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©2000 Timothy G. Standish Luke 13:20, 21 20And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God? 21It is like leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Kingdom Fungi Timothy G. Standish, Ph. D.
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Fungi In The Scheme Of Life Plantae Fungi Monera Animalia........................ Protista
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Why Fungi Are Important Important as decomposers Spoil food Produce antibiotics Produce substances used as drugs (“magic” mushrooms, ethanol etc.) Cause disease in plants Cause disease in animals (Athlete’s foot, yeast infections etc.) Poison humans and animals (afflotoxin, toadstools etc.) Important food source Produce important fuels and industrial chemicals (i.e., ethanol)
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Fungal Characteristics Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophic Absorb nutrients - may be saprobes (absorb from dead material), parasites, or mutualistic symbionts (with algae make lichen). Secrete powerful hydrolytic enzymes Cell walls contain chitin, an amino sugar polysaccharide also found in arthropod exoskeletons Lack flagella
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Vegetative body consists of mycelia made up of networks of hyphae Hyphae - Long threads of cells designed to maximize surface area and also transport nutrients Fungus-like protists: –Lack this body structure –Lack cell walls of chitin The Body Plan of Fungi
©2000 Timothy G. StandishHyphae Hyphae are designed to increase the surface area of fungi and thus facilitate absorption May grow fast, up to 1 km per day, as they spread throughout a food source Haustoria - Specialized structures budding off hyphae of parasitic fungi which penetrate host cells to absorb nutrients May be coenocytic, having no septa between cells, or septa may be present with pores through which cytoplasm can flow moving nutrients through out the fungus
©2000 Timothy G. StandishHyphae Septa Coenocytic Pores
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Classification of Fungi Lichens represent a mutualistic (?) relationship between fungi and algae Classification of fungi is based on lifecycle, specifically reproductive structures Three major phyla, all end with mycota: Zygomycota - Zyg = yolk - Zygote forming fungi, the black bread molds Ascomycota - Asc = sack - Truffles, yeasts, many plant pathogens Basidiomycota - Basidium = club - Mushrooms
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Zygomycota Zygomycota - Zyg = yolk - Zygote forming fungi, the black bread molds etc. About 600 described species Mostly terrestrial Mycrorrhizae - Zygomycetes that form a mutualistic relationship with tree roots increasing root surface area and thus water and mineral uptake while benefiting from sugar sent down from leaves Hyphae are coenocytic, septa are only found in reproductive cells
©2000 Timothy G. StandishAscomycota Ascomycota - Asc = sack - Truffles, yeasts, many plant pathogens Over 60,000 described species Some associate with algae to form lichen Some, including truffles, form mycrorrhizae Some live on mesophyll cells producing toxins to protect leaves from insects Hyphae have septa Important marine saprobes Important tool for studying genetic recombination
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Basidiomycota Basidiomycota - Basidium = club - Mushrooms About 25,000 described species Important decomposers of wood because of their ability to hydrolyze lignin Some form mycrorrhizae including half the mushroom formers Few are strictly plant parasites, but of those that are, the smuts and rusts are especially bad Form long-lived dikaryotic mycelia Asexual reproduction is uncommon
©2000 Timothy G. StandishLichens Lichens - Mutualism (?) between fungi and algae Over 25,000 species described Ascomycetes are usually the fungal component, although some basidiomycetes lichens are known Filaments green algae usually make up the algal component, although some use cyanobacteria Scientific names are the names of the fungus Hyphae account for most mass Fungus provides moist environment protection and minerals Algae provide fixed carbon Cyanobacteria may provide fixed nitrogen
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Deuteromycota Imperfect Fungi Deuteromycota - Deuter = second - The imperfect fungi These organisms exhibit all the characteristics of fungi, but have not been observed reproducing sexually As classification is based on sexual reproduction, Deutoeromycetes cannot be definitively placed in any phylum
©2000 Timothy G. Standish Chytridiomycota: Protists or Fungi? Chytrids have flagellated zoospores and thus do not fit perfectly with the fungi Other characteristics are very fungus-like: –Cell walls with chitin –Unicellular or coenocytic hyphae –Enzymes common to fungi which are lacked by fungus-like protists
©2000 Timothy G. Standish
Kingdom Fungi. Fungi In The Scheme Of Life Plantae Fungi Monera Animalia Protista.
Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera Kingdom Fungi About 100,000 species Uses: medicine food Ecological value: major decomposers symbiotic relationships.
Chapter 31 Notes Fungi. Concept 31.1 All fungi are eukaryotic; most are multicellular mycete = fungi Fungi differ from plants in nutritional mode, structural.
Fungi Chapter 31. Fungi - heterotrophs - eat by absorbing nutrients - by secreting enzymes to outside which digest food around them; fungi absorbs food.
FUNGI. YOU MUST KNOW… THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI IMPORTANT ECOLOGICAL ROLES OF FUNGI IN MYCORRHIZAL ASSOCIATIONS, AND AS DECOMPOSERS AND PARASITIC PLANT.
Kingdom Fungi Common Characteristics: Eukaryotic No chlorophyll and are heterotrophs Cell walls of cells are made of chitin Most are multicellular. Only.
Fungi Unit 8- Chapter 31. What is a Fungi? Usually multicellular Usually multicellular Above ground structures (mushrooms) Above ground structures (mushrooms)
Eukaryotic cells Most are multi-celled Some are uni-cellular Heterotrophs Live in moist, warm areas Have Cell Walls FUNGI.
