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EFFICIENCY OF SOME LOCAL PLANTS ESSENTIAL OIL AGAINST SEED-BORNE AND SEED TRANSMITED FUNGI OF RICE KABORE K.B 1. ; KOÏTA E 1. ; OUEDRAOGO I 1. et NEBIE.

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Presentation on theme: "EFFICIENCY OF SOME LOCAL PLANTS ESSENTIAL OIL AGAINST SEED-BORNE AND SEED TRANSMITED FUNGI OF RICE KABORE K.B 1. ; KOÏTA E 1. ; OUEDRAOGO I 1. et NEBIE."— Presentation transcript:

1 EFFICIENCY OF SOME LOCAL PLANTS ESSENTIAL OIL AGAINST SEED-BORNE AND SEED TRANSMITED FUNGI OF RICE KABORE K.B 1. ; KOÏTA E 1. ; OUEDRAOGO I 1. et NEBIE R 2. (1) Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles (INERA) (2) Institut de Recherche en Sciences Appliquées et Technologies ; Département Substances Naturelles (IRSAT) Burkina Faso

2 HEADLINES IntroductionIntroduction ObjectivesObjectives Materials and MethodsMaterials and Methods ResultsResults DiscussionDiscussion Conclusions and PerspectivesConclusions and Perspectives AknowledgementAknowledgement

3 INTRODUCTION Importance of rice as food crop Biotic Constraints to productionBiotic Constraints to production – Seed-borne fungi as major mean of rice diseases transmission and dissemination. Increasing dependance of rice roduction upon the use of conventionnal pesticides.Increasing dependance of rice roduction upon the use of conventionnal pesticides. –Negative impact on Environment and health Need in research of alternate biopesticidesNeed in research of alternate biopesticides –Research Hypotheses : Some traditionnal local plant species used as medical substances could have fungicide properties ( Kaboré et al.,2002)

4 OBJECTIVES OVERALL OBJECTIVEOVERALL OBJECTIVE –Identify local plant species with bio pesticides properties that can be used in agriculture. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESSPECIFIC OBJECTIVES –Identify local plant species with essential oil presenting fongicide properties; –Determine efficient level of application of essential oil for rice seed treatment against fungal mycoflor.

5 MATERIAL AND METHODS (contd) local plants species used for study:local plants species used for study: –Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf. Common french name : citronnelle (Poaceae ); –Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov ( Poaceae ); –Lippia multiflora Moldenke, (Verbenaceae) Common french name : thé de Gambie ; – Ocimum basilicum L, (Lamiaceae).

6 MATERIAL AND METHODES Rice variety used : IR6623275-5-12Rice variety used : IR6623275-5-12 Seed-borne fungi and their contamination level (%) :Seed-borne fungi and their contamination level (%) : –Bipolaris oryzae = 28,5 –Curvularia oryzae = 11,5 –Curvularia lunata = 13,5 –Fusarium moniliforme = 48,5 –Phoma sorghina = 19,5

7 Cymbopogon citratus

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10 MATERIAL AND METHODS (contd) Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus from fresh leaves collected from the different species during rainy season 2004.Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus from fresh leaves collected from the different species during rainy season 2004. Essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. et Lippia multiflora Moldenke was used at the concentration of 1% ; 1,5% et 2% corresponding respectively to 10 ml, 15 ml et 20 ml per litre of media ( PDA)Essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf, Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. et Lippia multiflora Moldenke was used at the concentration of 1% ; 1,5% et 2% corresponding respectively to 10 ml, 15 ml et 20 ml per litre of media ( PDA)

11 MATERIAL AND METHODS (contd) The conventionnal control for cereal seed treatment fungicide was Calthio DS ( 20 % of Lindane and 25 % of Thiram. This product was incorporated into the media (2,5 g per litre of PDA media)The conventionnal control for cereal seed treatment fungicide was Calthio DS ( 20 % of Lindane and 25 % of Thiram. This product was incorporated into the media (2,5 g per litre of PDA media) Seed treatmentSeed treatment –Seed health testing by the blotter method –Four replicates of 50 seed (25 seeds per Petri dish) were soaked for 20 to 24 hours in essential oil emulsion (1%, 1,5% and 2%) ; – Incubation à 22°C

12 MATERIAL AND METHODS (contd) Radial growth measurement of the fungi Radial growth measurement of the fungi –Essential oils were incorporated into the PDA media at the concentration of 1%, 1,5% and 2%. –Petri disheswere incubated at 28°C under alternate cycles of 12h of NUV light and 12h of darkness. –Measurement of radial growth (cm) after 3, 5, 7 and 10 days of incubation (perpendicular diametre Method). –Experimental design : Split plot with oils as main factor and concentrations as secondary factor.

