Presentation on theme: "Mycology Review: Identification of Common Dermatophytes"— Presentation transcript:
1Mycology Review: Identification of Common Dermatophytes Sandy Arduin, MT (ASCP)Bruce Palma, MT (ASCP)Mycology UnitBureau of LaboratoriesMichigan Department of Community HealthThis project was supported in part by Grant/Cooperative Agreement NumberU10/CCU from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Its contents are solely the responsibility of Michigan Department of Community Health and do not necessarily represent the official views of CDC
3Index Trichophyton rubrum Trichophyton mentagrophytes Hair Perforation TestTrichophyton tonsuransTrichophyton verrucosumTrichophyton terrestreEpidermophyton floccosumMicrosporum canisMicrosporum gypseumMicrosporum nanumDifferentiation TableTest Your KnowledgeUnknown 1Unknown 2Unknown 3Unknown 4Unknown 5Unknown 6Double click on any of the words listed above to go directly to the slide on that organism.To return to the index, click on the home button.To return to the last slide viewed, click on the return button.You must be in slide show mode to use these functions.Macroscopic colony morphology descriptions are based on cultures grown on SAB agar.Colony morphology may vary on other culture media.
4Trichophyton rubrumColony growth is slow to moderate, downy, white on the surface with a red to brown reverse.Microconidia are club-shaped to pyriform and are formed along the sides of the hyphae.Macroconidia are pencil-shaped to cigar-shaped.Lab tests: hair perforation test negative, urease negative, growth at 37°C.Infection is typically found on the feet, hands, nails, or groin.
5Trichophyton mentagrophytes Colony growth is moderately rapid, powdery to granular, white to cream colored on the surface with a yellowish, brown or red-brown reverse.Microconidia are numerous, unicellular, round to pyriform and found in grape like clusters. Spiral hyphae are often present.Macroconidia are multiseptate, club- shaped and often absent.Lab tests: hair perforation test positive, urease positive, growth at 37°C.Infection is typically found on the feet, hands, or groin, but can also be associated with inflammatory lesions of the scalp, nails, and beard.
6Hair Perforation TestPerforationsTrichophyton mentagrophytes, Hair perforation test is positive.Trichophyton rubrum, Hair perforation test is negative.
7Trichophyton tonsurans Colony growth is slow, suede-like to powdery, white, beige, pale yellow to sulphur yellow on the surface with a yellow to dark brown reverse.Microconidia are numerous, varying in shape and size (pyriform, club-shaped to balloon- shaped).Macroconidia are rare. When present they are sinuous with smooth walls.Lab tests: hair perforation test typically negative, urease positive, growth at 37°C. Growth is enhanced on thiamine.Infections are primarily of the scalp. Occasionally the glabrous skin or nails are infected.
8Trichophyton verrucosum Colony growth is very slow, glabrous to lightly downy, white, sometimes yellow or grey on the surface without any characteristic pigment on the reverse.Microconidia are club-shaped, but are rare or absent. Typically, chlamydospores in chains are seen.Macroconidia have a “rat tail” appearance, but are rarely seen.Lab tests: hair perforation test negative, urease negative, growth at 37°C. Growth is enhanced on media with thiamine and inositol, and is more rapid at 37ºC than at 25ºC.Infection is more common on cattle or other farm animals. Infection in humans is typically found on the scalp, beard or glabrous skin.
9Trichophyton terrestre Colony growth is rapid, powdery to velvety, white to cream on the surface with a pale, slightly yellow reverse. Occasionally, isolates may have a pink, red-brown, or wine-colored reverse.Microconidia are numerous, club-shaped, with a squared-off base, often borne on short pedicels.Macroconidia are 2-8 celled and generally borne at right angles to the hyphae.Lab tests: hair perforation test positive, urease positive and will not grow at 37°C.This is a geophilic fungus, very common in soil. It can also be isolated from the fur of small mammals.
10Epidermophyton floccosum Colony growth is slow, powdery, with a yellow to khaki surface color and chamois to brown reverse.Macroconidia are club shaped, with thin smooth walls and can be solitary or grouped in clusters. Chlamydospores are often produced in large numbers.Microconidia are absent.Lab tests: hair perforation test negative, urease positive, growth at 37°C.Infections are commonly cutaneous, especially of the groin or feet.
11Microsporum canisColony growth is rapid, downy to wooly, cream to yellow on the surface with a yellow to yellow- orange reverse.Microconidia are club-shaped but typically are absent.Macroconidia are fusoid, verrucose, and thick walled. They have a recurved apex and contain 5-15 cells.Lab tests: hair perforation test positive and urease positive.Infection in humans occurs on the scalp and glabrous skin. It is also a cause of ringworm in cats and dogs.
12Microsporum gypseumColony growth is rapid, downy, becoming powdery to granular, cream, tawny-buff, or pale cinnamon on the surface with a beige to red-brown reverse.Microconidia are moderately abundant and club-shaped.Macroconidia are abundant, ellipsoidal to fusiform, sometimes verrucose, and thin walled. They typically contain 3-6 cells.Lab tests: hair perforation test positive and urease positive.Infection in humans is found on the scalp and glabrous skin; it is more frequently isolated from the soil and from the fur of small rodents.