Kingdom Fungi Mushrooms, Yeast, Mold, Mildew, Rusts.
Fungi. General Characteristics l Primarily terrestrial l Filamentous –hyphae u coenocytic u septate –mycelium –haustoria.
Chapter 31 Reading Quiz 1.What are the filaments called that make up mycelium? 2.What are fungi cell walls made of? 3.What characteristic does “dikaryotic”
Fungi. l First fungi were probably flagellated. –First fossils – 480 million years ago (Ordovician Period) –Molecular Clock suggests 1 billion years ago.
The Kingdom Fungi. What Are Fungi? Eukaryotic heterotrophs with cell walls. contain chitin, a complex carbohydrate.
Chapter 31 Why did the mushroom go to the party??? Because he’s a fun-gi!
How do Fungi acquire nutients? They are Heterotrophs that get nutrition from absorption -- secretes hydrolytic enzymes into food then absorbs -- therefore.
KINGDOM FUNGI. DNA evidence now indicates kingdom fungi is more closely related to animals than plants!!!!
Kingdom Fungi (ch. 26) If at first you don’t like a fungus … Just wait a little, It will grow on you. Mycology = study of fungi General Characteristics.
Fungi. Characteristics Multicellular (few exceptions like yeast) Eukaryotic Heterotrophic, break down food then absorb, saprotrophic Some are parasitic,
Fun With Fungi 31. Characteristics Heterotrophs that acquire nutrients by ______________. Digestion occurs outside the body, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes.
FUNGI. Plants vs. Fungi Plants have chlorophyll and photosynthesize, fungi do not Plants have roots, leaves, and stems, fungi do not Plant cell walls.
Chapter 31 Fungi. Characteristics eukaryotic mostly multicellular, yeasts unicellular no locomotion sexual & asexual reproduction in most heterotrophic.
Chapter 20. Characteristics of Fungi Belong to the Kingdom Fungi 20.1 Introduction to Fungi Fungi Unicellular or multicellular Chapter 20 Eukaryotic.
Kingdom Fungi. For many years fungi were classified as plant. However, there are some characteristics that separate these two groups : 1. Plants have.
FUNGI… Is Fungi Fun????? Ridgewood High School
Fungi Section What is a Fungus? They are heterotrophic eukaryotes with a cell wall They obtain food by extracellular digestion and absorption Enzymes.
Protists. Classification Formerly Kingdom Protista Formerly Kingdom Protista –Modern taxonomists now place them in many different kingdoms Essentially,
Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 20 Fungi Section 1: Introduction to Fungi Section 2: Diversity of Fungi Section 3: Ecology of Fungi.
Kingdom Fungi. The Basics Like a plant –STATIONARY Like an animal –HETEROTROPHIC Like plants, animals, and protists – EUKARYOTIC Cell walls made of –CHITIN.
Fungi. Characteristics eukaryotic multicellular (except yeasts) heterotrophic by absorption (saprophytes – feed on dead organic matter) reproduce sexually.
Fungi Chapter 19 I. Characteristics of Kingdom Fungi; A. Eukaryotic 1. parasites; haustoria invade hosts cells * ringworm and athletes foot 2. saprophytes;
Characteristics of Fungi Belong to the Kingdom Fungi 20.1 Introduction to Fungi Fungi Unicellular or multicellular Chapter 20 Eukaryotic heterotrophs.
KINGDOM FUNGI CHARACTERISTICS of FUNGI The Kingdom Fungi includes eukaryotic, sessile heterotrophs that include a wide variety of organisms from unicellular.
True Fungi break down dead organic material provide numerous drugs foods like mushrooms Plant and animal diseases.
The Kingdom Fungi. What is a Fungus? Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs Decomposers known as saprophytes Cell walls made up of chitin Some are parasites.
Kingdom Fungi The characteristics of fungi The characteristics of fungi The evolution of the fungi The evolution of the fungi Fungal classification Fungal.
The Kingdom Fungi Chapter 21 Biology – Miller Levine.
What’s in a name?. I. Classification and Naming of Living Things (Sec. 15.7) - multilevel grouping of individuals A. Carolus Linnaeus (mid 1700’s) 1.
https://www. youtube.com/ watch?v=dj9 m7Oc36wM https://www. youtube.com/ watch?v=dj9 m7Oc36wM.
Fungi Premier Decomposers Fungi Characteristics Heterotrophic Secrete digestive enzymes on organic material and then absorb it Extracellular digestion.
19.5 Diversity of Fungi KEY CONCEPT Fungi are saprobes (decomposers)
Ch. 21 Fungi What did Mr. Fungus say to Ms. Algae, when he proposed? I lichen you!
Chapter 18 Fungus Fungi are adapted for nutrition by absorption hyphae: tiny threads of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane and covered by.
Fungi Chapter 31. Slide 2 of 15 Fungal Commonalities Heterotrophic & Eukaryotic Multicellular Important in the ecosystem as decomposers Cell walls.
Kingdom: FUNGI Chapter 19 UNIT 4 – Part 2: Protist & Fungi.
FUNGI. Fungi General Characteristics eukaryote absorptive heterotroph - saprobe or parasite cell walls made of chitin multicellular (except for yeast)
Fungus Chapter 31. What you need to know! The characteristics of fungi The characteristics of fungi Important ecological roles of fungi in mycorrhizal.
Kingdom Fungi I. General Characteristics 1. Found almost everywhere 2. Used to be classified as plants because they were anchored and have cell walls,
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