of a Mushroom Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Life Cycle of Basidiomycetes Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Sexual Reproduction in Basidiomycetes Section 2 Fungal Diversity Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Fungal Partnerships Objectives Distinguish two symbiotic relationships that involve fungi. Summarize the ecological importance of mycorrhizae. Describe lichens. Chapter 22

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Symbiosis Section 3 Fungal Partnerships Chapter 22 Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Symbiotic Relationships Mycorrhizae A mycorrhiza is a type of mutualistic relationship formed between fungi and vascular plant roots. The hyphae help transfer phosphorus and other minerals from the soil to the roots of the plant, while the plant supplies carbohydrates to the fungus. In the mycorrhizae of most species of plants, the hyphae penetrate the outer cells of the root. The fungus is usually a zygomycete. Section 3 Fungal Partnerships Chapter 22

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Symbiotic Relationships, continued Mycorrhizae In many plants, the mycorrhizae do not physically penetrate the plant root but instead wrap around it. These nonpenetrating mycorrhizae represent relationships in which a particular species of plant has become associated with a particular fungus, usually a basidiomycete. These kinds of mycorrhizae are important because they aid the growth of many commercially significant trees, such as pines, oaks, beeches, and willows. Section 3 Fungal Partnerships Chapter 22

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Symbiotic Relationships, continued Lichens A lichen is a symbiosis between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner such as a green alga, a cyanobacterium, or both. The photosynthetic partner provides carbohydrates. It is protected from the environment by the fungal partner, which helps it absorb mineral nutrients. In most lichens, the fungus is an ascomycete. Section 3 Fungal Partnerships Chapter 22

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Symbiotic Relationships, continued Lichens The tough construction of the fungus combined with the photosynthetic abilities of the alga, or cyanobacterium, has enabled lichens to colonize harsh habitats. Recall that during succession, lichens are often the first colonists. Lichens are able to survive drought and freezing by becoming dormant. When moisture and warmth return, lichens resume normal activities. Section 3 Fungal Partnerships Chapter 22

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice The chart below shows how the truffle harvest and oak forest area changed in one region over a 40-year period. Use the chart to answer questions 1–3. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 22

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.Which of these statements is supported by the data in the chart? A.The truffle harvest decreased constantly between 1950 and B.The truffle harvest decreased most rapidly between 1980 and C.The oak forest area decreased by 50 percent between 1955 and D.The oak forest covered 125 km 2 in Standardized Test Prep Chapter 22

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.Which of these statements is supported by the data in the chart? A.The truffle harvest decreased constantly between 1950 and B.The truffle harvest decreased most rapidly between 1980 and C.The oak forest area decreased by 50 percent between 1955 and D.The oak forest covered 125 km 2 in Standardized Test Prep Chapter 22

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2.Which inference drawn from these data is most likely to be correct? F.Truffles and oak trees are competing for resources in this region. G.Truffles grow better when the forest floor is not shaded by branches and leaves. H.Oak trees grow more slowly when there are many truffles in the forest. J.The presence of oak trees favors the growth of truffles in this region. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 22

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2.Which inference drawn from these data is most likely to be correct? F.Truffles and oak trees are competing for resources in this region. G.Truffles grow better when the forest floor is not shaded by branches and leaves. H.Oak trees grow more slowly when there are many truffles in the forest. J.The presence of oak trees favors the growth of truffles in this region. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 22

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.Truffles reproduce by producing A.asci. B.basidia. C.zygosporangia. D.buds. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 22

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.Truffles reproduce by producing A.asci. B.basidia. C.zygosporangia. D.buds. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 22


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