13Microsporum nanumColony growth is rapid, downy to powdery, white to buff on the surface, with a red-brown reverse.Microconidia, if present, occur in small numbers.Macroconidia are numerous, 1-3 celled, and have a characteristic pear or egg shape. Typically macroconidia are 2 celled. Conidia are solitary on the ends of short conidiophores.Lab tests: hair perforation test positive and urease positive.Infection is rarely transmitted to humans; it is the principal cause of tinea in pigs.
14Dermatophyte Differentiation Table: Hair Perforation TestUrease TestGrowth at 37°CMacro-conidiaMicro-conidiaDistinguishing CharacteristicsTrichophyton rubrumNegativePositivePencil shaped/cigar shapedClub shaped to pyriform, along the sides of the hyphaeRed reverse pigmentHair perf. test neg.Club shaped microconidiaTrichophyton mentagrophytesClub shaped when presentNumerousUnicellular to round in grape like clustersRound microconidia in grape like clusters Spiral hyphaeTrichophyton tonsuransUsually (-)Occasionally +Cylindrical to cigar shaped and sinuous, if presentNumerous, varying in shape and size, club shaped to balloon shapedMicroconidia varying in shape and sizeGrowth enhanced by thiamineTrichophyton verrucosum“Rat-tailed” if presentRare or AbsentChlamydospores in chains typically seenChlamydospores in chainsGrowth better on media with thiamine and inositolTrichophyton terrestre2-8 celled borne at right angles to hyphaeClub shaped with squared-off base on pedicelsMicroconidia with squared-off base on short pedicelsEpidermophyton floccosumClub shaped, often in clustersAbsentKhaki colored colony with brown reverseMicroconidia absentMicrosporumcanisNAFusoid, thick, rough walled with recurved apexTypically absentClub shaped if presentFusoid, rough walled macroconidia with recurved apexMicrosporum gypseumEllipsoidal to fusiform, thin, Rough walledModerately abundant Club shapedThin walled macroconidiaTawny-buff granular colonyMicrosporum nanumTypically 2 celled Pear or egg shapedRough walledClavate when present2 celled pear shaped macroconidia
15Each unknown slide has the following navigation buttons to help you: Test Your KnowledgeEach unknown slide has the following navigation buttons to help you:View dermatophyte differentiation tableView index slideReturn to previously viewed slideView correct answerAnswer
16Unknown 1Colony growth is rapid, downy to wooly, cream to yellow on the surface with a yellow to yellow- orange reverse.Answer
17Unknown 2Colony growth is moderately rapid, powdery to granular, white to cream colored on the surface with a yellowish, brown or red-brown reverse.Answer
18Unknown 3Colony growth is rapid, downy to powdery, white to buff on the surface, with a red-brown reverse.Answer
19Unknown 4Colony growth is very slow, glabrous to lightly downy, white, sometimes yellow or grey on the surface without any characteristic pigment on the reverse.Growth is enhanced on media with thiamine and inositol, and is more rapid at 37ºC than at 25ºC.Answer
20Unknown 5Colony growth is slow to moderate, downy, white on the surface with a red to brown reverse.Answer
21Unknown 6Colony growth is rapid, downy, becoming powdery to granular, cream, tawny-buff, or pale cinnamon on the surface with a beige to red-brown reverse.Answer
22GlossaryAnthropophilic A fungus (dermatophyte) which grows preferentially on humans, rather than on animals or in soil.Clavate Club-shaped.Conidium A unicellular or multicellular fungal element which serves as an asexual reproductive structure.Dermatophyte A mould belonging to the genera: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton; typically infecting skin, hair and nails.Fusoid Spindle shaped; ellipsoidal with two tapered ends.Glabrous Smooth, lacking hairs.Geophilic A fungus (dermatophyte) which grows preferentially on substrates found in the soil, rather than on animals or humans.Macroconidia The larger of two types of conidia produced by the same fungus. May be multicellular.Microconidia The smaller of two types of conidia produced by the same fungus. Typically unicellular.Onychomycosis Fungal infection of the nails.Spiral hyphae Hyphae curved into a spiral. Typically seen in Trichophyton mentagrophytes, but may be seen in other dermatophytes as wellVerrucose Having many wartsZoophilic A fungus (dermatophyte) which grows preferentially on animals, rather than on humans or in soil.
23Bibliographyde Hoog, G.S., Guarro, J., Figueras, Gene & M.J Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd ed. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures. Utrecht, The Netherlands.Benecke, E.S., and Rogers, A.L Medical Mycology and Human Mycoses. Star Publishing Company, Belmont, California.Kane, Julius, Summerbell, Richard, Sigler, Lynn, Krajden, Sigmund, and Land, Geoffrey Laboratory Handbook of Dermatophytes. Star Publishing Co., Belmont, CA.Larone, Davise H Medically Important Fungi, A Guide to Identification, 3rd ed., ASM Press, Washington, D.C.McGinnis, M.R Laboratory Handbook of Medical Mycology, Academic Press, New York, New York.McGinnis, M.R., D'Amato, RF., Land, GA Pictorial Handbook of Medically Important Fungi and Aerobic Actinomycetes. Praeger Publishing.Murray, P.R., Brown, E.J., Pfallen, M.A., Tenover, F.C., Yolken, R.H., Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th Edition, ASM Press, Washington, D.C.Rebell, Gerbert, Taplin, David Dermatophytes, Their Recognition and Identification. University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida.Rippon, J.W., Medical Mycology The Pathogenic Fungi and The Pathogenic Actinomycetes. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.St-Germain, G., Summerbell, R Identifying Filamentous Fungi, Star Publishing Company. Belmont, CA.