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Biological Invasions: a threat to California Ecosystems Taught by Dr. Matteo Garbelotto –Office: Third floor.

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Presentation on theme: "Biological Invasions: a threat to California Ecosystems Taught by Dr. Matteo Garbelotto –Office: Third floor."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biological Invasions: a threat to California Ecosystems Taught by Dr. Matteo Garbelotto –Office: Third floor Hilgard Hall –Office hours: by appointment

2 Course info One two hour lecture per week One quiz every week on previous lecture Tainter and Baker Forest Pathology book Some readings will be posted on the Lab’s Web site: »Link to UCB course »POWERPOINT LECTURES, assigned readings »Posted on Fridays

3 Course info One final quiz (3 questions out of 9) One short Powerpoint presentation Possibility to improve grade by writing paper (5 pages) on same topic as oral presentation One computer lab: use of software for genetic analyses (Dr. Osmundson) One field activity Saturday April 27 th : participation in UCB SODBLITZ (www.sodblitz.org)

4 GRADING 25% class and field activity participation 25% weekly quizzes 25% final quiz 25% oral presentation

5 EMERGENT FOREST DISEASES: ARE THEY A THREAT TO NATIVE ECOSYSTEMS? Intro to Disease Native Diseases Invasive fungi and emergent disease I Invasive fungi and emergent disease II Exotic CA pathogens (EPCA): White Pine Blister rust EPCA:Dutch Elm Disease EPCA: Pine Pitch Canker, Colored Canker of Sycamore EPCA: Sudden Oak Death Genetic Analyses of Invasive spp EPCA: Other invasive Phytophthoras Habitat change: Annosum root rot Host change: Cypress canker; Armillaria root Rot Newly introduced disease and US introduced: Xylella, 1000 canker, Phragmidium violaceum, Chestnut blight Finals

6 EMERGENT FOREST DISEASES: ARE THEY A THREAT TO NATIVE ECOSYSTEMS? Matteo Garbelotto U.C.Berkeley

7 Disease: injurious physiological activity caused by the continuous irritation by a primary causal factor and expressed in characteristic pathological conditions called symptoms Disease: any disturbance of a plant that interferes with its normal, structure, function or economic value

8 Primary causal factor=agent ABIOTIC BIOTIC (incl. VIRUSES)

9 BIOTIC DISEASES caused by: Parasitic plants Bacteria Fungi Oomycetes Viruses Nematodes

10 Tree of Life, from Patterson & Sogin, 1992

11 Phorodenron villosum on oak Leafy mistletoe

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14 Fungi Eukaryotic organisms, heterotrophs, characterized by chitin and B-glucans in the cell wall, feeding through absorption, reproducing by spores and producing a vegetative structure made up of tubular structures,branched, irregular, and indefinite in growth (modified from B. Kendric 1992)

15 Fungal hyphae and mycelium

16 There are no differentiated structures in fungi, but hyphae can generate… compatibile myceliastromarhizomorphs

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18 Ascomycetes (predominance of n in life cycle) Sexual spores (ascospores) are generated within “sacks” called asci * Ascus

19 Ascomycota

20 Ascomata apotheciumperithecium cleistothecium *

21 pseudothecium *

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23 Richiami sulle entità biotiche Basidiomycetes (Div. Basidiomycota) n+n or rarely 2n is predominant in life cycle Sexual spores, basidiospores, are carried naked on surface of “clubs” called basidia *

24 Basidiomycota

25 spores basidia

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28 conidiomi conidiofori liberi acervulo picnidio * * * * Marssonina betulae Cryphonectria sp. anamorphic fungi no sexual stage

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30 Oomycetes (Div. Oomycota) Kingdom: straminopila (prev. Chromista)

31 zooconidio di oomicete * Important group of forest pathogens, includes the genera Pithyum and Phytophthora Although apparently similar to the fungi, oomycetes are an example of convergence, basically the same morphology was selected because of their lifestyle similar to that of the fungi. they all have a water dependant phase, they have cellulose in the cell wall, and are mostly 2n

32 Types of disease: biotic vs. abiotic or.. Infectious: a disease that is caused by a pathogen which can spread from a diseased to a healthy host. Non-infectious: a disease that is caused by an environmental or host factor. It is not spread between a diseased and healthy individual.

33 Types of diseases Foliar diseases and blights Stem diseases: cankers, wilts Trunk rots Root diseases Seedling diseases Fruit and flower disease


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