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Kingdom Fungi.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Fungi."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Fungi

2 The Characteristics of Fungi
Body form unicellular filamentous (tube-like strands called hypha (singular) or hyphae (plural) mycelium = aggregate of hyphae sclerotium = hardened mass of mycelium that generally serves as an overwintering stage. multicellular, such as mycelial cords, rhizomorphs, and fruit bodies (mushrooms)

3 fruiting bodies both are composed of hyphae mycelium

4 The Characteristics of Fungi
Heterotrophyic- 'other food' Saprophytes or saprobes - feed on dead tissues or organic waste (decomposers) Symbionts - mutually beneficial relationship between a fungus and another organism Parasites - feeding on living tissue of a host

5 Heterotrophic by Absorption
Fungi get carbon from organic sources Hyphal tips release enzymes Enzymatic breakdown of substrate Products diffuse back into hyphae Enzymatic breakdown Most enzyme release (and absorption) at tips Proteins and other materials synthesized by the entire mycelium are channeled by cytoplasmic streaming to the tips of the extending hyphae. Nucleus hangs back and “directs” Products Enzymes Product diffuses back into hypha and is used

6 Hyphae Tubular Hard wall of chitin
Crosswalls may form compartments (± cells) Multinucleate Grow at tips Chitin is the same material used by Arthropods (Insects, crabs, etc.) in their exoskeletonsa Nuclei of fungi are hard to see without stains

7 Hyphal growth Hyphae grow from their tips
Mycelium = extensive, feeding web of hyphae Mycelia are the ecologically active bodies of fungi This wall is rigid Only the tip wall is plastic and stretches

8 Modifications of hyphae

9 Fungi as Saprobes and Decomposers

10 Fungi as Symbionts (Mutualism)

11 Mycorrhizae “Fungus roots” Mutualism between: Several kinds
Fungus (nutrient & water uptake for plant) Plant (carbohydrate for fungus) Several kinds Zygomycota – hyphae invade root cells Ascomycota & Basidiomycota – hyphae invade root but don’t penetrate cells Extremely important ecological role of fungi! Half of the mushroom-forming fungi (basidiomycota) form mycorrhizas with trees Some people think that the spongy tissue in roots evolved as a place where fungi could invade to form early links with plants that helped them survive the harsh life on early earth

12 “Ecto” mycorrhizae Russula mushroom mycorrhizae on Western Hemlock root Mycorrhiza cross sections 4 of the regions where mycorrhizas are found are circled. These are “ecto” because the hyphae remain outside the root cells (though they extend inside the root) Fungal hyphae around root and between cells

13 Lichens “Mutualism” between Fungus – structure
Alga or cyanobacterium – provides food Three main types of lichens: Crustose lichens form flat crusty plates, e.g., on rocks Foliose lichens-leafy in appearance, although structures are not true leaves. Fruticose lichens-more finely branched and may hang down like beards from branches or grow up from the ground like tiny shrubs. Thallus is a plant-like body that doesn’t have roots, stems or leaves Thallus doesn’t look like either partner Dual nature of thalli was not fully understood until early 1900’s Fungus gives the name to the lichen (by agreement) Fungus usually, but not always, an Ascomycote (in 8+ independent orders) Algae green. If bluegreen bacteria present, lichens fix nitrogen (turn atmospheric nitrogen into amino acid nitrogen in proteins)

14 Lichen internal structure
Lichens are nature’s biological monitors of pollution and air quality Thalli act like sponges Some species more sensitive to pollution Which species are present can indicate air quality Most resistant species can also be analyzed for pollutants, including bioaccumulation of heavy metals and radioactive isotopes The nature of lichen symbiosis is may also be described as mutual exploitation instead of mutual benefit. Lichens live in environments where neither fungi nor algae could live alone. While the fungi do not not grow alone in the wild, some (but not all) lichen algae occur as free-living organisms. If cultured separately, the fungi do not produce lichen compounds and the algae do not “leak” carbohydrate from their cells. In some lichens, the fungus invades algal cells with haustoria and kills some of them, but not as fast as the algae replenish its numbers by reproduction. Lobaria oregana prefers old-growth conifer canopies in forests with clean air.

