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Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths The Eukaryotes.

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Presentation on theme: "Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths The Eukaryotes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, and Helminths The Eukaryotes

2 The Fungi Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic Chemoheterotrophic Chemoheterotrophic Most are decomposers Most are decomposers Mycology is the study of fungi Mycology is the study of fungi

3 The fungal thallus consists of hyphae; a mass of hyphae is a mycelium. The fungal thallus consists of hyphae; a mass of hyphae is a mycelium. Molds Figure 12.2

4 Unicellular fungi Unicellular fungi Fission yeasts divide symmetrically Fission yeasts divide symmetrically Budding yeasts divide asymmetrically Budding yeasts divide asymmetrically Yeasts Figure 12.3

5 Pathogenic dimorphic fungi are yeastlike at 37°C and moldlike at 25°C Pathogenic dimorphic fungi are yeastlike at 37°C and moldlike at 25°C Dimorphism Figure 12.4

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7 Fungal Life Cycle Figure 12.7

8 Systemic mycosesDeep within body Systemic mycosesDeep within body Subcutaneous mycosesBeneath the skin Subcutaneous mycosesBeneath the skin Cutaneous mycosesAffect hair, skin, nails Cutaneous mycosesAffect hair, skin, nails Superficial mycosesLocalized, e.g., hair shafts Superficial mycosesLocalized, e.g., hair shafts Opportunistic mycosesCaused by normal microbiota or fungi that are normally Opportunistic mycosesCaused by normal microbiota or fungi that are normally Fungal Diseases (mycoses)

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10 Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Unicellular Unicellular Chemoheterotroph s Chemoheterotroph s Vegetative form is a trophozoite Vegetative form is a trophozoite Asexual reproduction by fission, budding, or schizogony Asexual reproduction by fission, budding, or schizogony Sexual reproduction by conjugation Sexual reproduction by conjugation Some produce cysts Some produce cysts Protozoa Figure 12.16

11 No mitochondria No mitochondria Multiple flagella Multiple flagella Giardia lamblia Giardia lamblia Trichomonas vaginalis (no cyst stage) Trichomonas vaginalis (no cyst stage) Archaezoa Figure 12.17b-d

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14 Nonmotile Nonmotile Intracellular parasites Intracellular parasites Complex life cycles Complex life cycles Plasmodium Plasmodium Babesia Babesia Cryptosporidium Cryptosporidium Cyclospora Cyclospora Apicomplexa

15 Plasmodium Figure 12.19 Infected mosquito bites human; sporozoites migrate through bloodstream to liver of human Sporozoites undergo schizogony in liver cell; merozoites are produced Merozoites released into bloodsteam from liver may infect new red blood cells Merozoites are released when red blood cell ruptures; some merozoites infect new red blood cells, and some develop into male and female gametocytes 12 3 4 6 Asexual reproduction Intermediate host Merozoite develops into ring stage in red blood cell Ring stage Merozoites Another mosquito bites infected humnan and ingests gametocytes 7 5 Ring stage grows and divides, producing merozoites Definitive host In mosquito’s digestive tract, gametocytes unite to form zygote 8 Male gametocyte Female gametocyte Zygote Sexual reproduction Resulting sporozoites migrate to salivary glands of mosquito 9 Sporozoites in salivary gland

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18 Cryptosporidium Figure 25.19

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20 Move by cilia Move by cilia Complex cells Complex cells Balantidium coli is the only human parasite Balantidium coli is the only human parasite Ciliophora (ciliates) Figure 12.20

21 Move by flagella Move by flagella Photoautotrophs Photoautotrophs Euglenoids Euglenoids Chemoheterotrophs Chemoheterotrophs Naegleria Naegleria Flagellated and amoeboid forms, meningoencephalitis Flagellated and amoeboid forms, meningoencephalitis Trypanosoma Trypanosoma Undulating membrane, transmitted by vectors Undulating membrane, transmitted by vectors Leishmania Leishmania Flagellated form in sand fly vector, ovoid form in vertebrate host Flagellated form in sand fly vector, ovoid form in vertebrate host Euglenozoa

22 Euglenozoa Figure 12.21

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24 Helminths Parasitic worms Parasitic worms Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Multicellular animals Multicellular animals Chemoheterotrophic Chemoheterotrophic Kingdom: Animalia Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Phylum: Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Class: Trematodes (flukes) Class: Trematodes (flukes) Class: Cestodes (tapeworms) Class: Cestodes (tapeworms) Phylum: Nematodes (roundworms) Phylum: Nematodes (roundworms)

25 Trematodes Figure 12.25

26 Humans as Definitive Host Figure 12.26

27 Cestodes Figure 12.27

28 Humans as Intermediate Host Figure 12.28

29 Nematodes: Eggs Infective for Humans Figure 12.29

30 Nematodes: Larvae Infective for Humans Figure 25.26

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33 Kingdom: Animalia Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda (exoskeleton, jointed legs) Phylum: Arthropoda (exoskeleton, jointed legs) Class: Insecta (6 legs) Class: Insecta (6 legs) Lice, fleas, mosquitoes Lice, fleas, mosquitoes Class: Arachnida (8 legs) Class: Arachnida (8 legs) Mites and ticks Mites and ticks May transmit diseases (vectors) May transmit diseases (vectors) Arthropods as Vectors Figure 12.31, 32

34 Arthropods as Vectors Figure 12.33

35 Putting it Together


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