13 MATERIAL AND METHODS (contd) –Efficiency of extracts (Greche et Hajjaji, 2000) : E(%) = 100[DMT-DMH]/ DMT where DMT represents the mean diametre of the control (non treated) and DMH the mean diametre of the treatment with essential oil. –Data were analysed for ANOVA with STATVIEW/SAS software and the means were separated by the Student- Newman- Keuls test

14 RESULTS

15 ANOVA ANOVA indicated significant différencies between the traetments for the test of radial growth of the fungi as well as the test of seed germination ;ANOVA indicated significant différencies between the traetments for the test of radial growth of the fungi as well as the test of seed germination ; No significant difference was observed between the tested concentrationsNo significant difference was observed between the tested concentrations

16 Efficiency of essential oils All the four tested essential oils inhibited the radial growth of the fungi : Bipolaris oryzae, Curvularia lunata Fusarium moniliforme and Phoma sorghina.All the four tested essential oils inhibited the radial growth of the fungi : Bipolaris oryzae, Curvularia lunata Fusarium moniliforme and Phoma sorghina. When considering the different concentrations, these oils reduced significantly the incidence of the four seed-borne fungal species as compared to the controls.When considering the different concentrations, these oils reduced significantly the incidence of the four seed-borne fungal species as compared to the controls.

17 a b c d e Pétri dishes presenting efficiency of C. Citratus essential oil against Curvularia lunata (a=concentration 1%, b=concentration 1,5 %, c=concentration 2 %, d=non treated control, e= control calthio).

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19 Global seed contamination following treatment with essential oil

20 Incidence of Seed –borne fungi after seed treatment with essential oil (B. oryzae, C. lunata, F. moniliforme et P. sorghina

21 DISCUSSION Essential oil of C. citratus, C. giganteus, L. multiflora and O. basilicum reduced significantly the incidence of seed contamination by the fungi and inhibited the radial growth of fungal colonies as compared to the different controls.Essential oil of C. citratus, C. giganteus, L. multiflora and O. basilicum reduced significantly the incidence of seed contamination by the fungi and inhibited the radial growth of fungal colonies as compared to the different controls. The presence of citral in the essential oil of C. citratus (Djibo., 2000), and also the presence of oxygenous components like linalol and eugénol in essential oil of O. basilicum (Nébié et al., 2002) could explain antifungic properties of these two plant species.The presence of citral in the essential oil of C. citratus (Djibo., 2000), and also the presence of oxygenous components like linalol and eugénol in essential oil of O. basilicum (Nébié et al., 2002) could explain antifungic properties of these two plant species.

22 DISCUSSION (Contd) These results are comparable to those of Dongma (2002) who evaluated in vito the antifungic activity of essential oil of Citrus limon and Citrus latifolia against the inciting fungus of citrus phaeoramulariosis (Phaeoramularia angolensis).These results are comparable to those of Dongma (2002) who evaluated in vito the antifungic activity of essential oil of Citrus limon and Citrus latifolia against the inciting fungus of citrus phaeoramulariosis (Phaeoramularia angolensis). Concerning the seed germination test by the blotter method, essential oils of C. citratus and C. giganteus were highly efficient against the fungi but were slightly phytotoxic. Dabiret (2004) came to the same conclusion that essential of the genus Cymbopogon has a negative effect on seed germination.Concerning the seed germination test by the blotter method, essential oils of C. citratus and C. giganteus were highly efficient against the fungi but were slightly phytotoxic. Dabiret (2004) came to the same conclusion that essential of the genus Cymbopogon has a negative effect on seed germination.

23 CONCLUSIONS Essential oils of C. citratus, C. giganteus, L. multiflora and O. basilicum have antifongic propertiesEssential oils of C. citratus, C. giganteus, L. multiflora and O. basilicum have antifongic properties. For the firts time, efficency of L. multiflora oil in improving the germination capacity of rice seed under laboratory conditions was demonstrated. Essential oil of Lippia did not exhibited any phytotoxic effect at the tested concentrations as compared to oils of Cymbopogon, and Ocimum; moreover; it reduced by up to 28,81 % the incidence of seed-borne and seed-transmitted fungi.

24 PERSPECTIVES The tested concentrations of some essential oils used in this study should be lowered because of the observed phytotoxicity they produced on the seed germination tested by the blotter method..The tested concentrations of some essential oils used in this study should be lowered because of the observed phytotoxicity they produced on the seed germination tested by the blotter method..

25 AKNOWLEDGEMENT We like to thank Adama OUATTARA and Raphaël SANOU for their technical contribution to the realization of the present work.

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