15 Fungi as Parasites & Pathogens

16 Fungi are Spore-ific!!! Spores - asexual (product of mitosis) or sexual (product of meiosis) in origin. Purpose of Spores Allows the fungus to move to new food source. Resistant stage-allows fungus to survive periods of adversity. Means of introducing new genetic combinations into a population

17 Reproduce by spores Spores are reproductive cells Formed:
Sexual (meiotic in origin) Asexual (mitotic in origin) Formed: Directly on hyphae Inside sporangia Fruiting bodies Fungi reproduce by releasing spores that are produced either sexually or asexually. The output of spores from one reproductive structure is enormous, with the number reaching into the trillions. Dispersed widely by wind or water, spores germinate to produce mycelia if they land in a moist place where there is food. Penicillium hyphae with conidia Pilobolus sporangia Amanita fruiting body

18 Hyphal growth from spore
germinating spore Fungal mycelia can be huge, but they usually escape notice because they are subterranean. One giant individual of Armillaria ostoyae in Oregon is 3.4 miles in diameter and covers 2,200 acres of forest, It is at least 2,400 years old, and weighs hundreds of tons. (Actually noone has seen this of this extent – but cultures have been taken from soil over that area and all isolates have been found to be the same individual) Ten cubic centimeters of rich organic soil may have fungal hyphae with a surface area of over 300 cm2 mycelium Mycelia have a huge surface area

19 The Characteristics of Fungi
Fungus is often hidden from view. It grows through its food source (substratum), excretes extracellular digestive enzymes, and absorbs dissolved food. Indeterminate clonal growth. Vegetative phase of fungus is generally sedentary.

20 The Characteristics of Fungi
Cell wall present, composed of cellulose and/or chitin. Food storage - generally in the form of lipids and glycogen. Eukaryotes - true nucleus and other organelles present. All fungi require water and oxygen (no obligate anaerobes). Fungi grow in almost every habitat imaginable, as long as there is some type of organic matter present and the environment is not too extreme. Diverse group, number of described species is somewhere between 69,000 to 100,000 (of the estimated 1.5 million species total).

21 Generalized Life Cycle of a Fungus

22 Molecular studies indicate that animals, not plants, are the closest relatives of fungi.
Both Animals and Fungi are related most closely to a group of Protists known as the choanoflagellates (collar flagellates) Kingdom began in ocean during Precambrian (Late Proterozoic era) More than 100,000 species of fungi are known and mycologists estimate that there are actually about 1.5 million species worldwide. Evolution of the fungi

23 Classification & Phylogeny
asci basidia The phyla of fungi are determined by 1. motility of spores 2. nature of sexual stage Fungi moved onto land with the plants in the Early Paleozoic Much of the evolution of fungi was in conjunction with the evolution of plants and plant parts For example, when roots evolved, fungi were there and helped (mycorrhizas) When wood evolved, fungi evolved to take advantage of it Other evolutionary changes related to animals zygosporangia Classification & Phylogeny motile spores

24 Chytridiomycota – “chytrids”
Simple fungi Produce motile spores - zoospores Mostly saprobes and parasites in aquatic habitats, e.g. those devastating amphibian populations Could just as well be Protists Chytridium growing on spores Classified in CMR as true fungi (because of their molecular relationships) Remainder of the phyla are almost exclusively terrestrial (a few molds on wet plant material) Chytriomyces on pine pollen

25 Zygomycota – “zygote fungi”
Sexual - zygosporangia Asexual – common (sporangia – bags of asexual spores) Hyphae have no cross walls Grow rapidly Decomposers, pathogens, and some form mycorrhizal associations with plants Rhizopus on strawberries Most of the 600 zygomycote, or zygote fungi, are terrestrial, living in soil or on decaying plant and animal material. Asexual reproduction in sporangia One zygomycote group form mycorrhizas, mutualistic associations with the roots of plants. Rhinocerebral zygomycosis

