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GLOBAL CONSULTATION ON GENETICS AND NEW BIOTECHNOLOGIES.

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Presentation on theme: "GLOBAL CONSULTATION ON GENETICS AND NEW BIOTECHNOLOGIES."— Presentation transcript:

1 GLOBAL CONSULTATION ON GENETICS AND NEW BIOTECHNOLOGIES

2 “PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY” TABITHA GNANAPRIYA

3 Biotechnology in crop plants Biotic stress Biotic stress -insect pest resistant Bt cotton against boll worm -Disease resistant Grape vine against pierce’s disease -Antiviral papaya against papaya ringspot virus -Herbicide tolerance Roundup ready soyabean

4  Abiotic stress -Salt tolerance Arabidopsis AtNHX1- Brassica napus -Drought tolerance DREB genes -Acid tolerance Wheat Almt1- barley

5 Improved quality Shelf life Shelf life Flavr-savr tomatoFlavr-savr tomato Vitamin Vitamin Golden riceGolden rice polyunsaturated fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids Canola- laurate and myristateCanola- laurate and myristate Essential minerals Essential minerals Soyabean ferritin- riceSoyabean ferritin- rice Plant based vaccines Plant based vaccines Banana against hepatits BBanana against hepatits B

6 Fungal biotechnology Host for expressing heterologous proteins 1 -Saccharomyces cerevisiae GRAS Human interferon Human epidermal growth factor Surface antigen of hepatitis B virus 2 -Pichia pastoris Tight and strong promoter AOX1 (30%) Hirudin (Hirudo medicinalis) 3 -Hansenula polymorpha Tightly regulated and strong promoter MOX (37%) Expression depends on glucose concentration

7 Production of commercial enzymes Lipase- lipolase novo nordisk- humicola lanuginose in aspergillus oryzae Lipase- lipolase novo nordisk- humicola lanuginose in aspergillus oryzae Secondary metabolites Immunosuppressive agent- cyclosporin A- tolypocladium nivenumImmunosuppressive agent- cyclosporin A- tolypocladium nivenum Hypocholesterolemic agents- lovastatin- monascus ruberHypocholesterolemic agents- lovastatin- monascus ruber Antitumor agents- taxol- taxomyces andreanaeAntitumor agents- taxol- taxomyces andreanae Mycotoxin- ergot- claviceps sppMycotoxin- ergot- claviceps spp

8 Future prospects Alternate host Aspergillus sojae Alternate host Aspergillus sojae Improve expression and secretion of non-fungal proteins Improve expression and secretion of non-fungal proteins Molecular techniques to carry out metabolic engineering Molecular techniques to carry out metabolic engineering Overall analysis of gene expression Overall analysis of gene expression

9 Biopharmaceuticals speciesuse Production technique Aesculus glabra Rheumatic pain and antimalarial Embryos- callus Dioscorea alata NutritionCallus Drosera rotundiafolia Asthama, cough and lung infection plantlets Lathyrus sativus neurotoxicplant Lavendula intermidia Cosmetic, flavoring and pharmaceutical callus

10 Levels of genetic manipulation Cloning of genes Cloning of genes Plant regeneration Plant regeneration High-throughput screening system High-throughput screening system Genomic tools and resources Genomic tools and resources Regulatory mechanism Regulatory mechanism

11 IPR Novel Novel Distinct Distinct Uniform and stable Uniform and stable Utility Utility UPOV 1961, 1978, 1991 UPOV 1961, 1978, 1991 TRIPS 1994 TRIPS 1994 ITPGRFA 2004 ITPGRFA 2004

12 UPOV- 1961, 1978, 1991 Novel, distinct, uniform and stable but no innovative step Novel, distinct, uniform and stable but no innovative step profit for breeders profit for breeders permission required permission required

13 TRIPS-1994 Mandatory for WTO members Mandatory for WTO members Some form of IP protection Some form of IP protection Patent Patent Sui generis system Sui generis system African union save, use, multiply but not to sell

14 ITPGRFA Multilateral system Multilateral system Access and benefit sharingAccess and benefit sharing Sharing of technologySharing of technology Updated Farmers rightsUpdated Farmers rights Encourage for protection of TK Sharing benefits Decision making

15 Future Donating technology Donating technology Public-private partnership Public-private partnership Cross licensing Cross licensing acquisition acquisition

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