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Plants and Fungi: Ecosystem Essentials Biology 2410 Utah State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Plants and Fungi: Ecosystem Essentials Biology 2410 Utah State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plants and Fungi: Ecosystem Essentials Biology 2410 Utah State University

2 Course Outline Three weeks: Diversity –Plants –Fungi –Bryophytes Fourth week: Human impact on ecosystems –Environmental impact study

3 Diversity Focus on seeing the diversity that exists Use identification as a tool to –Induce close examination –Help understand role in ecosystem –Embed basic material deep into brain

4 Housekeeping 2 credits in 4 weeks 20-25 hours per week expected; 12 in class, the remainder outside of class Four small assignments, collection, report, midterm, final Slides summarize – learn more Grading – based on top score Lots of work, but learning tangible

5 Grading Flower, leaf, fungus, bryophyte assignments 10 points each Collection 20 points Ecosystem report 20 points Midterm 20 points Final 30 points

6 Collection and report Collection –20 specimens –Well documented –At least 3 fungi and 3 bryophytes Report –On EIS exercise –Draft of first part –Complete report due in June 3. End of Housekeeping!

7 Ecosystem A particular environment and the interacting biotic and non-biotic components of which it is composed. Note: Interacting – important part of concept. Particular environment? Desert, mangrove swamp, montane forest, agricultural field, town, whatever suits. A holistic view of an environment.

8 Ecosystem Needs: Energy Flow Most energy from sun –Some from earth’s core as heat Photosynthesis converts sun’s light energy to chemical energy Chemical energy transformed into –Other forms of chemical energy –Heat energy –Kinetic (motion) energy –Light energy

9 Photosynthesizers Plants –Oxygen as by-product Algae –Oxygen as by-product Bacteria –Methane, hydrogen sulfide as by-products Manufacture sugars

10 Chemical energy converters Rely on other organisms for previous energy capture via photosynthesis or use of earth’s heat energy (thermophilic bacteria) Fungi Animals Bacteria Archaebacteria

11 Ecosystem Needs: Nutrient Cycling Three major cycles –Carbon –Nitrogen –Water Maintaining these cycles vitally important Other cycles usually less important What is impact of slowing down cycles?

12 Ecosystem Structure Physical –Location –Topography –Rock type Biotic –Species present and their abundance and distribution

13 Plants Terrestrial, photosynthetic organisms Green – absorb all but green from visible light spectrum Capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy – sugars; oxygen as by-product Store energy as starch Cellulose cell walls Essential - most extant organisms require oxygen for metabolism Building Blocks Of Starch

14 Plants: additional contributions Food Soil stability Soil creation Protection Shade plants/plantae.html

15 Plant Diversity Green algae Mosses Liverworts Ferns Gymnosperms Flowering plants

16 Fungi – closer to animals than plants Obtain nutrients via external digestion of complex carbon compounds Not photosynthetic, not motile Use glycogen as their primary form of energy storage Have chitinous cell walls (see next slide) Glycogen Less linear than cellulose and has protein at center

17 Chitin and Cellulose Chitin – polymer of glucosamide Cellulose – polymer of glucose

18 Fungal Importance Primary recyclers - break down complex compounds to simpler compounds that can be used by other organisms Aid plants obtain nutrients by extending effective reach and breaking down compounds (mycorrhizae) The Fungi Rot Them All

19 Fungi: additional contributions Food Drink Disease Medicine Bioremediation

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