26 Sexual zygsporangium with one zygospore
Asexual sporangium with spores inside Life cycle of Rhizopus, a saporobe that may be opportunistically infectious in humans

27 Ascomycota – “sac fungi”
Sexual reproduction – ascus (asci) Asexual – common Cup fungi, morels, truffles Important plant parasites & saprobes Yeast - Saccharomyces Decomposers, pathogens, and found in most lichens Mycologists have described over 60,000 species of ascomycetes, or sac fungi. Ascomycota tend to grow from spore to spore in one year and relate well to living plant tissues There is diverse form in the growth and fruiting structures – yeasts to morels, many intermediate (and small) Asexual reproduction by conidia (externally produced, not in sporangia) Half of the Ascomycota form lichens (evolved 8 or more times in different orders) but not all lichens are Ascomycotes A cluster of asci with spores

28 Sac fungi diversity This begins the first of several photographic reviews of fungal diversity. Enjoy the pictures and try and get a feeling of some of the different forms these fungi take and their roles in the environment.

29 Basidiomycota – “club fungi”
Sexual reproduction – basidia Asexual – not so common Long-lived dikaryotic mycelia Rusts & smuts –plant parasites Mushrooms, polypores, puffballs, boletes, bird’s nest fungi Enzymes decompose wood, leaves, and other organic materials Decomposers, pathogens, and some form mycorrhizal associations with plants Asexual spores conidia Ecologically important on wood as decomposers and parasites Half the mushrooms form mycorrhizas SEM of basidia and spores

30 Mushroom Life Cycle haploid mycelium N 2N N+N Meiosis
mycelium and fruiting body are dikaryotic Hyphal fusion of haploid mycelia haploid mycelium Mushroom Life Cycle N N N+N Meiosis Nuclear fusion in basidium young basidia - the only diploid cells

31 Bioluminescence in Mycena

32 Some fungi have more than one scientific name – Why?
Teleomorph: the sexual reproductive stage (morph), typically a fruiting body (e.g., Morchella esculenta, Agaricus brunescens). Anamorph: an asexual reproductive stage (morph), often mold-like (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani). When a single fungus produces multiple morphologically distinct anamorphs, they are called synanamorphs. Holomorph: the whole fungus, including all anamorphs and the teleomorph.

33 Deuteromycota – Form Phylum “Imperfect Fungi”
Fungi that seldom or never reproduce sexually. Asexual reproduction by vegetative growth and production of asexual spores common.

34 Yeasts Single celled fungi Adapted to liquids Plant saps Water films
Moist animal tissues Bread and wine yeast, the budding yeast, Saccharomyces Easily cultured. For a time, this was the most important organism for studying the molecular genetics of eukaryotes Thus, Saccharomyces is arguably the most important organism known to humans Candida causes diseases of humans, usually experiencing chemical imbalance or immune problems Candida Saccharomyces

35 Molds Rapidly growth Asexual spores Many human importances
Food spoilage Food products Antibiotics, etc. A mold is a rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungus. The mycelia of these fungi grow as saprobes or parasites on a variety of substrates. Also used in foods (Blue cheese, Tempeh) and in industrial production of drugs Early in life, a mold, a term that applies properly only to the asexual stage, produces asexual spores. Later, the same fungus may reproduce sexually, producing zygosporangia, ascocarps, or basidiocarps Some molds go through a “fake sex” process Noble Rot - Botrytis Antibiotic activity

Beneficial Effects of Fungi Decomposition - nutrient and carbon recycling Biosynthetic factories. Can be used to produce drugs, antibiotics, alcohol, acids, food (e.g., fermented products, mushrooms) Model organisms for biochemical and genetic studies Harmful Effects of Fungi Destruction of food, lumber, paper, and cloth Animal and human diseases, including allergies Toxins produced by poisonous mushrooms and within food (e.g., grain, cheese, etc.) Plant diseases.

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